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bilingual essay THE DILEMMA OF MODERN BILINGUAL POETRY - VIRTUES AND INDISCRETIONS. Bilingualism/multilingualism in written and performed poetry is a fascinating and complicated topic, encompassing many questions, including what type(s) and level(s) of research paper writing does one assign one's varying language capabilities, when and ceremony, how one uses a translator or editor efficiently, questions regarding research of research for smoking historical, cultural, socio-economic and writing essay third person, geographical events when making references in poetry, politico-social sensitivities across cultural boundaries etc. Not to mention the appropriateness of using one language instead of another, and questions regarding market demands and specifications from publishers. The fact is that many poets are currently writing in languages other than their native tongues - for for smoking, a variety of reasons, and good, with varied success. I have been reading and hearing much bilingual poetry written and published by people from all over paper for smoking, the world the past few years. Poetry writing is not a static process. Even excellent bilingual writers often work quite hard to find the right balance between artistic license, spontaneity, grammatical perfection, spelling, etc.; all the while retaining the special qualities that make poetry literature and universal while still achieving a personal form of ex-pression. Essay Writer. My premise is that: a) all writers face the same challenges, b) bilingual ex-pression makes these challenges (and successes and research paper for smoking, failures) even more poignant, and that c) some authors have learned how to achieve a balance which works - both for paragraph for compare, themselves, and for their readers .. while others have not.
What strikes me about research paper for smoking, my own disposition towards bilingual literature is that it affords me an extra set of intro paragraph for compare and contrast wings on paper, which to soar .. high above the limitations that both I and others set for myself. I love to experience languages and foreign cultures, and find that multilingual writing gives me the opportunity to reach out to persons from many cultures on their turf - whether by way of publishing poetry in different languages, or by performing my poetry in different countries .. in law school Spanish in paper for smoking Buenos Aires; in English in Kathmandu (including reciting my poetry based upon local culture, with references to indigenous vernacular and customs); and at home in good law school essays Norway: to expose the small Norwegian literary community to the larger world by reciting poetry in Norwegian, English and Spanish - all in one reading. That being said, there is research paper (in all honesty) an element of extreme sport in it for me - as exemplified by my most recent poetry collection (Three-legged Waltz) which includes poems in Spanish, English and Norwegian - this because I enjoy testing out my interests and tools, skills where other languages are concerned against the appropriate level/form of ex-pression; thus the act of multilingual writing becomes a statement and a form of research ex-pression in itself. And yet, there are certain experiences that simply ache to be expressed in French or Spanish, or Norwegian .. and no Greek epic poem is good law school really Greece-inspired in my mind if it does not contain some Greek words or phrases. For Smoking. Latin and phd thesis writing, Arabic and other languages are also subject to falling victim to my poetic palette. Of course, there is an enormous responsibility connected with such sport. Not only to try to get the grammatical and contextual elements correct, but also to firmly grasp and communicate across different cultures with sensitivity and research paper for smoking, just the right amount of writing essay foreignness to incite and research, provoke a stretching of minds and homework, hearts within the readers and/or listeners. Research For Smoking. Poetry is not a precise discipline for most of us - it is full of abandonment, liberties and artistic license .. and at times error and foolhardiness.
My own experiences to date with bilingualism in writing have generally been quite positive. That is perhaps only because I have learned to soar as an international poet, rather than to continuously knock at the door of essay sites national and local arts institutions whose mandate and focus are often more nationalistic and transcultural rather than international. I have also gone my own way in terms of publishing - seeking out paper for smoking, or being sought out by writing tools, publishers who are culture-blind and truly international in scope, practice and research paper for smoking, philosophy. Such institutions are generally quite open artistically, but sometimes place much of the responsibility for bilingual/multilingual proof reading (regarding both language and cultural knowledge) in the hands of the artist - at least when one is writing in a tongue which is different than the mother tongue of the country where the ceremony, publisher is physically situated. This is understandable in research for smoking that many of these publishers are small press enterprises, with limited resources.
Personally, I rather like having their trust, and being responsible for my own artistic ex-pression. Writer Pointless Sites. Am I sometimes unsure? You bet! Especially when I write about politics or religion, or when I wonder if some socio-political themes acceptable in the Western world will be accepted in Asia or Africa . Poetry may be universal, but ideas and values are often culture-specific. It is paper for smoking that tension that makes bilingual poetry writing and performance a breathtaking sport for me, I suppose. I do not speak, write or understand any language anywhere near perfectly. Good Law School Essays. However, desiring to get it right - both linguistically and culturally - and writing with intent (and on research, a level commensurate with my linguistic skills and cultural understanding), is always a goal; if not an obsession when writing in any language.
In spite of much research and proof reading, I admit that I do not always get everything perfect. It happens that I do misunderstand grammatical rules and indigenous nuances in foreign languages, or quite simply use the wrong word in the intended context. Free automatic internet translation services are rarely 100% reliable, and there exist inaccuracies in many internet articles. I have also experienced that proof readers and translators have sometimes disagreed upon how something is best expressed, creating even more insecurity on my part. And cultural references in poetry can also be problematic, since different persons observe and experience things through different eyes.
Yes, I do react sometimes when I read particularly and consistently faulty English which perhaps could have been avoided by asking (or paying) someone to proof read. Essay Pointless. This goes for native-born English-speaking poets as well as poets who do not have English as their first language. So much is lost for both the author and the reader in such cases - and quite unnecessarily so. But then again, not all speakers of English speak the for smoking, Queen's English, and if English may be prone to being used or interpreted differently from homework ceremony culture to culture then the same is certainly true for other languages. Here one must also differentiate between creative play with language and idiom, and plain oversight. Sometimes a poet is truly ahead of research for smoking his/her time, and sometimes just blind to one's own limitations. Learning to discern between oversight/inaccuracy, poetic doodling and literary genius is not always so simple (neither for poet nor audience) in bird a discipline where most every type of ex-pression is research paper for smoking accepted - from poetic and rapturous prose to for compare closely designed feminine rhyme. Creative doodling and oversight can - in fact - open up for new forms of ex-pression, understanding and research for smoking, linguistic permutations in literature, and inaccuracies can sometimes provide valuable learning about writing and one's own levels of tolerance/intolerance. Essays. So in summary, I encourage bilingualism/multilingualism with personal responsibility and growth. Expect that you will make mistakes sometimes, and research, that you may later discover that you have misinterpreted another culture's idiom or sensibility in your writing. When reading the essays, poetry of others try to evaluate some of the questions and for smoking, challenges posed in this essay and the following interview against your own levels of curiosity and personal tolerances.
Writing/art is person about exploration, ex-pression and the criss-crossing of perceptions, and is - therefore - never a static process. And perhaps most importantly: don't worry about becoming world-famous. Fame will find you if that is your destiny and disposition - no matter what language you employ. To explore these issues a bit further, I have devised 10 sets of rather pointed questions; and I have asked five excellent international writers to comment on them, giving their international perspectives. Their varied comments and experiences are - of paper for smoking course - their own, and not necessarily those of the interviewer. The interviewees include: Jan Oskar Hansen, Fernando Rodríguez, Albert Russo, Victoria Valentine and Diane Oatley. 1) In an narrative essay third age of research increasing bilingualism/multilingualism in written, performed and pointless sites, published poetry one might wonder what the drive or impetus is. Would you say it is: a) a need/desire to reach a global market; b) a need/desire to stand out from poets who are only writing in their mother tongue; c) a personal ego-trip or a form of literary extreme sport; d) an awareness that many things simply must be expressed in a foreign language; or e) all four of the/some of the preceding; or f) something else? J O H: A sense of not getting anywhere in my own language. (A feeling of inadequacy, memories of failures and so on). And yes, reaching a bigger audience too. F R: It is research paper for smoking very candid to project an image, according to one's original intention, in another language, where also, perhaps, a point of contact exists.
The point of good law school essays contact being between two languages; through language from the experience of the author who sails daily between these two languages. For me, actually, it is a way to sail strange waters in as much as sailing them has become a part of paper for smoking my homo poeticum, an important part of my writing identity. Ceremony. Sometimes I feel in Spanish and I write it thinking about Norwegian. For that reason my texts translated into Norwegian are an research paper for smoking interactive work of cooperation and experiences, on a concrete linguistic existential level -- between the author and his translator. Bird Writing. To live in research paper for smoking Norway , a small country where nevertheless so many languages co-exist, causes me to prioritize Norwegian, instead of writing tools English or French, for research paper, this same reason; not to speak of other romance languages, that in the text are nearer Spanish, my maternal language. A R: I have indeed a strong desire to reach out to a global market; in my case it is not a sport and law school, least of all an ego-trip but rather an paper existential need, for English and French are part and essay pointless sites, parcel of my mental (and I should add 'emotional') structure, and if I don't write in one language for a period of time, I feel like an orphan; for I consider both languages as my native tongues (my mother being British, and I have been educated in these two languages from the very start). Then comes Italian, my 'paternal' tongue (my father was Italian), and since I love languages, I also speak Spanish and German, and research paper, have a vernacular knowledge of Dutch, Swahili and Portuguese (which I can only read, but not speak). To stress my point, I would go so far as to and contrast claim that we, language speakers, are underprivileged, confronted with musicians, painters and sculptors, for they possess a universal language, which even the all-encompassing polyglot could never dream of achieving. V V: I believe the driving force combines the desire to express and paper, share one's native tongue - a poet's emotional fulfillment of delivering enrichment of their culture to pointless sites another country (shout it to the world so to speak) - and paper, of course, the accomplishment and pride of acceptance by other cultures. 2) Much modern-day poetry is self-published or published by altruistic small press enterprises, many of which do not have the resources or capacity for multilingual editing.
This puts quite a bit of responsibility on law school, the author himself/herself. What are the most common indiscretions or literary problems you have observed in research paper poetry written in another language other than one's mother tongue, and how might they be solved by the author/publisher? Are editors/proof readers/translators usually sensitive enough to the intended artistry of poetry, or do they sometimes tend to suggest changes which flatten out the intended meanings? J O H: I rely on editors to take time to help correct my work; even if I self-published I would still need, if not an good editor, a proof reader. But if my work is translated I would prefer that a poet do the work. F R: The problem, if we can call it a problem - it is perhaps better to call it the requirements of the publishers - is one of referential order. When the language sometimes pronounces in that no-man's land and of all which is multilingualism, the reading of the text is often, if not always, interpreted by paper, the referring premises; either national references or those of a strictly personal nature; they also respond to an intention limited for reasons of ceremony market, ideology and, more rarely mentioned, religion. Even though a translator identifies himself entirely in his soul, or in paper the worst case, with an author who represents the contemporary ex-pression of the sites, day, or as I said before, ideologically, the result is spurious for the simple reason that the contexts and the experiences are different. For Smoking. Consider, for example, the Argentine translations of the beat poets, or those passionate translations of the French symbolists to the Argentinean dialect. Still the remarkable translations of Borges to essay writer pointless Spanish, are recreations of authors who he possibly considered translatable, but always from his own perspective of the literary world exemplified by Borges (known to the common reader as Borgiano).
In my case, my translations into Norwegian are the consequence of a permanent dialogue between two languages where the referring ones are not so distant, for the simple reason that I have lived in this country for 22 years. Research For Smoking. A R: Since bilingual, not to speak of homework multilingual editions, are not considered commercial ventures, they belong to a tiny, almost negligent niche in literature; and for smoking, I admire the rare publishers and editors who devote their time, expertise and energy to producing such books or reviews. Small presses are usually very careful and do a good job editing, although, with the proliferation of Internet literary sites, there is a slackening tendency. A poet who writes in a language which is phd thesis not his/her mother tongue should insist on research paper for smoking, having his/her work proof read and edited, and the more so if the work is self-published. Intro For Compare And Contrast. V V: Grammar, sentence structure and verb tense are issues I've encountered when considering bilingual/multicultural poetry for publication in my magazines and for smoking, digests. I do receive a good share of 'poorly written' bilingual work (as well as 'poorly written' work in English). If any piece falls below Skyline Magazine standards, I would have to phd thesis writing tools reject it. As an paper independent small press publisher, I do not have the paper, resources to translate or critique. I never alter or correct any poet's work, or dampen their ex-pression or enthusiasm.
If I like a piece, and research, find a serious error, I would then consult the writer, but I must admit, I find 'poetic accent' charming and law school, acceptable. My readers appreciate the talent and for smoking, ambition of the multilingual poet. We would not disparage a poet for a misplaced preposition or for an improper tense. We are forgiving of the law school essays, poet who is unable to paper afford an editor and/or translator. We herald the efforts of multilingual poets for their amazing ability to create texts in law school essays other languages and to persevere in a highly challenging venue.
3) It must be quite a sensational achievement to publish poetry in a language other than one's mother tongue, or to have the freedom and dexterity to choose which language a poem or part of a poem or an entire collection of poetry will be in -- without having to employ a translator. Can you comment on research paper for smoking, this virtue, and paragraph, the exhilaration experienced when one succeeds? J O H: When I sent a poem to an English magazine for the very first time, it was rejected; but the rejection was followed by a letter urging me to go on, telling me that I was on the right track and research for smoking, THAT was exhilarating. If I had not been so rudely rejected by Norwegian editors, I might not have undertaken some efforts which have, at times, been too absorbing. F R: My poems which are written directly in Norwegian or English normally have been inspired by essay pointless, alcohol or by a woman; both agents of another euphoria which is more transitory than indelible; the result which normally has been rather more anecdotal than literary. I write in Spanish with translations to Norwegian and that is sufficient for me, so far. My first translated poems were motivated by the curiosity of my Norwegian friends, not so much in research paper for smoking order to become acquainted with my poems in their own language, but perhaps to verify that I really am a poet, or to verify that my poetry was a serious talent or endeavour. I am equally thankful for the translations by two friends, Eivind and Lasse (whose last names I will not mention here), which I eventually added to a handful of poems that I later published under my own publishing seal, Círculo de Oslo Forlag (a bilingual edition, published in Spanish and and contrast essay, Norwegian).
Once published, I could verify that a large group of research paper for smoking poetry readers exist in writing essay third this corner of the world, and in spite of these rather modest publications, I received good commentaries and paper for smoking, I sold out the complete edition. Now, that which for me is an apparent paradox, is that the most avid readers of these poems, have been those readers whose native language is Norwegian. A R: Yes, there is a 'freedom' and an exhilaration in writing paper writing in another language which is different from the research paper, feeling one has, writing in paper one's mother tongue. Having taught languages for several decades to adults, I observed a recurring attitude in paper the learner: as he/she progressed and got more fluent, he/she began to express him/herself in a manner which he/she could not in intro paragraph for compare and contrast essay his/her mother tongue. There was a sense of freedom never before attained. Of course, writing is for smoking a much more serious enterprise, and the responsibility on the creator is proportionate to the endeavour. V V: I can only imagine the gratification a multilingual poet experiences, who possesses the ability to essay writer pointless compose expertly in more than one language without the research, use of a translator, and homework, has been accepted into other cultures. It's an admirable feat not easily achieved.
4) What are the literary career risks if one fails miserably -- how forgiving and research for smoking, how understanding is the literary community (other writers, readers of poetry, editors and critics)? Is it perhaps acceptable to write some bad bilingual poetry, inevitable to writing perform some bilingual poetry badly but unforgivable to publish bad bilingual poetry? J O H: To write second-rate bilingual poetry is not acceptable. A proper editor would not be influenced by that. I used to make that very clear in the beginning (my first wife used to say; You write well for for smoking, a foreigner) and it never failed to send me into a deep depression. Homework. Failure! What can I say? Try, try again if you believe in yourself. Paper. F R: In Norway I am considered a bilingual author, and I am treated as such in that my texts are published or read in both languages.
As a bilingual poet, I am fascinated by the interplay between my original and the translated versions, and I enjoy seeing how the original becomes transformed through the translation process. As far as giving a specific answer to your question: if poetry is a form to exert freedom through language, this in one or another way is intro paragraph and contrast essay manifested -- simply by the fact that the existence of the text is in itself a belligerent act. How then can we speak of good and bad poetry? A R: It is always unforgivable to write poorly in whatever language one chooses to research paper for smoking write. Paragraph For Compare. If one wants to start writing in another language, one has to paper be as precise and essay pointless, as scrupulous as possible, and never submit work for publication that hasn't been reviewed by research paper for smoking, a native editor. I love the example of essay pointless sites Joseph Conrad who started learning English in his adult years, and paper for smoking, who eventually became one the great authors of the English language. V V: I do not accept any form of poetry that I feel is ceremony below par for Skyline Magazine, regardless of paper for smoking who has written it. We have high standards for publication.
I do feel however, that I allow more freedom of composition and poetic license to multilingual poets. As a publisher, I find no particular risk in bird paper doing so, as my readers appreciate the efforts of research writers who undertake this difficult task. Intro Paragraph Essay. They are energetic and courageous, poetic pioneers, and should be rewarded for paper for smoking, their extraordinary efforts. We must give them every opportunity to sharpen their multicultural writing skills and encourage them. Even in the face of writing narrative essay third person failure, writing is a learning experience for for smoking, all of us, in all cultures. There is always room for improvement and growth. 5) How important is it to publish in English today? What advice do you have for a poet who is writing bilingually, or who is considering writing bilingually? J O H: Don't do it unless you have a deep emotional understanding of the language, its hidden poetry and mystique.
F R: Very important, considering the legacy of the essay person, English language in literature; especially in paper poetry, where the references are unavoidable for any serious poet, not to mention that English is the first transactional language of the world, followed by Spanish. I believe that, under the eaves of Shakespeare and Cervantes, our foundation is sites very solid. I think about Isaac B. Research For Smoking. Singer who wrote his books in Yiddish with translation into English, where he worked quite closely with his translators. Writing Narrative Essay Third. On the other hand, poetry translations done by research, poets usually are quite good - that is, as soon as one settles upon a species of dialogue between two poetic beings through language. Even so, the result is usually a transubstantiation of the poet, translated to the language of the poet who translates it. On the other hand, the perfect translator does not exist; to think the opposite is simply a projection of ceremony your own narcissism. A R: The importance of writing in English depends on one's ambition. There are other international languages, albeit not as global as English, through which one can reach a vast readership, such as Spanish, Chinese, French or Portuguese. That being said, I'm all for writing in one's mother tongue, be it Urdu, Tagalog or Finnish, for diversity is what makes our world interesting and rich. Then, if you wish to research use another more international language, in order to essay pointless reach a wider audience, you have to face up to the responsibility of doing it in the best and most efficient manner. V V: It is important to publish English today.
It is important to publish all languages today, as nations are merging with more frequency. Paper. We must learn about intro paragraph for compare and contrast, each other, accept one another, for the advancement of all talents and research paper, cultures. Skyline's motto and law school, firm belief, from day one: Bringing The World Together Thru The Arts. We can help promote greater understanding and paper for smoking, tolerance through literature and arts. I would encourage a multilingual writer to read the original texts and translations of other writers. Submerge themselves in all styles and cultures.
As with any literature, study your market and submit accordingly. Multilingual writers should seek out publications that are familiar with and publish multicultural writing. 6) How do you react to poetry written in poor English, poor Spanish or poor French -- are there certain limits as to writing paper what you can accept as a reader and professional, and how much artistic license should be permissible from a bilingual/multilingual poet? J O H: Bad poetry is bad in any language. It must said that I used to research paper for smoking be dismissive of phd thesis some Indian poetry until I understood that they use the English language somewhat differently. One of my favourite poets is Pradip Choudhuri. I sometimes invent words if I can't find the right one, and editors think it is I who gets the languages mixed up. But what is bad poetry? No one sits down and research, says: I'm going to ceremony write a really bad poem. Paper For Smoking. Personally I dislike sentimental poems/dishonest poems/me alone against the whole world poems, and poems that contain filthy words when it's not needed.and if I read another poem about the fucking moon, I'll scream. F R: Bad poets exist in law school essays all literature, but bad poetry is quite another thing.
The challenging thing in reading so-called bad poetry, is to recognize the intention of the author and to identify its referential linguistics. One more reading, more even-tempered than critical, of that which is fixedly called bad poetry, can sometimes prompt us to play at reconstructing the original intention. Paper For Smoking. A R: I react badly, for as I said earlier, if one is essay third not proficient enough, one has to do everything to improve his/her skills and consult an expert, and not submit anything for publication that is not near perfect. V V: Although I am a perfectionist with my own written work, as a reader, I do not especially look for perfection, per say. I don't dissect. This does not mean that I would publish 'anything', but rather that I find interest and beauty in paper words . and in a broad variety of material. As a reader and good law school, publisher, I look for meaningful, engaging literature-poetry of all genre that moves me emotionally, in all directions. I want to feel what the writer is expressing. I want to experience their words-to visualize their ex-pression. I can overlook minor bilingual/multilingual flaws, but I would reject anything hollow or barren, regardless of the writer's nationality.
Fine poetry must be intelligent, have a consistent flow and research paper, deliver a specific message, regardless of its origin. I think I would be less tolerant of poor English than poor multilingual writing. I'm sure this is because I deal more with American poets. I want to offer the paper, benefit of doubt to research paper the writer who is learning and writing narrative third, struggling. They deserve it. It's the 'message' I am seeking, and will give leeway on how it's delivered, as long as the passion and talent are brilliantly engaged.
7) What do you think established large press enterprises think of and look for in bilingual poetry? Are they and/or most literary magazines in your country of residence open to research paper publishing bilingual poetry, or poetry written by persons who have another mother tongue? J O H: I live in essays Portugal . I sent an research English-written manuscript to a publisher here in writer sites Portugal , but unless you're very famous . (To be dead is helpful too.) No one wants to research for smoking know. I don't really blame them. I have made attempts to write in phd thesis tools Portuguese, but find the grammar too restraining. F R: In Norway , as I also suppose is the case in other countries, there exists a cultural policy that in principle and aim protects its cultural values based on its historical and political traditions. Thus it is so that, according to these parameters, I believe that commercial publication of bilingual editions of poetry generally requires government support and mandates; and current national policy leaves little room for such at the present time. In Norway officially approved books are subsidized by the state with the purchase of a considerable number of each book to be distributed to various institutions of the Kingdom, such as libraries etc. As the press (as much as the paper, magazines) has a certain influence in this country, they accordingly in one way or another respond to these directives most faithfully.
A R: In France , bilingual publishers are almost non-existent -- save for school books. V V: Although I cannot speak for other publishers, especially for the motivations of essay writer pointless large publishing houses, I would assume they look for intellectual texts that are expertly translated and well written; employing the same standards they would use for research paper, English texts. I doubt they give much latitude to any writers. I would think they seek perfection. Publishing wonderfully-composed multicultural texts is an intro paragraph enriching experience for any publication, and large houses would strive for the very finest. I believe there is a flourishing market for multicultural texts in the USA , as for research paper for smoking, English writing in other countries. 8) Who are your favourite contemporary bilingual/multilingual poets, and why?
J O H: Fernando Pessoa was bilingual, (English) but I prefer his Portuguese poems. F R: Kevin Johansen, because he is a not in actuality a poet, but rather a modern-day troubadour who moves between two worlds and two languages where he nicely shapes his condition for being and not being poetic - non-poetic I would say, with humour and distance. A distance which is signified by his Nordic origin, transplanted to the USA and Argentina . A sort of continual refugee - sometimes singing in English and sometimes in Castilian - constantly playing with questions about identity: 'To be or not to be'. Do you happen to phd thesis writing tools know his work? A R: One of them is Adam Donaldson Powell, for he has the sensitivity and paper for smoking, breadth which I find quite exceptional.
His Weltanshauung is combined with an intelligence of the heart - in short, empathy. Great writers and poets cannot only be talented cynics, they have to ceremony show compassion, at least that is research how I value great literature. And Adam Donaldson Powell has all of this combined in his poetic work - he is paragraph for compare and contrast also an artist and a musician, which makes him a renaissance man. V V: I can't say that I have favourites, as I have had the pleasure of reading the work of so very many wonderful writers, but I would say that I am partial to those who create flowing, free verse. Amitabh Mitra writes wonderful poetry in English, his poems a strong reflection of his Indian heritage. I find his writing sensual and research paper for smoking, intriguing. So if I were to have favourites, Amitabh would be at narrative person the top of research my list. I also admire the vision and work of Sheema Kalbasi, who is a human rights activist, poet and translator. Besides being multilingual, she is multi-talented!
There are too many fine talents in this world to select just a few. 9) Do you feel that most contemporary literary critics and narrative essay third person, editors are well-enough equipped to properly judge your bilingualism? J O H: Yes I think so. Research For Smoking. When I once wrote THAT instead of essay writer WHO about people my editor wanted to keep it in, but I refused. But there are magazine editors who reject my work point blank because it sounds foreign. Research Paper. But that's okay. F R: Surely there exist one -- and essay pointless sites, perhaps several, who want(s) to research paper for smoking believe, that he/they read(s) poetry in narrative person the secret catacombs of true knowledge -- hidden to the public eye.
These persons will always exist. They are the true critics of the future, those that read and write their critical commentaries in their own languages, including some languages and dialects which are in danger of extinction. But they will eventually appear upon the great stage, and paper for smoking, they will re-take into their hands the pens which were snatched from them. A R: No, they are indeed a rarity and we, bilingual/multilingual writers are often considered as mavericks, especially here in phd thesis tools France. V V: Unfortunately I am not bilingual, but have had two of paper my own short stories translated by the French editor Eric Tessier, and homework, published in research the esteemed French Magazine, Place au[x] sens. I am unable to offer an opinion as to whether or not other publishers and critics are well-equipped to ceremony properly judge bilingualism. However, I have found the research for smoking, editors and translators I have worked with to be competent, fair-minded and extremely dedicated. 10) Do you have other comments you would like to add to homework ceremony this discussion?
J O H: You have given me many things to think about. Both my collections Letters from paper Portugal and La Strada had an homework editor. I'm lousy as a proof reader of my own work. The reason is that it is right in my head. I self-published a collection of research paper for smoking poetry Lunch in writer sites Denmark and only when the book was printed did I see the research for smoking, myriads of grammatical and writing narrative person, spelling flaws. As an autodidact I'm feeling the language more than actually knowing it; that's because I think in English sentences.
The drawback is when I read Norwegian. I'm too critical of paper for smoking my own language when I read the intro paragraph for compare, news on research paper for smoking, the internet (for example Norwegian tabloids). They seem to be written to suit the lowest nominator; the language has been flattened. But having been away from Norway for intro essay, so long my views could be old-fashioned. When writing in paper for smoking English there are moments when I don't find the right word, but I don't think about what it is called in Norwegian. I sort of work around and bird writing paper, find an ex-pression that fits. Research Paper For Smoking. English is an elastic language, but I still make so many mistakes.
It always embarrasses me because I can see them when they are pointed out to phd thesis writing tools me, and I spend much time kicking myself. I'm therefore glad when an editor takes the paper, time (and indiscretions). But there are times when an editor proposes to change the writing, ending of research paper a poem, and that's bloody annoying. F R: Yes, I am done except for the following question: Which Norwegian poet, really fulfills the writer pointless sites, conditions of being both a catalyst and bridge for dialogue between two or more languages? I mean, a poetic catalyst that can create a multilingual arena in the Norway of today? Perhaps Erling Kittelsen, a true advocate for bilingual literature -- both in Norway and in other countries. A R: This discussion could never end, but I shall stop here. V V: As the publisher and research, editor of Skyline Literary Magazine and A Hudson View International Poetry Digest, I am constantly reading stories and poetry. You would think that after a while, all would blend together and I would become desensitized. Essay Third. However, I'm still like a kid in a toy store when I read submissions - and a perfect description is that I become 'overtaken' by certain pieces - even 'awed'.
I am very emotional and crave the satisfaction of 'words.' I seek intense and intelligent-thought provoking, unique and intellectual writing. I find multicultural poetry to fulfill these requirements, more often than not. But again, I am a lover of the written word. As they say, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, in my humble opinion; the wonder of words is a perceptual gift for both author and reader. Research Paper. Thank you for the opportunity and honour of participating in your interview and discussion concerning multilingual poetry. A D P: One thing is certain: this discussion could not (and perhaps should not) ever end.
I am truly impressed by the enthusiasm of the interviewees, their candidness and the many different perspectives and opinions given. I am also quite pleased to sense the high degree of dedication to the art of poetry expressed, given that poetry is paragraph for compare and contrast perhaps not the most lucrative form for writing in this day and age. Research For Smoking. And finally, I am overjoyed to see that several international poets can affirm that poetry is still a vital art form in contemporary literature, and an important mechanism for communication and understanding between persons from diverse cultures. Essay Writer Sites. Well, someone always gets to have the last word. The person I have chosen to conclude this discussion with her remarks is the esteemed international poet/essayist/translator Ms. Diane Oatley. Her commentary follows: Concluding remarks by Diane Oatley. For me it is a very simple matter of research paper for smoking actually achieving proficiency in more than one language and where it becomes an artistic challenge to explore the experience of writing in both. I have also been interested in combining two (or more) different languages in a performance or written context as a means of exploring the resonances that arise between the different languages. It goes without saying however that in a globalised environment that more languages equals greater connection with a larger readership. Intro Paragraph For Compare And Contrast Essay. For me it is research paper for smoking not about ego.
Poetry writing has never been something I have consciously chosen: I began writing poetry in ceremony Norwegian (my second language) simply because the paper, poetry began coming to me also in Norwegian. Always for me the bird, artistic considerations and research paper for smoking, the context are key - who is the audience you are trying to reach, what are you trying to express and phd thesis tools, how can you best achieve both. I agree with AR. This is a given: the author needs to be at all times aware of his/her own limitations and it surprises me as well that anyone submits anything to a publisher/editor without having shared it with at least one other writer. There comes a point in the writing process where even when one is writing in one's own native language that one needs input from others, simply because one lacks the necessary distance. What one does with the input is up to the writer but resistance only aids the creative process - being put in a position to research paper for smoking reconsider and defend one's artistic choices is bird writing paper very healthy and can only improve one's work. The minute I read anything on paper for smoking, the Internet or otherwise in writing paper English that is peppered with spelling mistakes and missing punctuation or worse just poor language I lose any interest in the content (I stop reading in research for smoking other words). We are language professionals - this is our craft and it goes without saying that if one has any respect whatsoever for the art of poetry one also understands the complexity of poetic language and how fragile is the structure of a truly successful poem.
A single syllable out of place can deconstruct a poem in its entirety. The work I have done where I have used two languages has always been in connection with performances and the feedback has always been extremely positive. This has meaning for essays, me only to the extent that I feel that I have realised my own artistic objectives with the project at hand. Research For Smoking. Define bad. Again, I don't understand how any poet would be willing to out themselves by presenting sub-standard work. For me it comes back to a sincere interest in the craft of writing in phd thesis writing tools itself: why are you doing it?
For attention? Then I guess you deserve what ever fall-out comes your way. Writing in a second language does not in my mind imply a lowering of research paper standards in any sense. I am interested in reading good literature. Period. Phd Thesis Tools. I don't think it is important to write in English, but then I am a native English speaker so perhaps there are issues here that don't effect me and of which I am unaware. Personally I am witnessing the Norwegian language slowly deteriorating due to the incorporation of anglicisms and paper, this is sad. I like Spain /the Spanish because they are so perversely obstinate about doing everything in their own language.
And my advice for bilingual poets is to follow the urge but if your urge is based on ceremony, a desire to make a lot of money you are deluded. See my response to question 4. There is an enormous potential here, in the sense of a non-native language poet being able to research enrich and make contributions to the second language through their work. This however is only possible to the extent that they master the second language sufficiently to actually write poetry. First we walk, then we dance. First learn to write a decent sentence. Then you can think about writing poetry. Faulkner maintained that poetry is in fact the writing, most difficult form of writing and I tend to agree. But then I guess it depends on your definition of poetry: I am so not interested in sentiment or political statements broken down into lines on a page.
For me this is paper not poetry. For me poetry always functions at the level of writing language, the poet seeks to transgress and bend the rules and conventions of language at many levels (semantically, in terms of syntax and research for smoking, rhythm). As such it goes without saying that you must first know the rules in order to break or bend them or even play with them in phd thesis tools a meaningful manner. Bilingual editions are like exotic flowers. There is very little money to paper for smoking be made on them and if poets are smart they will understand this.
As difficult as it is to good publish poetry in general, bilingual editions are that much more impossible. I think poets need to for smoking think outside of the writing tools, box here too, and be willing to explore other alternatives (self-publishing, performance works, visual presentation). I am also interested in simply creating beautiful books - a bilingual edition holds a unique potential here and it is up to the poet to explain and paper for smoking, promote that potentiality and not least have fun with it! I think as well that for poets there is an enormous potential here for creating meaningful and political constellations among ourselves − an international forum whereby we can enhance, experiment, discuss and support one another in our work. I would love to collaborate for example, with a poet working in a language that I don't master − do readings together, or create texts using two different languages. Good Essays. I think the results could be interesting and that above all, unexpected things will happen, openings will arise.
Beckett. I also want to research say the essay, French writer Hélène Cixous but she has actually only published one bilingual edition that I know of - and research, she was not personally responsible for the English language text (someone translated from the original French). It was however, a beautiful book/translation and essay pointless, I loved reading the two texts side by side in the respective (French/English) languages − I think I will never finish with that text (To Live the Orange , Vivre L'Orange). No, I don't think so and mainly because it is a rarity and for smoking, an innovation also. There remains an enormous conservatism within the literary community and poets suffer from this. Again, we need to take responsibility for this and surely the work will speak for itself? If there is an audience, we will reach it. I think there is a need for a discussion regarding why in ceremony fact bilingual editions are even interesting. Given that the for smoking, world is getting smaller, certainly there are more and more writers functioning in more than one language. Law School Essays. What are the potentialities here in research for smoking terms of artistic ex-pression? That is the interesting question for me.
The book I had published through AIM Chapbooks in 2003 was an attempt to explore this - as I did not create a two language edition per se, but wrote two different poetic texts that spoke with one another and where one could also read each individual language text as a poem in its own right. This for me is an interesting point of departure, more so than a two language edition which essentially is only meaningful in two senses: 1. It makes the work available to a larger readership. 2. It opens for a discussion regarding the translation of poetry. I am more interested in seeing the two respective languages in action, as it were, at the same time. How do they resonate against one another in interaction? Ideally I feel also that there is an affect that arises here which inevitably enhances the spatiality of a poetic ex-pression, a dimension which I feel is increasingly lost in narrative essay third much of the poetry I read. And actually, in Norway this type of (bilingual) ex-pression is possible because most Norwegians who read poetry have a good working knowledge of English (which is my mother tongue) and are able to understand enough to get something out paper for smoking, of the experience. Proofreaders charge by the hour.
They are not expensive. Use one. It will take a proofreader two hours to get through a 100-page poetry manuscript. For me it is completely irresponsible even self-destructive not to recognize that A WRITER CANNOT AND SHOULD NOT DO EVERYTHING! Any good editor knows this.
You create the art; get a second or third opinion from someone qualified on the content and/or language. Keep editing (are you in homework a hurry? Take the time with your craft. For Smoking. ). And then hire a proofreader. If you are broke, trade proofreading favours with a colleague. Let's focus on creating good work, on being innovators with responsibility for and a deep commitment to our art.
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10 Psychology Courses Students Should Take. As a psychology student, you will need to take a number of courses that focus on the science of research paper for smoking, human behavior. Your goal as a student is to not only to fulfill the course requirements of your program department, but to also develop critical thinking skills, research competence, and in-depth knowledge of psychology that will serve you well as you advance in your academic and career pursuits. The following are some of the top courses you should consider when selecting classes to take as an undergraduate psychology major. Essay Writer? This introductory course offers an overview of the for smoking, entire field of psychology. It may seem overwhelming at law school essays, first, due to the sheer volume of information contained within the class, but this important class lays the research paper for smoking, groundwork for your future studies.
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Statistics offers a core background for understanding how psychologists investigate human behavior. This course generally focuses on statistical methods and law school essays techniques used by researchers. According to one survey, 85 percent of psychology graduate programs require at least one undergraduate course in statistics in order to research paper, gain admission to the program. A course in experimental psychology is an essential foundation for any psychology major. In this course, you will learn about basic research methods and experimental designs.
While course requirements may vary from one school to the next, most experimental psychology courses require students to perform experiments. In order to form a full understanding of the mind and behavior, it is important to develop your knowledge of the brain, neural actions, sensation and perception, basic neuroanatomy, and physiological processes. A course in physiological psychology serves as a good introduction to the field of neuropsychology, although it may be listed under an alternate course title such as behavioral neuroscience, biopsychology or biological psychology. In this course, you will learn more about the cognitive process that forms the foundation of human behavior. Cognitive psychology involves the study of internal mental processes—all of the things that go on inside your brain, including perception, thinking, memory, attention, language, problem solving, and learning. Courses in narrative essay abnormal psychology focus on the biological, environmental, and cultural influences on abnormal behavior. Some of the topics studied in this course might include mood disorders, personality disorders, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse. In addition to exploring the research for smoking, background, assessment and bird writing paper diagnosis of these disorders, students also explore some of the available treatment approaches. Paper For Smoking? Developmental psychology courses study the course of writing third, human development from conception throughout the lifespan. In some cases, students may opt to take an encompassing course that provides an overview of development through life or choose to take a course that focuses primarily on child development.
Developmental psychology courses generally look at research, developmental changes in biological, emotional and cognitive domains, as well as looking at how factors such as family, school, peers, and culture impact this growth. Social psychology courses are focused on the scientific study of social influences on writing narrative person, behavior and the interaction between individuals and groups. Topics studied in this class include such things as social pressure, leadership, nonverbal communication, persuasion, obedience, and research for smoking the bystander effect. Social psychologists are interested in the impact that the social environment and third group interactions have on research, attitudes and behaviors. While there are many similarities to sociology, social psychology tends to look at social behavior and influences at phd thesis tools, a very broad-based level. Sociologists are interested in the institutions and cultures that influence how people behave. Psychologists instead focus on situational variables that affect social behavior.
A course in research personality psychology offers a solid background in law school essays the numerous theories of personality development, including Freudian, psychosocial, behavioral, humanistic, and existential theories. This area of psychology seeks to understand personality and how it varies among individuals as well as how people are similar. Psychologists also assess, diagnose, and treat personality disorders that can interfere with day-to-day life. Are you a psychology major with plans to go to research paper, graduate school? If a grad degree in psychology is in your future, then now is the phd thesis writing tools, time to start thinking about the courses you need to take. Most programs have certain requirements and prerequisites that must be met before a student can begin a graduate degree in psychology.
Which Undergraduate Psychology Courses Do You Need? If you#39;re planning to study psychology at paper, the graduate level, it is important to intro, select undergraduate courses that will prepare you for further study in psychology. An article published in research the journal American Psychologist looked at graduate admission requirements provided by 2,023 graduate psychology programs in both the United States and Canada. The results describe the prerequisite courses most often required by homework, psychology graduate programs. Research For Smoking? Over 85 percent of schools surveyed require or prefer that applicants have taken at least one course in writing statistics. Having a solid background in statistics will allow you to make better sense of the research you will encounter in graduate school. In many cases, you will even be conducting your own research, so being able to paper, understand and perform statistical analysis is essential for success in a graduate program. 2. Experimental Methods/Research Design. More that 65 percent of programs surveyed require or prefer at least one or more courses in experimental methods and research design. The amount of research you will be doing in graduate school depends a great deal on good essays, the type of program in paper which you enroll.
PhD programs tend to focus more on homework, research, while PsyD programs concentrate more on professional practice. In either case, having a solid understanding of the research for smoking, research process is writing tools, essential. Abnormal psychology courses are required or preferred by over 30 percent of graduate programs. Research Paper? Even if you do not plan to phd thesis, work in mental health, understanding abnormal behaviors, psychological disorders and treatment options can provide a richer perspective on human psychology. Developmental psychology or child development courses are required or preferred by over 35 percent of graduate programs.
Such courses can help prepare students for careers as clinical psychologists, school psychologists and other areas, as well as providing a deeper look into how children develop and how people grow over the course of research for smoking, a lifetime. Essay Sites? Courses in personality psychology are required or preferred by over 25 percent of graduate programs. For Smoking? Such classes explore topics such as theories of personality and the many influences that impact personality development. Homework? Of course, there are many other courses that can help you prepare for your graduate studies in psychology. The following are just a few of the classes that you might want to research paper for smoking, consider taking.
Cognitive Psychology History of Psychology Social Psychology Psychological Testing and Measurement Psychology of Learning Sensation and Perception Physiological Psychology. Phd Thesis Writing? The courses above offer a glimpse of which classes you should take as an undergraduate student. If you are preparing for graduate school, be sure to check the specific admission requirements of your chosen school. In addition to the appropriate coursework, most graduate programs also require applicants to take the GRE. Beyond the general education and research for smoking departmental requirements, you can then take elective courses based on your interests. Most psychology programs also require a minimum number of psychology electives in essay order to research for smoking, graduate. Phd Thesis? During your first year or two of college, you should concentrate on taking the required general education and major classes. If you end up filling your schedule with elective courses during the early years of your college education, you may find yourself scrambling to play catch up during your junior and senior year. By saving most of your electives for the third and for smoking fourth year, you#39;ll be able to enjoy some fun and good interesting courses when many of your required program courses are starting to get tougher and more challenging.
Many students choose to take elective courses that are related to their future career goals. For example, a student with an interest in research consumer psychology might focus on electives in areas like marketing, advertising, social psychology, experimental design, and statistics. Other students might opt to take some elective courses in psychology along with classes in other interest areas. For example, a student interested in pursuing a career in ceremony art therapy might take fine arts classes as part of research, her undergraduate electives. Some of the writing paper, electives that might be of interest to psychology majors include courses in: As you choose electives, think about how these courses relate to your career goals. If you plan on being a research psychologist, classes in statistics, writing and research methods would prove particularly useful.
On the other hand, if you are thinking of a career in mental health, courses in biology and health sciences might be the paper for smoking, most beneficial. Whether you are earning a BA or BS in psychology, selecting the paper, classes that are right for your academic plan is important. This is why it is so important to talk to your academic advisor. Your advisor can inform you about specific university requirements as well as make additional suggestions based on your major, interests, and goals. A good idea is to make a four-year academic plan outlining the courses that you would like to research, take each semester. This not only ensures that you meet all of the requirements of your degree program, it also allows you to see where you can schedule in elective courses. College is a time to prepare for bird writing paper your future and explore your academic interests. Consider your future plans when picking classes.
If you are thinking that you might want to go to graduate school, research which classes you will probably need to paper for smoking, take in order to apply to these programs. Taking a hard look at the different classes you will need now and in the future may help you determine if going to writing essay third person, graduate school in psychology is the right choice for you. While you should certainly focus on your core courses first and research for smoking foremost, you should plan on scheduling at least a few elective courses in order to get the minimum credits needed to graduate. Elective courses are an excellent way to learn more about new subjects and broaden your education, so spend some time browsing through your school#39;s course catalog to bird, familiarize yourself with what is available. Davis, SF, Giordano, PJ, Licht, CA. Your Career in Psychology: Putting Your Graduate Degree to research for smoking, Work. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2009. Kuther, TL.
The Psychology Major#39;s Handbook. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2016. Norcross, JC Sayette, MA. An Insider#39;s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 2016/2017 Edition. New York: The Guilford Press; 2016.
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causes of 9/11 essay by Michael Sokolov. On September 11, 2001, I got up early in the morning as usual and went to work. As I do not drive and use public transportation, I had to get up very early to get to research paper for smoking work on time and phd thesis writing tools, would normally finish my sleep on the bus. That day as I was sitting on the bus half-awake as usual, I was overhearing the research paper driver and some passenger sitting upfront talk about some plane crashes. My sleepy mind took no particular notice of that: OK, some plane crashed somewhere, so what. Planes crash all the time. Good! No big deal. I arrived at work uneventfully, went up the research stairs to my office saying “Hi!” to people on the way, unlocked the phd thesis door, got in and plopped into research my armchair to wake up for writing, real for another day of software engineering. Bruce, a hardware engineer I was working with, passed through the hall with his usual big coffee mug. He stopped by my office, saying: “A busy day!” As this was early morning, I assumed that it had to refer to the day before, which was somewhat busy, and I said, “what, yesterday?” Bruce replied, “no, today.” At that point I recalled the conversation I overheard on the bus about some plane crashes and asked him if this is what he was talking about. He answered affirmatively.
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Since when have the writing narrative person World Trade Center and the Pentagon stood for research, freedom and democracy ? The World Trade Center was universally understood as a facility and a symbol of global capitalism that America and essays, other imperialist powers now impose on the world. And since when has capitalism equaled freedom and democracy? Capitalism stands for things like starvation, evictions, profits before people, patents before patients, and assault on the environment. What does it have to do with freedom? And the Pentagon , what does that stand for? The people in the Balkans, in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as in Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Grenada, Panama, Colombia, and Lebanon ( Marrs 8) know what the Pentagon stands for: it stands for research paper, the bombs falling on their heads, and their killed or severely injured families. Again the connection between the Pentagon’s worldwide genocide and freedom and paragraph for compare and contrast essay, democracy is research paper for smoking, difficult to trace at best. I kept hearing how the whole world was shocked by these events, and couldn’t help but think that the world ought to be in joy rather than in good essays, shock: the hated towers of transnational corporate criminal outfits and banksters came down, and after bombing the rest of the world for half a century the research paper for smoking Pentagon finally learned how it feels to intro paragraph and contrast essay be on the receiving end of the stick. An unnamed random person in the streets of Moscow asked by Russian TV what he thought about the 9/11 events in the USA answered it best: “I’m sorry for the people who died, but not sorry for America.” So is this really what happened on research for smoking September 11, 2001?
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When the heat source warms the last cool part of the object, the heat stops escaping and the point of attention can be warmed. If the north tower collapse was due to law school essays heated steel, why did it take 104 minutes to reach the critical temperature? . Am I to believe that the research for smoking fire burned all that time, getting constantly hotter until it reached melting temperature? Or did it burn hot and steady throughout until 200,000 tons of steel were heated molten - on sites one plane load of jet fuel? In my diseased mind, I think of the paper floors of each tower like a stack of LP (33 1/3 RPM) records, only they were square instead of circular. Homework! They were stacked around a central spindle that consisted of multiple steel columns stationed in paper for smoking, a square around the 103 elevator shafts.
With this core bearing the weight of the building, the platters were tied together and stabilized by another set of steel columns at the outside rim, closely spaced and completely surrounding the structure. The TV experts told us that the joints between the floors and central columns melted (or the floor trusses, or the central columns, or the exterior columns, depending on the expert) and this caused the floor to collapse and fall onto the one below. This overloaded the good essays joints for the lower floor, and the two of for smoking them fell onto the floor below, and so on. Like dominos . Back in the early 1970s when the World Trade Towers were built, the WTC was the writing paper tallest building that had ever been built in the history of the for smoking world. If we consider the architectural engineers, suppliers, builders, and good essays, city inspectors in the job, we can imagine they would be very careful to over-build every aspect of the building. If one bolt was calculated to serve, you can bet that three or four were used. Paper For Smoking! If there was any doubt about the ceremony quality of research paper a girder or steel beam, you can be sure it was rejected.
I do not know the exact specifications for the WTC , but I know in many trades (and some I’ve worked), a structural member must be physically capable of three times the maximum load that will ever be required of it ( BreakingStrength = 3 x WorkingStrenghth ). Given that none of phd thesis tools those floors was holding a grand piano sale or an elephant convention that day, it is unlikely that any of them were loaded to the maximum. Thus, any of the floors should have been capable of supporting more than its own weight plus the two floors above it. I suspect the WTC was engineered for safer margins than the average railroad bridge, and research paper for smoking, the actual load on each floor was less than 1/6 the BreakingStrength . The platters were constructed of pointless webs of paper steel trusses. Radial trusses ran from the perimeter of the ceremony floor to research paper the central columns, and concentric rings of trusses connected the radial trusses, forming a pattern like a spider web . Where the radial trusses connected with the central columns, I imagine the joints looked like the big bolted flanges where girders meet on a bridge—inches thick bolts tying the beams into the columns. The experts tell us that the heat of the fire melted the steel, causing the essay person joints to fail. In order to weaken those joints, a fire would have to heat the bolts or the flanges to the point where the bolts fell apart or tore through the steel. But here is another thing that gives me problems—all the research for smoking joints between the ceremony platter and the central columns would have to be heated at research paper, the same rate in order to collapse at the same time—and at the same rate as the joints with the outer rim columns on all sides—else one side of the platter would fall, damaging the floor below and essay third person, making obvious distortions in the skin of the building, or throwing the top of tower off balance and to one side. But there were no irregularities in the fall of the main structure of paper for smoking those buildings.
They fell almost as perfectly as a deck of cards in the hands of a magician doing an aerial shuffle. This is particularly worrisome since the first plane struck one side of the north tower , causing (you would think) a weakening on that side where the exterior columns were struck, and a more intense fire on homework ceremony that side than on the other side. And the second plane struck near the paper for smoking corner of the south tower at an angle that caused much of the paragraph for compare fuel to spew out the windows on research the adjacent side . Yet the good law school south tower also collapsed in perfect symmetry, spewing dust in all directions like a Fourth of July sparkler burning to the ground. I have seen a videotaped rerun of the south tower falling. In that take, the upper floors descend as a complete unit. All the way, the upper-floor unit was canted over paper, as shown on the BBC page, sliding down behind the intervening buildings like a piece of stage scenery. That scene is the most puzzling of all.
Since the upper floors were not collapsed (the connection between the center columns and the platters were intact), this assembly would present itself to the lower floors as a platter WITHOUT a central hole. Writing Narrative Essay Third! How then would a platter without a hole slide down the spindle with the other platters? Where would the central columns go if they could not penetrate the upper floors as they fell? The only model I can find for the situation would be this: If the fire melted the floor joints so that the paper collapse began from the 60th floor downward, the essays upper floors would be left hanging in the air, supported only by research, the central columns. This situation would soon become unstable and the top 40 floors would topple over . much like felling the top 600 ft. from a 1300 ft. tree. This model would hold also for the north tower . According to Chris Wise ’s “ domino ” doctrine , the collapse began only at the floor with the fire, not at the penthouse. How was it that the upper floor simply disappeared instead of writer crashing to the earth as a block of thousands of tons of concrete and steel? The amazing thing is that no one . Research Paper! even mentions this phenomenon, much less describing the seismic event it must have caused. Where is the ruin where the 200ft x 200ft x 50 story-object struck? Foty [sic] floors should have caused a ray of devastation 500 ft. into the surrounding cityscape.
OK, since it was mentioned, I am also upset with the quantity of concrete dust . No concrete that I have ever known pulverizes like that. It is unnerving. My experience with concrete has shown that it will crumble under stress, but rarely does it just give up the ghost and turn to powder. But look at the pictures—it is essay writer sites, truly a fine dust in great billowing clouds spewing a hundred feet from the collapsing tower. I would like to find a pictures of all those platters piled up on each other on the ground, just as they fell -- has anyone seen a picture like that? I am told it was cumulative weight of those platters falling on each other that caused the collapse, but I don’t see the platters pilled [sic] up like flapjacks on the ground floor.
Dr. Paper! Robert Schuller was on television telling about phd thesis writing tools his trip to research paper the ruins. He announced in the interview that there was not a single block of concrete in good, that rubble. From the original 425,000 cubic yards of concrete that went into the building, all was dust. How did that happen?
I have just one other point I need help with—the steel columns in the center. Research Paper For Smoking! When the platters fell, those quarter-mile high central steel columns (at least from the ground to paper the fire) should have been left standing naked and unsupported in paper, the air, and then they should have fallen intact or in sections to the ground below, clobbering hundreds of feet from the law school WTC site like giant trees falling in research paper, the forest. But I haven’t seen any pictures showing those columns standing, falling, or lying on writing paper the ground. Nor have I heard of damage caused by them. Now I know those terrorist must have been much better at these things than I am. For Smoking! I would take one look at their kamikaze plans with commercial jets and I would reject it as—spectacular maybe, but not significantly damaging. But if I were a kamikaze terrorist, I would try to hit the homework towers low in the supports to knock the research for smoking towers down, maybe trapping the homework ceremony workers with the fire and burning the towers from the ground up, just as the research for smoking people in last 20 stories were trapped. But you see, those terrorists were so sure the building would magically collapse that way, the pilot who hit the north tower chose a spot just 20 floors from the top. And the kamikaze for south tower was only slightly lower -- despite a relatively open skyline down to 25 or 30 stories. The terrorists apparently predicted the whole scenario— the homework ceremony fuel fire, the slow weakening of the structure, and the horrific collapse of the building - phenomena that the paper for smoking architects and the NY civil engineering approval committees never dreamed of.
Even as you righteously hate those men, you have to admire them for their genius. Law School! ( McMichael ) This article made me stop and for smoking, think. So just how did those two plane collisions make both towers collapse, and not just collapse, but telescope like a deck of cards in a magician’s hands, to use McMichael ’s language? How come such a really miniscule impact was all it took to cause such catastrophic destruction, and bird, how come the for smoking falling building parts (like the upper floors or the steel columns McMichael mentions) didn’t trample all over Manhattan? How come the attack appeared like a controlled demolition ? After reading McMichael ’s article I consulted with other engineers in my group, to get a second opinion. Engineer Stacy Minkin wrote in response to my inquiry: “books say that despite point of bird writing paper melting for steel is sufficiently high steel cannot sustain high durability when heat reahes [sic] about research 800 degrees celcium [sic]” In order words, what Stacy was saying was that it wasn’t necessary to heat the steel to paragraph and contrast essay its melting point (1538 deg C), only 800 deg C would be necessary for it to lose structural strength, allowing for the possibility of the towers collapsing in the manner described in research paper, the official pronouncements. My dad, also an engineer, and highly skeptical of all conspiracy theories, also told me that the steel did not have to be heated to its melting point. He also explained how the jet fuel fire could have produced the necessary heat. His theory was that immediately after the impact the fuel poured down the central shaft and burned at the bottom. The extremely strong draft in the “tube” effectively turned it into writing essay third person a blast furnace, easily raising the temperature high enough to melt steel, or at research paper for smoking, least to heat it to writer the point of losing structural strength (to 800 deg C according to research Stacy Minkin ).
Yet there is evidence that the “ blast furnace ” scenario proposed by my dad did not actually take place. Jim Marrs wrote: An audiotape of New York firefighters at the scene, unpublicized until mid-2002, indicated that fire officials managed to reach the 78th floor of the south tower - very near the phd thesis crash scene - and seemed convinced that the fire was controllable. Two fire officials mentioned by name in paper, the tape were Battalion Chief Orio J. Ceremony! Palmer and Fire Marshal Ronald P. Bucca , both of whom perished when the for smoking south tower collapsed along with 343 other firefighters. According to homework ceremony the Times article both firemen “showed no panic, no sense that events were racing beyond their control.
At that point, the building would be standing for just a few more minutes, as the fire was weakening the structure on for smoking the floors above him. Even so, Chief Palmer could see only two pockets of fire and called for a pair of engine companies to fight them. ” As noted by American Free Press reporter Christopher Bollyn , 'The fact that veteran firefighters had a ‘coherent plan for putting out’ the ‘two pockets of fire,’ indicates they judged the blazes to be manageable. Essays! These reports from the scene of the crash provide crucial evidence debunking the government’s claim that a raging steel-melting inferno led to paper the tower’s collapse.'” The fact that two firefighters were able to law school reach 78th floor and stand there mere minutes before the building collapsed and research paper for smoking, see no “inferno” resolutely disproves the bird writing “ blast furnace ” hypothesis . Research For Smoking! Even by ceremony, the most conservative estimates the temperature necessary to weaken the steel structures of the building had to be higher than 300 deg C at the minimum. Paper For Smoking! Stacy Minkin , who worked on large boiler plants in Uzbekistan , wrote that in boilers the temperature of oil or gas flame often reaches 1500 deg C, and steel tubing is cooled to prevent it from getting torn up in precisely the homework manner the steel structures of the WTC are presumed to have been torn up. However, the temperature that boiler tubing is research, cooled down to, according to Stacy , is bird writing paper, about 300-400 deg C ( Minkin ). If boiler tubing is routinely kept at 300-400 deg C and remains perfectly safe at for smoking, this temperature, then the bird paper temperature needed for steel to lose structural strength must be higher. But even the “low” temperature of 300 deg C is extremely high for humans. The fact that firefighters were able to work in the doomed building indicates that the temperature there could not have been anywhere near as high.
Ergo, the temperature inside the doomed towers could not have been high enough to cause their steel structures to lose strength and break, and the official explanation for the collapse of the towers must be discarded. Having discarded the hypothesis that the “ blast furnace ” melted the steel supports causing floors to fall on each other in a domino effect, we are compelled to return to the notion of controlled demolition . We know, of research paper course, how controlled demolitions are performed: by placing exactly the right amount of explosives of exactly the right kind in key structural points and detonating them in a specific precise sequence with precise timing. Not by hitting a tower with a plane or anything else of that nature. As hard as it may be for phd thesis writing tools, patriotic Americans to swallow, there exists evidence that the plane impacts on the WTC towers may have only been decoys , while the actual destruction of the towers was caused by bombs located inside . Many have wondered about the for smoking witnesses who claimed to have heard multiple explosions within the buildings. Phd Thesis Writing! One such witness was the head of WTC security , John O’Neill , who stated shortly before he himself became a victim that he had helped dig out survivors on the 27th floor before the building collapsed. Since the aircraft crashed into research for smoking the 80th floor, what heavily damaged the 27th floor? Another of writing those mentioning bombs was Louie Cacchioli , a fifty-one-year-old fireman assigned to Engine 47 in Harlem. “We were the first ones in the second tower after the plane struck,” recalled Cacchioli . “I was taking firefighters up in the elevator to the twenty-fourth floor to get in position to research evacuate workers. Phd Thesis! On the last trip up a bomb went off. We think there were bombs set in the building.”
The fireman became trapped in an elevator but managed to escape with the use of research paper tools. Another was survivor Teresa Veliz , manager for good essays, a software development company, who was on the 47th floor of the north tower when it was struck. “I got off [the elevator], turned the research paper for smoking corner and opened the door to the ladies’ room. I said good morning to essay pointless sites a lady sitting at a mirror when the whole building shook. Research Paper For Smoking! I thought it was an earthquake. Then I heard those banging noises on the other side of the wall. It sounded like someone had cut the elevator cables. It just fell and fell and tools, fell.” Veliz reached ground level with a coworker when the south tower collapsed, knocking them down.
In near total darkness, she and the coworker followed someone with a flashlight. “The flashlight led us into Border’s bookstore, up an escalator and out to Church Street . Paper For Smoking! There were explosions going off everywhere. I was convinced that there were bombs planted all over the place and someone was sitting at a control panel pushing detonator buttons. Person! I was afraid to paper for smoking go down Church Street toward Broadway , but I had to do it. I ended up on Vessy Street . There was another explosion. And another . I didn’t know which way to run.” Steve Evans , a reporter for the BBC , was in the south tower at the time of the attacks. “I was at the base of the second tower, the second tower that was hit,” he recalled. “There was an explosion - I didn’t think it was an explosion - but the base of the building shook. I felt it shake. then when we were outside, the second explosion and then there was a series of explosions . We can only wonder at the kind of damage - the kind of third person human damage - which was caused by research for smoking, those explosions , those series of for compare and contrast essay explosions .”
Fox 5 News in NYC shortly after 10:00 A.M. on September 11 videotaped a large white cloud of smoke billowing near the base of the south tower . The commentator exclaimed, “There is an for smoking explosion at essay writer sites, the base of the building . Research For Smoking! white smoke from the bottom. something has happened at phd thesis tools, the base of the building. then, another explosion . Another building in the World Trade Center complex. ” The most compelling testimony came from Tom Elliott , who was already in his office at paper, Aon Corp . on good law school the 103rd floor of the WTC South tower before the planes struck. Elliott said he was at his computer answering e-mails when a bright light startled him shortly before 9:00 A.M. A rumble shook the building and paper for smoking, he could see flames accompanied by dark smoke that appeared to bird paper be crawling up the outside of the building. He also felt heat coming through the windows. Strangely, there were no alarms. “I don’t know what’s happening, but I think I need to be out of here,” Elliott recalled thinking to himself. Elliott and two others began walking down the building’s stairwell when they ran into a few others. The absence of research for smoking more people and essay writer sites, the lack of alarms made them feel they had prematurely panicked. He recalled that as his small group reached the paper 70th floor, they heard the announcement that the building was secure and there was no need to evacuate . “Do you want to believe them?” one woman said to writing essay Elliott . Research! “Let’s go!” He followed the woman down the good essays stairs.
After descending three more floors, Flight 175 crashed into the south tower . Paper! An article in the Christian Science Monitor described what happened next: “Although its spectacularly televised impact was above Elliott , at first he and those around him thought an explosion had come from below. An incredible sound - he calls it an ‘ exploding sound ’ - shook the building, and a tornado of hot air and smoke and intro and contrast essay, ceiling tiles and bits of drywall came flying up the research for smoking stairwell.” “In front of me, the phd thesis writing tools wall split from the bottom up,” Elliott said. Research Paper For Smoking! He said people in the stairwell panicked and tried to flee upward until some men pointed out law school that the only escape was downstairs. By about 9:40 A.M., Elliott managed to stumble out of the south tower and make his way to his roommate’s office in research for smoking, Midtown, where he broke down sobbing upon learning of the tower’s collapse. But the realization that the spectacular collapse of the WTC towers was caused by bombs installed inside the towers beforehand rather than by the plane impacts raises new questions . Intro Paragraph For Compare And Contrast Essay! Supposing for the moment that the presumed terrorists could have planted the bombs, the question becomes, what were the planes for then? Were they a diversion?
Jim Marrs quotes Van Romero , vice president for research at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and a former director of the Energenic Materials Research and paper, Testing Center , saying, “One of the things terrorist events are noted for is a diversionary attack and secondary device. Attackers detonate an initial, diversionary explosion that attracts emergency personnel to intro essay the scene, then detonate a second explosion” The problem with this hypothesis is research, its sheer magnitude. Surreptitiously planting a bomb in a building is one thing, hijacking 4 airliners and flying them into buildings is another. While religious fanatics eager to die in a terrorist act are not that hard to find, ones capable of piloting a large plane with extreme skill on their suicide mission are another matter. While one can imagine some group planning and executing a mission of the millennium, especially given the valiant goal of striking down the world’s most hated symbol of global imperial capitalism (as well as the Pentagon from which the bomb-dropping orders on good the rest of the planet issue), planning an executing such a mind-boggling operation merely as a diversion is unfathomable. I reason that the possibility of this plane hijacking and crashing operation being a mere diversion or distraction from the main action on the part of a terrorist group can be completely ruled out. However unfathomable this idea may be to American patriots, there exists only research paper one entity on Earth with enough power and resources that could afford planning and executing the plane hijacking and crashing operation as a mere diversion.
It is the U.S. government. Paragraph Essay! To discuss this possibility meaningfully, we must first set aside all sentimental notions the reader may have about the research paper for smoking U.S. government and its supposed pledge to protect the American people. The U.S. government is the worst gang of criminals to ever set foot on the surface of this planet, and it is good law school essays, fundamentally hostile to all life on Earth. It is fundamentally anti-people, and the people who happen to live inside America itself (“in the belly of the beast” as we say) are no different. Research! As just one case of writing essay person U.S. government planning terrorist attacks against its own people, consider the planned Operation Northwoods * in the 1960s. * This document can be downloaded from http://www.archives.gov . Click on “Research Room,” then on “Archival Research Catalog (ARC),” then on the ARC SEARCH button , then type in “Northwoods” in the search box, then click on “ Digital Copy Available ” on entry #1. The key information will be found on images 136 through 142. Jim Marrs writes: Incredibly, forty-year-old government documents thought to research have been destroyed long ago recently were made public. They show the U.S. military in the early 1960s proposed making terrorist attacks in the United States and blaming them on Fidel Castro . Following the homework ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba , President Kennedy , angered by research, the inept actions of the CIA , had shifted the good law school essays responsibility for Cuba from that agency to the Department of Defense . Here, military strategists considered plans to create terrorist actions that would alarm the American population and research, stampede them into supporting a military attack on Cuba . They also planned to, “ develop a Communist Cuba terror campaign in essay, the Miami area , in other Florida cities and research paper for smoking, even in Washington” or to “sink a boatload of Cubans en route to writer pointless Florida (real or simulated) foster attempts on the lives of paper for smoking Cuban refugees in writing, the United States.” Other highlights of research paper for smoking Operation Northwoods included the tactics of exploding bombs in carefully chosen locations along with the release of “ prepared documents ” pointing to Cuban complicity, the use of fake Russian aircraft to ceremony harass civilian airliners and “Hijacking attempts against civil air and surface craft,” even to simulating the paper for smoking shooting down of a civilian airliner.
Could the 9/11 events have indeed been nothing less than U.S. government’s attack on intro paragraph for compare and contrast its own facilities , executed under controlled conditions to minimize actual damage to its real interests and designed to “ sell ” to the American people the Orwellian totalitarian regime this country is rapidly moving towards, coupled with sharply increased worldwide aggression, in the name of the War on Terrorism , or the War on Freedom as Jim Marrs has aptly called it? While at first this scenario appears highly unlikely given the choice of targets, the center of paper for smoking world capitalism and for compare essay, the command center of the U.S. military being the research U.S. imperialism’s key assets, a more careful examination of the events and the destruction reveals that there is more than meets the eye. On September 15, 2001, only days after 9/11 I attended a meeting of the Los Angeles club of Communist Party USA , of which I am a member, which while originally scheduled before 9/11, in the aftermath of those events became an bird impromptu meeting to discuss how our Party members should respond to those events. At that meeting one comrade brought to light a noteworthy fact: as the attack took place early in the morning, none of the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) bosses (the ones rightfully hated by the world for their crimes and research, the ones who should have been killed had the 9/11 attack been a just revolt by the people of the Earth) were in at the time , the high bosses as usual being rather relaxed about getting to essay work on time, while the people who were in the WTC early in the morning, i.e., the people who were killed, were mostly innocent proletarian workers exploited by the abovementioned bosses, such as custodians and restaurant workers. A wide number of sources reporting on the apparent foreknowledge of the 9/11 events by certain groups show time and again how those who are truly in power were somehow kept out of harm’s way on that day. Consider, for example, the paper for smoking purported “worldwide Jewish conspiracy”.
Jim Marrs writes: [. And Contrast! ] a Beirut television station reported that 4,000 Israeli employees of the paper for smoking WTC were absent the day of the attack, suggesting foreknowledge of the attacks. [. ] Finally, on September 22, the New York Times stated that amazingly only one Israeli was killed when the WTC towers collapsed . “There were, in essay writer sites, fact, only research paper three Israelis who had been confirmed as dead: two on phd thesis tools the planes and another who had been visiting the towers on business and who was identified and for smoking, buried,” reported the Times. And while its facility has been destroyed, the WTO charges right on with its global imperialist agenda. Perhaps one of the goals of the attack was to make the world sympathize with the WTO as a victim instead of loudly protesting and denouncing it as the world had been doing right up to 9/11. Consider, for example, the “ battle in Seattle ” in 1999 (“The real battle for bird paper, Seattle”). The WTO was really in a hot seat there. Paper For Smoking! But when the hated towers finally came down, everyone suddenly changed course and phd thesis, all upcoming anti-WTO protests were promptly canceled.
And what about the Pentagon? How could the U.S. government possibly strike against the heart of for smoking its own military? Well, it has been widely rumored on the Internet that the damage to good the Pentagon from the impact of American flight 77 was superficial, just enough to provoke anger and paper for smoking, induce the American people to blindly support war, but no real loss. (While I have no room for that discussion in this essay, it is also debated whether it really was American flight 77 that hit the for compare and contrast Pentagon , or whether it was something more sinister, such as an experimental drone plane tested by the U.S. military against its own offices.) In conclusion, we can see that one way or the other, by research paper, hook or by crook, the events of phd thesis 9/11 are in the end the handiwork of the research for smoking American capitalist shadow government , and we want to put an end to such costly shows, the cancerous tumor on the body of essay pointless sites Earth known as the American imperialist superpower must be excised. Marrs, Jim. War on Freedom . Boyd, TX: Ares Publishing, 2003. Minkin, Stacy. Paper! “Re: Bare bones of the WTC incident” E-mail to the author. 20 Nov 2001.
Sitchin, Zecharia. The 12th Planet . New York: Avon Books, 1976.