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biography of people April 23, 1564-April 23, 1616. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes. Nationality: British; English. Birth Date: April 23, 1564. Compare Life And Married Life. Death Date: April 23, 1616. About This Essay Jump to Additional DLB Essay(s) on This Author: Henry VI, part 1, London, unknown theater (perhaps by research paper race, a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1589-1592.
Henry VI, part 2, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Henry VI, part 3, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Richard III, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1591-1592. The Comedy of Errors, London, unknown theater (probably by Lord Strange's Men), circa 1592-1594; London, Gray's Inn, 28 December 1594. Titus Andronicus, London, Rose or Newington Butts theater, 24 January 1594. The Taming of the Shrew, London, Newington Butts theater, 11 June 1594. Tutankhamun Essay. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, London, Newington Butts theater or the Theatre, 1594. Love's Labor's Lost, perhaps at paper analyzes influences the country house of a great lord, such as the Earl of Southampton, circa 1594-1595; London, at Court, Christmas 1597.
Sir Thomas More, probably by Anthony Munday, revised by Thomas Dekker, Henry Chettle, Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Heywood, evidently never produced, circa 1594-1595. King John, London, the of chinese essays, Theatre, circa 1594-1596. Richard II, London, the Theatre, circa 1595. Romeo and Juliet, London, the research paper analyzes race, Theatre, circa 1595-1596. School Vs Education Essay. A Midsummer Night's Dream, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. The Merchant of Venice, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 1, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Autobiographical Paper Influences Race. Henry IV, part 2, London, the Theatre, circa 1597.
The Merry Wives of school vs education, Windsor, Windsor, Windsor Castle, 23 April 1597. Much Ado About Nothing, London, the Theatre, circa 1598-1599. Influences. Henry V, London, Globe theater(?), between March and bluest eye beauty, September 1599(?). Julius Caesar, London, Globe theater, 21 September 1599. As You Like It, London, Globe theater, circa 1599-1600. Hamlet, London, Globe theater, circa 1600-1601. Twelfth Night, London, at Court(?), no earlier than 6 January 1601(?); London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?); London, Middle Temple, 2 February 1602. Troilus and Cressida, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?). Autobiographical. All's Well That Ends Well, London, Globe theater, circa 1602-1603.
Measure for Measure, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); London, at selling essay Court, 26 December 1604. Othello, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); Westminster, Whitehall, 1 November 1604. King Lear, London, Globe theater(?), by late 1605 or early 1606; London, at influences Court, 26 December 1606. Timon of Athens (possibly unperformed during Shakespeare's lifetime); possibly London, Globe theater, circa 1605-1608. Macbeth, London, Globe theater(?), 1606(?); London, at Court, probably 7 August 1606. Antony and Cleopatra, London, Globe theater, circa 1606-1607. Pericles, possibly by single life essay, Shakespeare and George Wilkins, London, at Court, between January 1606 and November 1608; London, Globe theater, probably circa 1607-1608. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences. Coriolanus, London, Globe theater, circa 1607-1608. Cymbeline, London, Blackfriars theater or Globe theater, 1609. The Winter's Tale, London, Globe theater, 15 May 1611. The Tempest, London, at Court, 1 November 1611.
Cardenio, probably by vs education, Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1612-1613. Henry VIII, possibly by Shakespeare and John Fletcher, London, Globe theater, 29 June 1613. The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, probably Blackfriars theater (possibly Globe theater), 1613. Venus and Adonis (London: Printed by autobiographical research paper analyzes, Richard Field, sold by J. Harrison I, 1593). The First Part of the Contention betwixt the debating on cheating, two famous Houses of research paper, Yorke and Lancaster [abridged and corrupt text of school essay, Henry VI, part 2] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Millington, 1594). Lucrece (London: Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1594); republished as The Rape of Lucrece. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences. Newly Revised (London: Printed by T. Snodham for R. Jackson, 1616). The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus (London: Printed by John Danter, sold by Edward White Thomas Middleton, 1594). A Pleasant Conceited Historie, Called The Taming of a Shrew [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Peter Short, sold by Cuthbert Burbie, 1594).
The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of tutankhamun essay, Yorke, and the death of good King Henrie the research analyzes influences, Sixt [abridged and essay, corrupt text of Henry VI, part 3] (London: Printed by Peter Short for research paper, Thomas Millington, 1595). The Tragedy of compare life and married life, King Richard the research analyzes influences race, Third (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1597). The Tragedie of King Richard the second (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise, 1597). An Excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and school, Juliet [corrupt text] (London: Printed by John Danter [ E. Allde?], 1597); The Most Excellent and paper analyzes influences, lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and essay, Juliet. Newly Corrected, Augmented, and Amended (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Burby, 1599). Analyzes Influences. A Pleasant Conceited Comedie Called, Loues Labors Lost (London: Printed by William White for Cuthbert Burby, 1598). The History of Henrie the Fourth [part 1] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1598). Selling Essay. A midsommer nights dreame (London: Printed by R. Bradock for Thomas Fisher, 1600). The most excellent Historie of the paper analyzes influences, Merchant of Venice (London: Printed by James Roberts for tutankhamun essay, Thomas Heyes, 1600). The Second part of Henrie the fourth, continuing to his death, and coronation of Henrie the fift (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600). Much adoe about Nothing (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600).
The Cronicle History of Henry the fift [corrupt text] (London: Printed by paper race, Thomas Creede for Thomas Mullington John Busby, 1600). The Phoenix and Turtle, appended to Loves Martyr: or, Rosalins Complaint, by Robert Chester (London: Printed by Richard Field for E. Blount, 1601). A Most pleasaunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of Syr John Falstaffe, and the merrie Wives of eye beauty, Windsor [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Arthur Johnson, 1602). Influences Race. The Tragicall Historie of vs education essay, Hamlet Prince of Denmark [abridged and research analyzes influences, corrupt text] (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Nicholas Ling John Trundell, 1603); The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke. Newly Imprinted and Enlarged to Almost as Much Againe as It Was, According to the True and tutankhamun, Perfect Coppie (London: Printed by autobiographical paper race, James Roberts for vs education, Nicholas Ling, 1604). M. William Shak-speare: His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three daughters (London: Printed by N. Okes for paper, Nathaniel Butter, 1608). Bluest Thesis. The Historie of Troylus and Cresseida (London: Printed by paper, G. Eld for R. Bonian H. Walley, 1609).
Shake-speares Sonnets (London: Printed by G. Bluest Eye Beauty Thesis. Eld for Thomas Thorpe, sold by W. Aspley, 1609). The Late, and Much Admired Play, Called Pericles, Prince of Tyre (London: Printed by W. White for Henry Gosson, 1609). The Tragady of Othello, The Moore of Venice (London: Printed by autobiographical paper analyzes, Nicholas Okes for Thomas Walkley, 1622). Mr. Tutankhamun. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, Tragedies. Published according to the True Originall Copies (London: Printed by Isaac Jaggard Edward Blount, 1623)--comprises The Tempest; The Two Gentlemen of Verona; The Merry Wives of Windsor; Measure for Measure; The Comedy of Errors; Much Ado About Nothing; Love's Labor's Lost; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of Venice; As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; All's Well That Ends Well; Twelfth Night; The Winter's Tale; King John; Richard II; Henry IV, parts 1 and 2; Henry V; Henry VI, parts 1-3; Richard III; Henry VIII; Troilus and Cressida; Coriolanus; Titus Andronicus; Romeo and research, Juliet; Timon of eye beauty, Athens; Julius Caesar; Macbeth; Hamlet; King Lear; Othello; Antony and Cleopatra; Cymbeline; The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and John Fletcher (London: Printed by Thomas Cotes for John Waterson, 1634). A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, 29 volumes to date, volumes 1-15, 18, edited by Horace Howard Furness; volumes 16-17, 19-20, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. (Philadelphia London: Lippincott, 1871-1928); volumes 1-25, general editor Joseph Quincey Adams; volumes 26-27, general editor Hyder Edward Rollins (Philadelphia London: Lippincott for the Modern Language Association of America, 1936-1955); volumes 28- , general editors Robert K. Turner, Jr., and autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race, Richard Knowles (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1977- ). Essay. The Works of Shakespeare, The New Cambridge Shakespeare, edited by J. Dover Wilson, Arthur Quiller-Couch, and autobiographical research paper, others, 39 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921-1967). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by George Lyman Kittredge (Boston: Ginn, 1936); revised by Irving Ribner (Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1971). Shakespeare Quarto Facsimiles, edited by W. W. Vs Education. Greg and Charlton Hinman, 14 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939-1966). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by Peter Alexander (London Glasgow: Collins, 1951; New York: Random House, 1952).
The Arden Shakespeare, general editors Harold F. Brooks and Harold Jenkins, 38 volumes to autobiographical research paper influences date (London: Methuen, 1951- ). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by bluest, Hardin Craig (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1961); revised by Craig and David Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973); revised again by Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1980). The New Penguin Shakespeare, general editor T. J. B. Spencer, 33 volumes to date (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967- ). The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of paper, Shakespeare, edited by Charlton Hinman (New York: Norton, 1968). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, The Complete Pelican Shakespeare, general editor Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, general editor Sylvan Barnet (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972). The Riverside Shakespeare, general editor G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974).
Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited, with analytic commentary, by Stephen Booth (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1977). Bluest Eye Beauty Thesis. Shakespeare's Plays in Quarto: A Facsimile Edition of autobiographical, Copies Primarily from the Henry E. Huntington Library, edited by Michael J. B. Single. Allen and Kenneth Muir (Berkeley: University of autobiographical paper influences, California Press, 1982). The Complete Works, general editors Stanley Wells and bluest eye beauty, Gary Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). The Complete Works: Original-Spelling Edition, general editors Wells and Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). Shakespeare's words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start that we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a cliché such as one fell swoop or not a mouse stirring. Never mind that many of the expressions we hear most often--to the manner born, or (from the same speech in research paper analyzes influences Hamlet ) more honored in the breach than the observance--are misapplied at least as frequently as they are employed with any awareness of their original context and implication. The fact remains that Shakespeare's vocabulary and Shakespeare's cadences are even more pervasive in school vs education essay our ordinary discourse today than the idiom of the autobiographical research paper influences race, King James Bible, which Bartlett lists as only the second most plentiful source of Familiar Quotations . Of Chinese. And much the same could be said of those mirrors of our nature, Shakespeare's characters. From small delights like Juliet's Nurse, or Bottom the Weaver, or the Gravedigger, to such incomparable creations as Falstaff, King Lear, and Lady Macbeth, Shakespeare has enlarged our world by imitating it. It should not surprise us, therefore, that personalities as vivid as these have gone on, as it were, to lives of their own outside the dramatic settings in which they first thought and spoke and moved.
In opera alone there are enough different renderings of characters and autobiographical influences, scenes from Shakespeare's plays to assure that the devotee of Charles-François Gounod or Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner or Benjamin Britten, could attend a different performance every evening for six months and vs education, never see the same work twice. Paper Analyzes Race. Which is not to suggest, of aspects essays, course, that the composers of research, other musical forms have been remiss: Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Claude Debussy, Jean Sibelius, Sergey Prokofiev, and Aaron Copland are but a few of the on cheating, major figures who have given us songs, tone poems, ballets, symphonic scores, or other compositions based on Shakespeare. Cole Porter might well have been addressing his fellow composers when he punctuated Kiss Me Kate with the advice to Brush Up Your Shakespeare. Certainly the painters have never needed such reminders. Artists of the stature of George Romney, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, Eugene Delacroix, John Constable, J. M. W. Turner, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti have drawn inspiration from Shakespeare's dramatis personae; and, thanks to such impresarios as the eighteenth-century dealer John Boydell, the rendering of scenes from Shakespeare has long been a significant subgenre of autobiographical research analyzes race, pictorial art. Illustrators of Shakespeare editions have often been notable figures in their own right: George Cruikshank, Arthur Rackham, Rockwell Kent, and Salvador Dali. Meanwhile, the decorative arts have had their Wedgwood platters with pictures from the plays, their Shakespeare portraits carved on scrimshaw, their Anne Hathaway's Cottage tea cozies, their mulberry-wood jewelry boxes, and their Superbard T-shirts. Every nation that has a theatrical tradition is indebted to Shakespeare, and in language after language Shakespeare remains the greatest living playwright. Not merely in terms of the hundreds of selling essay, productions of Shakespeare's own plays to be blazoned on the marquees in any given year, either: no, one must also bear in mind the autobiographical research paper, dozens of film and compare single, television versions of the plays, and the countless adaptations, parodies, and spinoffs that accent the repertory--from musicals such as The Boys from Syracuse (based on The Comedy of Errors ) and research influences race, West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein's New York ghetto version of the aspects of chinese, gang wars in Romeo and Juliet ), to political lampoons like Macbird (contra LBJ) and Dick Deterred (the doubly punning anti-Nixon polemic), not to mention more reflective dramatic treatments such as Edward Bond's Bingo (a biographical drama about Shakespeare the man) and Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (an absurdist re-enactment of Hamlet from the paper, perspective of two innocents as bewildered by the court of Renaissance Elsinore as their twentieth-century counterparts would be in a play such as Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot ). When we broaden our survey to include the aspects of chinese, hundreds of research paper analyzes race, novels, short stories, poems, critical appreciations, and other works of serious literature that derive in one way or another from Shakespeare, we partake of an even grander view of the playwright's literary and cultural primacy. Here in America, for example, we can recall Ralph Waldo Emerson's awestruck response to the Stratford seer, his exclamation that Shakespeare was inconcievably wise, all other great writers only tutankhamun essay conceivably. On the other side of the coin, we can indulge in the speculation that Shakespeare may have constituted an aspect of the behemoth that obsessed Herman Melville's imagination, thus accounting for some of the echoes of Shakespearean tragedy in analyzes influences race the form and rhetoric of Moby-Dick . In a lighter vein, we can chuckle at the frontier Bardolatry so hilariously exploited by debating on cheating, the Duke and the King in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn . Or, moving to our own century, we can contemplate William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury as an autobiographical research paper extended allusion to Macbeth's tomorrow and tomorrow and school vs education, tomorrow soliloquy.
Should we be disposed to look elsewhere, we can puzzle over the riddle of Shakespeare in the meditations of the Argentine novelist and analyzes race, essayist Jorge Luis Borges. Eye Beauty Thesis. Or smile (with perhaps but an paper race incomplete suspension of disbelief) as the Nobel Prize-winning African poet and dramatist Wole Soyinka quips that Sheikh Zpeir must have had some Arabic blood in him, so faithfully did he capture the local color of Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra . Implicit in eye beauty thesis all of these manifestations of Shakespeare worship is autobiographical analyzes influences a perception best summed up, perhaps, in James Joyce's rendering of the charismatic name: Shapesphere. For in showing the very age and body of the time his form and pressure (as Hamlet would put it), Shakespeare proved himself to be both the soul of the age his works reflected and adorned and the consummate symbol of the artist whose poetic visions transcend their local habitation and become, in some mysterious way, contemporaneous with all time (to return once more to Jonson's eulogy). If Jan Kott, a twentieth-century existentialist from eastern Europe, can marvel that Shakespeare is our contemporary, then, his testimony is but one more instance of the tendency of every age to claim Shakespeare as its own. Whatever else we say about essay, Shakespeare, in other words, we are impelled to acknowledge the incontrovertible fact that, preeminent above all others, he has long stood and will no doubt long remain atop a pedestal (to recall a recent New Yorker cartoon) as a very very very very very very important writer. Research Analyzes. So important, indeed, that some of his most zealous admirers have paid him the backhand compliment of doubting that works of such surpassing genius could have been written by the same William Shakespeare who lies buried and memorialized in Stratford-upon-Avon. Plays such as the English histories would suggest in the writer an easy familiarity with the ways of kings, queens, and courtiers; hence their author must have been a member of the nobility, someone like Edward de Vere, the seventeenth Earl of Oxford. Plays such as Julius Caesar , with their impressive display of life, classical learning, would indicate an author with more than the small Latin and less Greek that Ben Jonson attributes to Shakespeare; hence the need to seek for their true begetter in the form of a university-trained scholar such as Francis Bacon. Or so would urge those skeptics (whose numbers have included such redoubtable personages as Henry James and Sigmund Freud) who find themselves in sympathy with the anti-Stratfordians.
Their ranks have never been particularly numerous or disciplined, since they have often quarreled among themselves about which of the various claimants--the Earl of Derby, Christopher Marlowe, even Queen Elizabeth herself--should be upheld as the autobiographical paper race, true Shakespeare. And because many of their arguments are methodologically unsophisticated, they have never attracted adherents from scholars with academic credentials in essay the study of English Renaissance history and dramatic literature. But, whatever their limitations, the anti-Stratfordians have at least helped keep us mindful of how frustratingly little we can say for certain about the life of the analyzes influences race, man whose works have so enriched the lives of succeeding generations. One thing we do know is that if Shakespeare was a man for all time, he was also very much a man of his own age. Christened at Holy Trinity Church in debating essay on cheating Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564, he grew up as the eldest of five children reared by John Shakespeare, a tradesman who played an increasingly active role in research influences the town's civic affairs as his business prospered, and thesis, Mary Arden Shakespeare, the daughter of a gentleman farmer from nearby Wilmcote. Whether Shakespeare was born on 23 April, as tradition holds, is not known; but a birth date only a few days prior to the recorded baptism seems eminently probable, particularly in view of the fear his parents must have had that William, like two sisters who had preceded him and one who followed, might die in infancy. By the time young William was old enough to begin attending school, he had a younger brother (Gilbert, born in 1566) and a baby sister (Joan, born in 1569). As he attained his youth, he found himself with two more brothers to help look after (Richard, born in 1574, and Edmund, born in autobiographical research paper influences race 1580), the younger of whom eventually followed his by-then-prominent eldest brother to London and the theater, where he had a brief career as an actor before his untimely death at twenty-seven. School Vs Education Essay. The house where Shakespeare spent his childhood stood adjacent to he wool shop in which his father plied a successful trade as a glover and dealer in leather goods and other commodities. Autobiographical Paper Influences. Before moving to Stratford sometime prior to essay on cheating 1552 (when the records show that he was fined for failing to influences race remove a dunghill from outside his house to the location where refuse was normally to be deposited), John Shakespeare had been a farmer in the neighboring village of Snitterfield. Whether he was able to essay read and write is uncertain.
He executed official documents, not with his name, but with a cross signifying his glover's compasses. Some scholars interpret this as a signature that might have been considered more authentic than a full autograph; others have taken it to autobiographical paper analyzes be an indication of illiteracy. Compare Single And Married Life Essay. But even if John Shakespeare was not one of the learned, he was certainly a man of what a later age would call upward mobility. By marrying Mary Arden, the daughter of his father's landlord, he acquired the benefits of a better social standing and a lucrative inheritance, much of which he invested in property (he bought several houses). And by involving himself in public service, he rose by sure degrees to the highest municipal positions Stratford had to offer: chamberlain (1561), alderman (1565), and bailiff (or mayor) and justice of the peace (1568). A few years after his elevation to autobiographical paper analyzes the office of bailiff, probably around 1576, John Shakespeare approached the College of Heralds for armorial bearings and the right to school call himself a gentleman. Before his application was acted upon, however, his fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse, and it was not until 1596, when his eldest son had attained some status and renewed the petition, that a Shakespeare coat of autobiographical, arms was finally granted. This must have been a comfort to John Shakespeare in his declining years (he died in 1601), because by then he had borrowed money, disposed of property out of necessity, ceased to attend meetings of the bluest eye beauty, town council, become involved in litigation and been assessed fines, and even stopped attending church services, for fear, it was said, of process for debt. Just what happened to alter John Shakespeare's financial and research paper influences, social position after the mid 1570s is not clear.
Some have seen his nonattendance at church as a sign that he had become a recusant, unwilling to conform to aspects of chinese sociolinguistics essays the practices of the newly established Church of England (his wife's family had remained loyal to Roman Catholicism despite the fact that the autobiographical paper analyzes race, old faith was under vigorous attack in Warwickshire after 1577), but the scant surviving evidence is anything but definitive. The records we do have suggest that during young William's formative years he enjoyed the advantages that would have accrued to him as the son of one of the most influential citizens of a bustling market town in the fertile Midlands. Compare Single Life Essay. When he was taken to services at paper Holy Trinity Church, he would have sat with his family in the front pew, in accordance with his father's civic rank. There he would have heard and felt the words and life essay, rhythms of the Bible, the sonorous phrases of the 1559 Book of Common Prayer, the exhortations of the Homilies. In all likelihood, after spending a year or two at a petty school to learn the rudiments of reading and writing, he would have proceeded, at the age of seven, to autobiographical research paper grammar school. Given his father's social position, young William would have been eligible to attend the King's New School, located above the Guild Hall and adjacent to the Guild Chapel (institutions that would both have been quite familiar to a man with the elder Shakespeare's municipal duties), no more than a five-minute walk from the Shakespeare house on Henley Street. Though no records survive to tell us who attended the and married, Stratford grammar school during this period, we do know that it had well-qualified and comparatively well-paid masters; and, through the painstaking research of such scholars as T. Research Analyzes Influences. W. Baldwin, we now recognize that a curriculum such as the one offered at the King's New School would have equipped its pupils with what by modern standards would be a rather formidable classical education. During his many long school days there, young Shakespeare would have become thoroughly grounded in Latin, acquired some background in Greek, and developed enough linguistic facility to pick up whatever he may have wanted later from eye beauty such modern languages as Italian and French. Along the way he would have become familiar with such authors as Aesop, Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Seneca. He would have studied logic and rhetoric as well as grammar, and he would have been taught the autobiographical research influences, principles of composition and oratory from the writings of such masters as Quintilian and Erasmus. In all probability, he would even have received some training in speech and drama through the performance of debating on cheating, plays by Plautus and Terence.
If Shakespeare's references to schooling and schoolmasters in the plays are a reliable index of how he viewed his own years as a student, we must conclude that the experience was more tedious than pleasurable. But it is difficult to imagine a more suitable mode of instruction for the formation of a Renaissance poet's intellectual and artistic sensibility. Meanwhile, of course, young Shakespeare would have learned a great deal from merely being alert to research analyzes influences all that went on around him. Essay. He would have paid attention to the plant and paper influences race, animal life in the local woods that he would later immortalize, in selling essay As You Like It , as the Forest of Arden. He may have hunted from time to time; one legend, almost certainly apocryphal, has it that he eventually left Stratford because he had been caught poaching deer from the estate of a powerful squire, Sir Thomas Lucy, four miles up-stream.
He probably learned to research analyzes influences swim as a youth, skinny-dipping in the river Avon. He may have participated in some of the athletic pursuits that were the basis of competition in the Elizabethan equivalent of the eye beauty thesis, Olympics, the nearby Cotswold Games. He would undoubtedly have been adept at indoor recreations such as hazard (a popular dice game), or chess, or any of influences, a number of card games. As he grew older, he would have become accustomed to such vocations as farming, sheep-herding, tailoring, and shopkeeping. He would have acquired skills such as fishing, gardening, and cooking. And he would have gathered information about the various professions: law, medicine, religion, and teaching. Judging from the school vs education, astonishing range of daily life and research race, human endeavor reflected in his poems and plays, we can only infer that Shakespeare was both a voracious reader and a keen observer, the sort of polymath Henry James might have been describing when he referred to of chinese sociolinguistics a character in one of his novels as a man on whom nothing was lost. Once his school years ended, Shakespeare married, at eighteen, a woman who was eight years his senior. We know that Anne Hathaway was pregnant when the autobiographical paper analyzes race, marriage license was issued by the Bishop of Worcester on essay, 27 November 1582, because a daughter, Susanna, was baptized in Holy Trinity six months later on 26 May 1583.
We have good reason to believe that the marriage was hastily arranged: there was only one reading of the banns (a church announcement preceding a wedding that allowed time for any legal impediments against it to be brought forward before the autobiographical analyzes influences, ceremony took place), an indication of unusual haste. But whether the marriage was in any way forced is essay impossible to autobiographical research influences determine. Some biographers (most notably Anthony Burgess) have made much of an apparent clerical error whereby the bride's name was entered as Anne Whateley of Temple Grafton in the Worcester court records; these writers speculate that Shakespeare was originally planning to marry another Anne until Anne Hathaway of compare essay, Shottery (a village a mile or so from Shakespeare's home in Stratford) produced her embarrassing evidence of a prior claim. To most scholars, including our foremost authority on Shakespeare's life, S. Autobiographical Research. Schoenbaum, this explanation of the Anne Whateley court entry seems farfetched. Such hypotheses are inevitable, however, in the absence of fuller information about the married life of William and Anne Hathaway Shakespeare. What we do have to on cheating go on is certainly compatible with the suspicion that William and Anne were somewhat less than ardent lovers. They had only autobiographical paper influences race two more children--the twins, Hamnet and Judith, baptized on 2 February 1585--and they lived more than a hundred miles apart, so far as we can tell, for the better part of the tutankhamun essay, twenty-year period during which Shakespeare was employed in paper analyzes influences the London theater. If we can give any credence to of chinese sociolinguistics an amusing anecdote recorded in the 1602-1603 diary of influences, a law student named John Manningham, there was at least one occasion during those years when Shakespeare, overhearing the compare single life and married life, actor Richard Burbage make an assignation, went before, was entertained, and at his game before Burbage came; then, message being brought that Richard the Third was at autobiographical paper influences race the door, Shakespeare caused return to be made that William the Conqueror was before Richard the Third.
If we read the sonnets as in any way autobiographical, moreover, we are shown a poet with at least one other significant liaison: a Dark Lady to life and married life essay whom Will's lust impels him despite the self-disgust the affair arouses in him (and despite her infidelity with the research paper influences, fair Young Man to whom many of the poems are addressed and for whom the poet reserves his deepest feelings). But even if there is reason to speculate that Shakespeare may not have always been faithful to vs education essay the marriage bed, there is autobiographical research paper analyzes race much to suggest that he remained attached to Anne as a husband. In 1597 he purchased one of the most imposing houses in Stratford--New Place, across the street from the Guild Chapel--presumably settling his wife and children there as soon as the title to the property was clear. He himself retired to that Stratford home, so far as we can determine, sometime between 1611 and 1613. And of course he remembered Anne in his will, bequeathing her the notorious second-best bed--which most modern biographers regard as a generous afterthought (since a third of his estate would have gone to the wife by law even if her name never occurred in the document) rather than the slight that earlier interpreters had read into the phrasing.
Naturally we would like to know more about what Shakespeare was like as a husband and family man. But most of life essay, us would give just as much to paper analyzes know what took place in his life between 1585 (when the parish register shows him to have become the father of twins) and 1592 (when we find the earliest surviving reference to school vs education essay him as a rising star in the London theater). What did he do during these so-called dark years? Did he study law, as some have suspected? Did he travel on the Continent? Did he become an apprentice to a butcher, as one late-seventeenth-century account had it? Or--most plausibly, in the view of many modern biographers--did he teach school for a while?
All we can say for autobiographical analyzes influences, certain is that by the time his children were making their own way to school in rural Stratford, William Shakespeare had become an compare and married life actor and writer in what was already the largest city in Europe. Shakespeare probably traveled the hundred miles to London by way of the spires of Oxford, as do most visitors returning from Stratford to autobiographical paper influences race London today. But why he went, or when, history does not tell us. It has been plausibly suggested that he joined an acting troupe (the Queen's Men) that was one player short when it toured Stratford in 1587. If so, he may have migrated by way of one or two intermediary companies to a position with the bluest eye beauty thesis, troupe that became the Lord Chamberlain's Men in research analyzes 1594.
The only thing we can assert with any assurance is of chinese essays that by 1592 Shakespeare had established himself as an actor and had written at least three plays. One of these--the third part of Henry VI --was alluded to in that year in a posthumously published testament by a once-prominent poet and playwright named Robert Greene, one of the University Wits who had dominated the London theater in the late 1580s. Research Paper. Dissipated and on his deathbed, Greene warned his fellow playwrights to beware of an upstart crow who, not content with being a mere player, was aspiring to a share of the livelihood that had previously been the exclusive province of professional writers such as himself. Whether Greene's Groatsworth of bluest thesis, Wit accuses Shakespeare of plagiarism when it describes him as beautified with our feathers is paper analyzes race not clear; some scholars have interpreted the phrase as a complaint that Shakespeare has borrowed freely from the scripts of selling essay, others (or has merely revised existing plays, a practice quite common in research paper analyzes race the Elizabethan theater). But there can be no doubt that Greene's anxieties signal the end of one era and the beginning of another: a golden age, spanning two full decades, during which the dominant force on the London stage would be, not Greene or Kyd or Marlowe or even (in the later years of tutankhamun essay, that period) Jonson, but Shakespeare. If we look at what Shakespeare had written by the early 1590s, we see that he had already become thoroughly familiar with the daily round of one of the great capitals of research analyzes race, Europe.
Shakespeare knew St. Paul's Cathedral, famous not only as a house of worship but also as the marketplace where books were bought and sold. He knew the Inns of Court, where aspiring young lawyers studied for the bar. He knew the river Thames, spanned by the ever-busy, ever-fascinating London Bridge. He knew the Tower, where so many of the characters he would depict in his history plays had met their deaths, and where in his own lifetime such prominent noblemen as the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh would be imprisoned prior to their executions. He knew Westminster, where Parliament met when summoned by the Queen, and where the Queen herself held court at Whitehall Palace. He knew the harbor, where English ships, having won control of the seas by defeating the invincible Spanish Armada in 1588, had begun in earnest to explore the selling essay, New World. In Shakespeare's day London was a vigorous city of somewhere between 150,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. If in its more majestic aspects it was dominated by the court of Queen Elizabeth, in its everyday affairs it was accented by the hustle and bustle of research analyzes race, getting and spending. Its Royal Exchange was one of the forerunners of today's stock exchanges.
Its many market-places offered a variety of on cheating, goods for a variety of tastes. Its crowded streets presented a colorful pageant of Elizabethan modes of transport and dress, ranging from autobiographical research analyzes race countrywomen in homespun to elegant ladies in apparel as decorative as their husbands' wealth--and the debating essay on cheating, Queen's edicts on clothing--would allow. Its inns and taverns afforded a rich diversity of vivid personalities--eating, tippling, chatting, and autobiographical paper analyzes race, enjoying games and pleasures of all kinds. Of Chinese Essays. It was, in short, an immensely stimulating social and cultural environment, and we can be sure that Shakespeare took full advantage of the opportunity it gave him to observe humanity in all its facets. Like Prince Hal, he must have learned to drink with any tinker in his own language, and autobiographical paper analyzes influences, it was this as much as anything he was taught at school (or might have acquired by attendance at university) that equipped him to create such vibrant characters as Mistress Quickly, proud Hotspur, and the imperturbable Bottom. Not that all was always well. Like any major city, London also had its problems. Essays. Preachers and moralists were constantly denouncing the excessive use of cosmetics. Thus, when Hamlet speaks out against paper race, your paintings, telling Ophelia that God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another, he would have been sounding a note familiar to everyone in Shakespeare's audience.
So also with the furred gowns so roundly cursed by Lear: courtiers and their ladies were accustomed to lavishing as much pride on tutankhamun, a single article of bejeweled finery as a modern man or woman might pay for autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, a very expensive automobile. But luxury was only one of the evils of the age. London's Puritan authorities, regarding the theaters as dens of iniquity, closed them down on any available pretext, particularly when the plague was rampant. Meanwhile, even without the plague or the theaters to concern them (and one gathers that some of the authorities were anything but sure about which was the greater peril), the city fathers had to contend with gambling, drunkenness, prostitution, and other vices, especially in debating essay on cheating the Bankside district south of the Thames and in the other liberties outside the city walls to the west, east, and north (such as Shoreditch, where James Burbage had erected the autobiographical paper influences, first permanent commercial play-house, the Theatre, when Shakespeare was only twelve, and where many of vs education essay, Shakespeare's plays prior to 1599 were first performed). Here most blatantly, but elsewhere as well, pickpockets, vagabonds, and other members of the fraternity of urban lowlife lay in wait for conies, as they called their unsuspecting victims. Given so many notorious villainies for autobiographical analyzes influences, spokesmen like Thomas Dekker's Belman of London to bring to light, it is hardly surprising that among the most prolific literary genres of the period were the scores of on cheating, books and tracts that spewed forth from reformers incensed by the decadence of the Renaissance metropolis. In such a setting did Shakespeare write and help perform the greatest theatrical works the world has ever experienced. And he did so in suburbs known primarily for entertainments that we would regard as totally alien from the sweet Swan of paper analyzes, Avon's poetic grace.
For if Shoreditch and, later, Bankside were to aspects of chinese sociolinguistics blossom into the finest theatrical centers of that or any other age, they were also, for better or worse, the seedbeds for such brutal spectator sports as bearbaiting, bullbaiting, and cockfighting. This may help account for the blood and violence so frequently displayed on the Elizabethan stage, most notably in such early Shakespearean experiments as the Henry VI trilogy and Titus Andronicus, but also in mature works such as Julius Caesar and King Lear . But of course there was a good deal more than murder and analyzes influences, mayhem in the wooden O that served as amphitheatre for most of vs education, Shakespeare's dramatic productions. On a stage largely devoid of scenery but by no means lacking in spectacle, the playwright and research analyzes, his actors made efficient use of language, properties, and gesture to establish time, locale, situation, and atmosphere. In the process, through all the resources of eye beauty, rhetoric, symbolism, and what Hamlet in his advice to the players calls action, the artificial persons of the drama (its dramatis personae) imitated humanity in such a way as to convey whatever matter an author and his company envisaged for a scene, an act, or a full dramatic sequence. By twentieth-century standards, the means they used were relatively primitive--no spotlights, too few furnishings to achieve verisimilitude through setting and dress, only the crudest of special effects, no curtains to raise and lower as a way of signaling the beginning and end of a scene or act--but by any standards, the results they achieved were brilliant. It has taken us nearly four centuries to rediscover what they seem to have understood intuitively: that in some things theatrical, less is more. Our best estimate is that approximately 3,000 spectators could be crammed into a ninety-nine-foot-wide, polygonal structure such as the Theatre (which opened in autobiographical research paper 1576 and life life essay, was dismantled in 1598, after the owner of the land on which it stood refused to autobiographical research influences negotiate a lease acceptable to Shakespeare's acting company) or its successor the Globe (which opened in 1599, after the company transported the lumber from the Theatre across the Thames and used it as the scaffolding for an even more handsome playhouse on the Bankside).
More than half of the audience stood in the yard (which measured about fifty-five feet in diameter); the remainder sat in single life and married the three galleries that encircled the yard and rose to a thatched roof some thirty-six feet above the research paper influences, ground. The stage was probably about forty-three feet wide, and essay, it thrust some twenty-seven feet into the yard from the tiring house at the rear of the building. It was covered by autobiographical research paper influences race, a pillar-supported superstructure--the heavens--that protected that actors and their costumes from the elements and housed the equipment Elizabethan companies used for ascents, descents, and other flying effects. In the on cheating, floor of the stage platform (about five feet above the surrounding yard) was a trapdoor that could be opened for visitations from autobiographical research paper influences below or for access into what, depending on the context, might represent a grave or a pit or even hell itself. Tutankhamun. At the research analyzes race, back of the tutankhamun, stage in all likelihood, concealing the tiring house where the actors effected their costume changes and paper, awaited their cues to enter, were three doors. The two at the corners were probably used for most of the entrances and exits of the single and married, actors; the large middle one was capable of being employed as a shallow, draped discovery space that might be drawn open for tableaux (as when Ferdinand and Miranda are disclosed playing chess in The Tempest ) or adapted to represent small enclosures such as closets, studies, bedrooms, or shops like the Apothecary's cell in research paper race Romeo and selling essay, Juliet . On the level above the tiring house, probably divided into research paper analyzes influences race, five bays, was a balcony that accommodated a select number of the theater's highest-paying customers and functioned in many of the plays as the upper stage where brief scenes requiring a higher vantage point could be enacted. Sentinels on watch, lovers at a second-story bedroom window, seamen crying out from a ship's crow's nest: these and other situations called for the use of one or more of the on cheating, upper-level bays (probably the central one in most instances) for characters to speak their lines and render the movements called for in the script. Research Paper Influences Race. Because the main playing area was surrounded on all four sides by spectators, the poet and the performer benefited from a more intimate relationship with the audience than is customary in compare life present-day theaters fitted with a curtain and a proscenium arch. For Shakespeare, this meant that he could allow a character to confide in a nearby playgoer through asides, as does Iago in Othello , or to be overheard while he meditates in solitude, as does Brutus in the soliloquy in which he talks himself into joining the plot to assassinate Caesar. Autobiographical Paper. Such devices may strike a modern viewer as less sophisticated than, say, the cinematic voice-over, but they proved eminently acceptable to an audience that was willing to tutankhamun piece out a performance's imperfections with [its] thoughts. Paper Influences Race. And it says a great deal about the intelligence and sensitivity of Elizabethan theatergoers that they attended and were capable of appreciating dramatic works which, in thesis many respects, were both responses to and sublimations of the coarser activities that competed for attention (and people's entertainment budgets) only a short distance away from the magic circle defined by the walls of a Theatre or a Globe.
Just who composed the audiences of these public playhouses is still a matter of race, debate, but recent research by Ann Jennalie Cook and Andrew Gurr suggest that they were a more affluent cross-section of Elizabethan society than earlier writings by of chinese sociolinguistics, such scholars as Alfred Harbage would have led us to believe. An examination of wages and prices during the period indicates, for example, that those who attended performances on weekday afternoons would have had to have more leisure, and more disposable income, than seems compatible with the view that even the autobiographical research influences race, groundlings (who paid the lowest admission, a penny to sociolinguistics stand in the yard and risk getting soaked in the event of rain) were predominantly working-class people and illiterate apprentices. Because their position in the yard put their eyes on a level with the feet of the players, the groundlings were sometimes derided as understanders; it now begins to appear that a substantial percentage of these theatergoers were understanders in a more favorable sense. To be sure, some of them may at times have been a bit obstreperous, and their number may well have included an assortment of autobiographical research paper influences, men and women (including prostitutes) preoccupied with extra-theatrical pursuits. It may be, too, that the groundlings were more susceptible than other members of the audience (if merely because of their greater proximity to the stage) to manipulation by what we now call naughty actors, the overweening clowns whom Hamlet rebukes for of chinese sociolinguistics, their tendency to ply the crowd for inappropriate laughter, interrupting the flow of the action and causing spectators to miss some necessary question of the play. But even if the groundlings were not quite as cultivated, on the average, as those members of the audience who could afford to sit while they watched a play, it is difficult to reconcile the subtlety and indirection of Shakespeare's plotting and characterization, not to mention the complexity of his language and the incomparable music of his verse, with the assumption that the majority of an average house at the public theaters was unable to autobiographical paper influences race respond to essay anything more elevated than the broad humor of a Launce or a Dogberry. Even if we still find it valuable, then, to autobiographical paper race preserve something of the selling essay, traditional distinction between the groundlings and the more privileged spectators who sat in the three-tiered galleries encircling the yard, we should now open our minds to the possibility that there were more of autobiographical analyzes race, what Hamlet would call judicious viewers in every segment of the Elizabethan audience, including those who stood in the yard, than we have tended to assume until very recently in our analyses of Shakespearean drama. Which is not to say, of course, that Shakespeare and his fellow dramatists were completely satisfied with any of their audiences (but then what writer ever is?). Hamlet bestows high praise on a play that he says was never acted, or if it was, not above once, for compare life essay, it pleased not the paper influences race, million, 'twas caviary to school vs education essay the general. He then exhorts the players to influences race disregard a whole theatre of others, if necessary, in order to please those with judgments in such matters.
Whether Hamlet's creator would himself have endorsed such extreme elitism is difficult to determine, but such a view is certainly consonant with the epistle to the reader that prefaced the revised 1609 first quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida . Here we are assured that we have a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the bluest eye beauty, palms of the autobiographical research paper, vulgar, and yet passing full of the palm comical; and single life essay, we are given to research influences race believe that it is to the credit rather than the discredit of the of chinese, work that it has never been sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude. Inasmuch as this preface and autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, the title page preceding it replaced an compare single life essay earlier title page advertising Troilus and Cressida as it was acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe, we are probably correct to assume that whoever wrote it had in autobiographical research paper influences mind the kind of vulgar multitude who would have seen the play at one of the outdoor public theaters. All of which is to acknowledge that even if the audiences that attended the public theaters were sophisticated enough to and married life support the vast majority of Shakespeare's dramatic efforts, they may nevertheless have proven deficient in their response to some of the research analyzes influences race, extraordinary challenges he placed before them after he arrived at his artistic maturity. This should not surprise us, given Shakespeare's continual experimentation with inherited generic forms and his ever-more-complex approaches to traditional material. Nor should we assume that by terms such as the essay, million and the general he and his fellow playwrights referred only to the groundlings.
Writers of the period were equally acidulous in their criticism of the gallants who attended the theater to be the observed of all observers--the ostentatiously attired young men who sat not only in the galleries near the stage (where the admission price was thrice as much as for the places in the yard) and in paper analyzes influences race the balconies above and behind the stage (which cost six times as much as the places in the yard), but even on school, the stage itself at some performances in the indoor private theaters (where the least expensive seat cost six times the price of analyzes race, general admission to the Theatre or the Globe, and where some of the seats cost a full thirty times as much). It is difficult to selling essay believe that Shakespeare any more than Dekker (who satirized such gallants in The Gull's Hornbook ) would have considered these foppish Osrics even slightly more judicious than their fellow spectators at the lower end of the economic scale. And one can easily imagine that after 1609, when his company began using the Blackfriars theater as its primary venue during the colder months (the London authorities having finally dropped the paper analyzes race, restrictions that had prevented James Burbage from operating a commercial adult theater in the old monastery he had purchased and essay on cheating, adapted in 1596), Shakespeare felt that he had simply exchanged one kind of paper analyzes influences, less-than-perfect audience for another. One gathers, nevertheless, that, like other playwrights of the period, Shakespeare was careful not to refer too overtly to deficiencies in essay the well-to-do members of autobiographical research paper race, his audiences, especially when such members might include the nobility or persons close to them. After all, an acting company's livelihood depended upon its securing and retaining favor at Court--not only because of the extra income and prestige that accrued from periodic Court performances commissioned by the Master of the Revels, but even more fundamentally because a company could perform in or near London only if it were licensed to do so by the Crown and enjoyed the bluest eye beauty, protection of a noble or royal patron. A prudent playwright would not wish to jeopardize his company's standing with the monarch. Research. And Shakespeare and debating essay on cheating, his colleagues--the other sharers who owned stock in the company that was known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men from 1594 until 1603 (when Queen Elizabeth died and was succeeded by autobiographical paper analyzes influences, King James I) and the King's Men thereafter (having received a patent as the new monarch's own players)--must have been prudent, because theirs was by tutankhamun essay, far the most prosperous and the most frequently preferred theatrical organization in the land, from its inception in autobiographical research paper analyzes race the early 1590s until the selling essay, triumph of Puritanism finally brought about the closing of the theaters half a century later in paper analyzes race 1642.
Shakespeare's position with the Lord Chamberlain's Men was a source of professional stability that probably had a great deal to do with his growth and maturation as a writer. For one thing, it freed him from some of the uncertainties and frustrations that must have been the lot of aspects of chinese, other playwrights, virtually all of whom operated as free-lancers selling their wares to impresarios such as Philip Henslowe (often for as little as five pounds), and most of whom thus forfeited any real say about how their plays were to be produced and, in time (if a given acting company so wished or if chance provided), published. From at least 1594 on Shakespeare was a stockholder of the theatrical organization for which he wrote his plays. After 1598 (when the autobiographical paper analyzes, sons of the recently deceased James Burbage, Cuthbert and Richard, invited four of the principal actors in the Lord Chamberlain's Men to aspects of chinese sociolinguistics become their partners and autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race, put up half the capital needed to rebuild the vs education essay, Theatre across the Thames as the Globe), Shakespeare was also a co-owner of the autobiographical paper race, playhouse in which that company performed the plays. As such, he shared in bluest eye beauty all the profits the Lord Chamberlain's Men took in at the gate, and he was undoubtedly a participant in most, if not all, of the autobiographical research paper analyzes, major decisions affecting the company's welfare. We know from the surviving legal records of the playwright's various business transactions that he prospered financially by this arrangement: like his father, Shakespeare invested wisely in real estate, purchasing properties in both Stratford and London. And we can infer from the evidence of his rapidly developing sophistication as a dramatist that Shakespeare's membership in a close-knit group of theatrical entrepreneurs also helped him flourish artistically. It meant, for example, that he could envisage and debating, write his plays with particular performers in autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race mind: Richard Burbage for debating, leading roles such as Richard III, Othello, and King Lear; Will Kempe for clowning parts such as Launce or Dogberry in the early years of the autobiographical research analyzes influences, company, and thereafter (following Kempe's departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men around 1599) Robert Armin, who seems to have specialized in vs education essay wise fools such as Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool; Shakespeare himself, perhaps, for research analyzes race, old men such as Adam in As You Like It; hired men (adult actors who, not being shareholders in the company, were simply paid a sum of money for each job of work) for most of the lesser roles; and apprentice boy-actors for the youthful parts and many, if not all, of the school essay, female roles (there being no actresses on the English stage until the theaters reopened after the analyzes, Restoration). Working as the essay, resident playwright for a company in which he was both an actor and a business partner meant that Shakespeare could revise and rewrite his scripts in rehearsal prior to a given play's first performance, and that he could adapt and autobiographical paper, further revise them later as differing circumstances required: such as performances commissioned at Court during holiday seasons or on school vs education, ceremonial occasions, or performances solicited by the great houses of the nobility, or (during sieges of research race, plague when the London theaters were closed) performances on tour in the provinces, during which, in all likelihood, the troupe was reduced to entertaining with fewer actors and essay, was required to research paper analyzes make do with provisional playing areas in guild halls, inn yards, and other less-than-ideal theatrical spaces. Aspects Of Chinese. Because the conditions under which Shakespeare worked required him, above all, to be pragmatic and flexible, we would probably be correct to autobiographical research paper infer that as he composed his plays he thought of his scripts, not as fixed literary texts, but as provisional production notes--susceptible of lengthening or shortening or other modes of alteration as determined by the constraints of particular venues and performance situations. He would have had to prepare each script with an eye to the number of actors available for speaking parts (one recent scholar has concluded that most of Shakespeare's plays were composed with a cast of thirteen performers in mind), and he probably planned each scene with a view to debating essay the possibilities for doubling (a principle of theatrical economy whereby a given actor would alternate among two or more roles in paper analyzes the same play).
It may well be that, in the absence of anyone else in the organization designated to function in that capacity, Shakespeare was the first director his plays had. If so, we can be sure that he approached the task with an tutankhamun essay awareness that the devising of a production was a collaborative process and research paper, that the playscript, though normative, was never to be revered as a monument carved in stone. Shakespeare was, after all, a play wright (that is, a maker rather than merely a writer of plays), and he would have been the first to recognize that the final purpose of a dramatic text was a fully realized performance rather than a piece of literature to selling essay be read in the privacy of a patron's parlor or pondered in the lamplight of a scholar's study. Autobiographical Race. If in his capacity as theater professional Shakespeare conceived of himself, then, as a maker of plays (by definition ephemeral and tutankhamun essay, insubstantial pageants, as Prospero observes in The Tempest ) rather than as an author of literary works (the term that earned Ben Jonson the derision of his fellow playwrights when he came out with a pretentiously titled folio volume of his collected plays in 1616), it is hardly surprising that he appears to have had little or nothing to do with the autobiographical, publication of bluest, any of autobiographical influences race, his own dramatic scripts. Nor is it surprising that several of the texts that were published in Shakespeare's lifetime or shortly thereafter have come down to us in forms that vary from one printing to another. School Essay. Some of these variations probably result from authorial revisions or from theatrical adaptations of analyzes influences, one kind or another. Others undoubtedly derive from the vicissitudes of textual transmission, with the extant state of bluest eye beauty, a given text or passage dependent on whether it was printed from the autobiographical research influences race, author's own manuscript (either in draft form or in a more finished version) or from a manuscript prepared by someone else (a scribe's fair copy of a manuscript owned by the author or the company, for example, or a rough compilation by one or more actors relying on faulty memories to pull together an abridged script for a reduced cast touring the provinces)--quite apart from any further complications that may have occurred in the printing house itself (where one copy editor, one compositor, or one proofreader differed from another in the accuracy with which he reproduced the manuscript before him). Whatever their origins, these variations are eloquent testimony to the difficulty--if not indeed the single life life, impossibility--of our ever arriving at an absolutely final version of analyzes, a Shakespearean play. For if the conditions under which plays were written, performed, and preserved make it clear that a definitive playtext was rare, if not unknown, in Shakespeare's own time, we must recognize that any effort to produce an authoritative edition for our own time can aspire, at best, to reconstitute as accurately as possible the closest surviving approximation to a given script at some point in its compositional or theatrical history. And even this kind of edition will remain stubbornly incomplete, for the simple reason that a Shakespearean script was originally intended for the use, not of selling essay, a reading audience, but of a small company of theater professionals who would employ it as a score from which to orchestrate a complex, multidimensional performance.
The texts that do survive are mostly dialogue, and a sensitive analysis of them can tell us a great deal about how the words were meant to be spoken, where the emphases were to be placed, and what character motivations were to autobiographical analyzes race be indicated at specific points in the action. But because we can no longer recover the eye beauty thesis, context in which these scripts were first realized--a context that would have included a good deal of oral communication about gesture, movement, blocking, and other stage business--we must content ourselves with editions that will always be to some degree indeterminate. Perhaps this is just as well: it teases the critic and research analyzes, the director with enough interpretive liberty to ensure that we will never be faced with a dearth of innovation in Shakespearean commentary and production. Debating Essay On Cheating. We should bear in mind, of course, that a considerable investment of additional work would have been required to transform a production script into autobiographical analyzes, a reading text for the public--not altogether unlike what is of chinese sociolinguistics essays required nowadays to turn a screenplay into a coherent piece of narrative fiction--and that Shakespeare may never have had the time (even if we assume that he ever had the inclination) to effect such a generic adaptation. Still, those of us who would not object to a little more detail about autobiographical research influences race, some of the debating on cheating, matter of Shakespeare's plays may perhaps be pardoned for wishing that the playwright had been able to spare more thought for the morrow--for the afterlife that most (though who is to say all?) of autobiographical research paper race, his plays were eventually to have as a consequence of publication. Our sentiments are echoed in the 1623 address To the Great Variety of Readers at the beginning of aspects sociolinguistics, that posthumous edition of Shakespeare's works known as the First Folio: It had been a thing, we confess, worthy to have been wished, that the author himself had lived to have set forth and research paper, overseen his own writings.
He did set forth and oversee some of his own writings, of bluest eye beauty thesis, course. But, significantly, these were not dramatic scripts. In 1593 Shakespeare published an 1194-line narrative poem that appears to have been intended as his opening bid for autobiographical analyzes influences, serious attention as an author of literary works. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses and capitalizing on a fashion for elegant romances that was being catered to by such writers as Thomas Lodge (whose Scilla's Metamorphoses had been published in vs education 1589) and Christopher Marlowe (whose Hero and Leander may well have circulated in manuscript prior to autobiographical paper influences race his death in 1593 and certainly before it appeared in debating on cheating print in 1598), Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was an erotic mythological poem printed by fellow Stratfordian Richard Field and autobiographical paper influences, bearing a florid dedication to compare and married life the Right Honorable Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. Its six-line stanzas employed an ababcc rhyming scheme whose authority had been established by research paper influences race, such contemporary Renaissance poets as Edmund Spenser, and its ornamented, artificial style solicited a favorable reception from the wiser sort of readers to be found in selling essay the Inns of Courts, at the universities, and at Court.
Although Shakespeare decorously apologized for the poem as the first heir of my invention, he must have done so in paper analyzes influences race full confidence that Venus and Adonis was an achievement worthy of and married life essay, his talent. Research Influences. And it proved to be an of chinese sociolinguistics immediate and sustained success, with nine reprints by 1616 and six more by 1640. The large number of references to it during the late 1590s and early 1600s suggest that it was the work for which Shakespeare was most widely recognized during his own lifetime. Within a year of the paper analyzes, publication of tutankhamun essay, Venus and autobiographical research paper analyzes race, Adonis , Shakespeare was back to press with another long narrative poem. This time he chose a seven-line stanza rhyming ababbcc (rhyme royal, a verse form whose tradition in English poetry extended all the way back to thesis Chaucer), and research paper influences race, once again he drew on Ovid for a work dedicated (this time even more warmly) to the Earl of Southampton. If Venus and Adonis is most aptly approached as a quasi-comic treatment of love (depicting the frustrations of an insatiate goddess who falls all over herself as she fumbles to bluest thesis seduce an unresponsive youth), despite the fact that it ends with the death of the autobiographical race, innocent young mortal, Lucrece is more properly described as a tragic complaint, a moving exploration of the personal and social consequences of a noble Roman's surrender to lust, against his better nature and at the cost, ultimately, of debating essay, both his victim's life and his own. In his foreword to Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare had promised the dedicatee a graver labor if his first offering pleased its would-be patron; in all likelihood, then, Lucrece was under way as a companion piece to Venus and Adonis at least a year before its eventual publication in 1594. It may be, as some have suggested, that Shakespeare's narrative of Tarquin's rape of Lucrece and her suicide was motivated by a desire to research persuade anyone who might have considered the earlier work frivolous that the poet's muse was equally capable of a more serious subject. In any case it is clear that once again he struck a responsive chord: Lucrece went through eight editions prior to 1640, and it seems to have been exceeded in popularity only by Venus and Adonis . Both poems were printed during what has been called Shakespeare's apprenticeship--the period preceding his emergence as a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594--and they share a number of stylistic characteristics with the plays that appear to have been completed during those same early years. As with such youthful dramatic efforts as the three parts of Henry VI , Titus Andronicus , The Two Gentlemen of Verona , The Comedy of Errors , and The Taming of the Shrew, the writing in Venus and Adonis and Lucrece is generically imitative (closely adhering to received poetic and dramatic forms), structurally and verbally derivative (echoing the poet's sources almost slavishly at times), and rhetorically formal (with a rigidly patterned verse containing far more rhymes, end-stopped lines, syntactic balances, and allusions to the classics than are to be observed in Shakespeare's writing after the mid 1590s).
One feels immediately that Venus and compare life, Adonis and paper analyzes race, Lucrece are artistically of vs education essay, a piece with Shakespeare's first tentative experiments as a dramatist. Paper Analyzes. The two poems were probably written during the two-year period from June 1592 to June 1594 when the London theaters were closed owing to the plague. But whether they indicate an inclination to leave the theater altogether and essay a career as a traditional poet (as Shakespeare's quest for the patronage of the young Earl of Southampton would seem to imply), or merely demonstrate that Shakespeare was resourceful enough to turn his pen to other uses while he waited for the theaters to reopen, is on cheating more than we can say. The only thing that seems beyond doubt is that Shakespeare regarded what he was doing when he wrote Venus and Adonis and Lucrece as something fundamentally different from autobiographical influences what he was doing, prior to that and subsequent to selling essay it, in his capacity as a playwright and theater professional. Paper. Like his fellow playwrights when they donned personae as men of letters, Shakespeare was addressing his efforts, first of all, to a noble patron and, second, to on cheating a cultivated readership. He was therefore concerned that his compositions be published as he had written them, and research paper analyzes influences, he took pains to assure that they were accompanied by a graceful appeal for sociolinguistics, the approval of an audience presumed to embody the highest standards of literary taste and judgment. It may be that during the same period when he was seeing Venus and Adonis and Lucrece through the press in carefully proofed editions he was also writing other nondramatic poetry.
Many scholars believe that this was when he composed most if not all of the 154 sonnets that bear his name. Autobiographical Analyzes Influences. And if he was in fact the author of A Lover's Complaint (a narrative poem in rhyme royal that was attributed to Shakespeare when it was published, along with the tutankhamun essay, Sonnets , in influences an unauthorized edition in 1609), he probably wrote that labored lyric during his years in school vs education essay the workshop too. But we have no evidence that he ever took any steps himself to publish either A Lover's Complaint or the Sonnets . Apart from Venus and Adonis and Lucrece , the only other literary work that Shakespeare may have had anything to do with publishing on his own behalf was a curious poem called The Phoenix and autobiographical research paper, Turtle , which appeared in 1601 as part of selling essay, a collection Shadowing the Truth of Love and appended to Robert Chester's Love's Martyr . The Phoenix and Turtle is a sixty-seven-line lyric, probably allegorical, about one bird (the phoenix) legendary for its rarity and research paper influences, beauty and another (the turtledove) proverbial for tutankhamun essay, its constancy. Its scholastic imagery--reminiscent in some ways of the highly technical language to be found in writing of the same literary climate by such metaphysical poets as John Donne--suggests that, if indeed it is by research influences race, Shakespeare (which many have questioned), it was probably written expressly for the Chester volume at about the time that Shakespeare was at work on aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, such philosophical plays as Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida . If we except The Phoenix and Turtle, then, and autobiographical research analyzes influences, assume that the selling essay, Sonnets and A Lover's Complaint were published without Shakespeare's active participation, we are left with the conclusion that Shakespeare's literary career, narrowly defined, was more or less limited to autobiographical research paper race the two-year interruption in aspects sociolinguistics his activities as a theater professional when the autobiographical paper race, London playhouses were closed because of the plague. This does not require us to presume, of course, that he ceased to have literary aspirations after 1594. He may have allowed his sugared sonnets to circulate in manuscript among his private friends (as Francis Meres asserted in Palladis Tamia in 1598, a year prior to William Jaggard's surreptitious printing of two of the sonnets in a volume called The Passionate Pilgrim ) while he continued to revise and augment them in the expectation that he would publish an anthology at a later time. And it is not inconceivable that he would have published a collected edition of aspects sociolinguistics, his plays had he lived (Jonson having braved the critical tempest that such audacity was bound to generate when he came out with his works in 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death).
But the fact is that Shakespeare did not himself publish any of the compositions we now value the most, and we can only infer that doing so was of less importance to him than what he did choose to autobiographical research paper devote his professional life to: the school vs education, wrighting of plays. If so, he must at paper times have had his doubts about the choice he made. Single Life Essay. In Sonnet 110 (if we may be permitted to assume that the poet was either speaking in his own voice or echoing sentiments that he himself had felt), he allows that he has made himself a motley to the view and autobiographical research influences race, sold cheap what is most dear. He then goes on in Sonnet 111 to bluest thesis lament that he did not better for [his] life provide/Than public means which public manners breeds. Research Analyzes. Wordsworth believed the Sonnets to be the key whereby Shakespeare unlocked his heart, and it may be that these intriguing poems are to some degree a spiritual testament--imitating, as was traditional with lyric verse, the thought processes and shifts in sensibility of a person responding to the vicissitudes of private life. That granted, we may be correct to interpret Sonnets 110 and 111 as expressions of Shakespeare's own dissatisfaction with the lot of an actor and playwright. Aspects Of Chinese Essays. But it is risky to inquire too curiously into the supposedly confessional aspects of the Sonnets . Autobiographical Research Analyzes Influences Race. Like Shakespeare's other writings, they employ the artifice of tutankhamun, fictions, and they may have been but another form of story telling--different in kind from the plays and autobiographical research paper influences, narrative poems, to of chinese sociolinguistics be sure, but similar to them in autobiographical research paper being about school, something quite other than (or in addition to) the poet's own experience. If we examine them in the context of earlier sonnet sequences--Petrarch's lyrics of Laura in fifteenth-century Italy, for instance, or such late-sixteenth-century English sequences as those by Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Samuel Daniel, and Michael Drayton--we discover that they are quite conventional in paper influences many respects. They display the speaker's wit and attest to his originality; they imply a deeply felt personal situation and hint at selling essay a coherent narrative, but they usually stop short of connecting their emotional peaks and paper analyzes influences race, valleys into a fully textured autobiographical landscape; they assert the immortality of verse and claim its sovereignty over tutankhamun the ravages of time and change; and usually they deal with themes of truth and beauty in the context of autobiographical race, love and friendship and all the circumstances that life arrays in opposition to such values. Essays. To a far greater degree than with most sonnet sequences, Shakespeare's Sonnets have the ring of truth.
This is partly because, like all his works (from his earliest plays onward), they portray humanity so convincingly. But it is also a consequence of the extent to autobiographical research paper analyzes race which they seem to go beyond, or even to disregard, convention. Thus, instead of praising a lady by cataloging all the attributes that make her lovely, Shakespeare turns Petrarchan tradition on its head by denying his dark lady any of the selling essay, expected beauties and virtues. Research Influences. My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun, he says in school Sonnet 130; and far from being ethereal and inaccessible in her idealized spirituality, the woman described in Shakespeare's Sonnets is sensual, coarse, and promiscuous. Petrarch's Laura may have inspired that earlier poet to Platonic transcendence, but Shakespeare's mistress leaves only the paper race, bitter aftertaste of Th' expense of spirit in a waste of shame, A bliss in selling essay proof, and prov'd, a very woe (Sonnet 129).
And what is more, she alienates the research paper analyzes influences race, affection of the selling essay, fair young man to whom most of the autobiographical research analyzes influences race, first 127 sonnets in the sequence are addressed: the friend who occasions some of the school, deepest verses in autobiographical research analyzes English on such themes as fidelity, stewardship (Shakespeare seems to tutankhamun essay have been preoccupied with the Parable of the Talents, as rendered in Matthew 25: 14-30), and man's struggle against never-resting time. As one reads the sonnets directed to the young man, one detects a descent from unquestioned devotion (This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,/To love that well, which thou must leave ere long--Sonnet 73) to a fear that the research influences, older man's love may be unrequited or at least taken for granted by eye beauty thesis, the young friend to whom he has given so much of himself (For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds--Sonnet 94) to a courageous but probably quixotic determination to paper analyzes influences remain true to his convictions despite his doubts about the young man's worthiness of such absolute faith (love is not love/Which alters when it alteration finds/Or bends with the remover to remove--Sonnet 116). The intensity of feeling expressed in these sonnets has led many interpreters to infer that they must have been based on a homoerotic passion. But Sonnet 20 suggests that the relationship Shakespeare describes is not sexual. Nature, he says, has given the young man one thing to selling essay my purpose nothing. Autobiographical Paper. And since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,/Mine be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure. Several of the sonnets addressed to the friend refer to a rival poet who is bluest eye beauty thesis also bidding for his favors and affection (Sonnets 79, 80, 83, and 86, for example), and others (Sonnets 78, 82, 84, and 85) imply that the young aristocrat is the subject of praise by a great many poetic suitors.
As he reflects upon autobiographical influences race his own position vis-à-vis his many competitors for the friend's love, the speaker in vs education Shakespeare's sonnets is subject to autobiographical paper analyzes race a depth of insecurity that sometimes borders on tutankhamun, despair: Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,/Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,/Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope (Sonnet 29). Autobiographical Analyzes Race. And many of the greatest sonnets in aspects of chinese essays the sequence derive their peculiar power from what Robert Frost has termed a sense of difficulty overcome--the poet working through the tensions and research influences, conflicts described in selling essay the first three quatrains (linked by an abab cdcd efef rhyme scheme) to some kind of hard-won (though perhaps not completely convincing) resolution in the concluding couplet (rhymed gg ): For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings,/That then I scorn to change my state with kings (again Sonnet 29). Because the other personalities who figure in the psychodrama of the Sonnets seem so vivid, at least as they impinge upon the personality of the speaker, interpreters of the sequence have been inexorably drawn toward speculation about real-life identities for autobiographical research race, the Dark Lady, the Young Man, and the Rival Poet. Some commentators (such as Oxford historian A. L. Rowse) have persuaded themselves, if not everyone else, that these characters can be positively linked with such contemporaries of Shakespeare as Emilia Lanier, the bluest eye beauty thesis, Earl of Southampton (or, alternatively, the Earl of Pembroke), and autobiographical influences, Christopher Marlowe (or possibly George Chapman). Essay. Unless further information should come to light, however, we are probably best advised to content ourselves with a position of influences race, agnosticism on such questions.
Until we can be sure about how the Sonnets came to be published, and tutankhamun, just what kind of debt the publisher Thomas Thorpe refers to when he dedicates the 1609 quarto to the only begetter of these poems Never before Imprinted--the mysterious Mr. W. H.--we are unlikely to be able to pin down the real names of any of the persons who inhabit the world of the Sonnets . Until then, indeed, we cannot even be certain that the Sonnets have any autobiographical basis in the first place. Turning from Shakespeare's nondramatic poetry to research analyzes the fruits of his two decades as a playwright, we should probably begin where scholars now think he himself began: as the principal practitioner, if not in bluest many ways the originator, of a new kind of drama that sprang from native patriotism. The most immediate source of the English history play appears to have been the heightened sense of national destiny that came in the wake of the royal navy's seemingly providential victory over autobiographical research analyzes influences the Spanish Armada in 1588. Proud of the sociolinguistics, new eminence their nation had achieved, and immensely relieved that the threat of invasion by a Catholic power had been averted, many of Shakespeare's contemporaries were disposed to view England's deliverance as a sign of heaven's favor. As such, it seemed to be a vindication of the autobiographical analyzes, reign of Queen Elizabeth and a substantiation of the Tudor order's claim to divine sanction--a claim that had been asserted by a succession of Renaissance chroniclers from Polydore Vergil (circa 1470-1555) through Edward Hall (circa 1498-1547) to Raphael Holinshed (circa 1529-1580), and a claim that was implicit in such government documents as the Exhortation concerning Good Order and Obedience to Rulers and Magistrates, a 1547 homily read in churches throughout England. Given this context, it must have seemed entirely fitting that sometime in the late 1580s or early 1590s an compare single life enterprising young playwright began dramatizing a sequence of historical developments that were almost universally regarded as the roots of England's current greatness. Most of the material for the four history plays with which Shakespeare began his career as playwright he drew from autobiographical influences race Edward Hall's Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of aspects sociolinguistics, Lancaster and York (1548) and Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1587 edition). Research Paper Influences. Here he found narratives of essay, late-medieval English history that began with the autobiographical research paper analyzes, reign of King Richard II (1377-1399), focused on Richard's deposition and selling essay, execution by Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), described the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) that were the eventual consequence of autobiographical research influences, Bolingbroke's usurpation, and concluded with the restoration of compare essay, right rule when Henry Richmond defeated the research paper analyzes race, tyrannical Richard III (1483-1485) and acceded to the crown as Henry VII, inaugurating a Tudor dynasty that was to single and married last until the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603. Here he also found a theological reading of research paper influences, political history that treated England as a collective Everyman--falling into bluest, sin, undergoing a terrifyingly bloody punishment for its disobedience, and eventually finding its way back to redemption through the emergence of Henry VII.
The chances are that as Shakespeare matured in research paper analyzes influences his craft he came to view the Tudor myth (as E. M. W. Tillyard has termed this official dogma) with a degree of bluest eye beauty, skeptical detachment; but even so, he seems to have found in its clear, broad sweep a pattern that served quite well as a way of organizing the disparate materials he chose to dramatize. It gave him a theme of epic proportions, not altogether unlike the matter of Greece and Rome that had inspired such classical authors as Homer and Virgil in narrative genres and Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca in dramatic genres. It accorded with the biblical treatment of human destiny that Shakespeare's age had inherited from earlier generations, an approach to historical interpretation that had been embedded in such didactic entertainments as the Morality Play (allegorizing the sin, suffering, repentance, and salvation of a typical member of mankind) and the Mystery Play (broadening the cycle to a dramatization of the whole of human history, from man's fall in paper influences the Garden of Eden to man's redemption in school the Garden of Gethsemane to man's bliss in the Paradise of the New Jerusalem). And it provided a rationale for Shakespeare's use of such powerful dramatic devices as the riddling prophecy and the curse--projecting retribution for paper analyzes, present crimes, as the Old Testament would put it, to the third and fourth generations. When we approach the four plays known as Shakespeare's first tetralogy (the three parts of Henry VI and life, Richard III , all written, so far as we can tell, by 1592) from the perspective of research influences race, his second tetralogy ( Richard II , Henry IV , parts 1 and bluest thesis, 2, and Henry V , all of autobiographical analyzes race, which appear to have been written between 1595 and 1597), the aspects, earlier plays seem comparatively crude. Like their sources, they place more emphasis on providential design and less on human agency. Their verse is more declamatory and less supple. And they provide less individuation of character.
Still, they have their virtues, and successful recent productions by the Royal Shakespeare Company and the British Broadcasting Corporation have proven that they can be surprisingly effective in performance. Henry VI , part 1 did not achieve print until the 1623 First Folio, but it is now generally thought to have been written prior to research analyzes race parts 2 and 3, which first appeared in sociolinguistics bad texts, respectively, in a 1594 quarto edition titled The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and research analyzes influences race, Lancaster and in a 1595 octavo entitled The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke. Aspects Of Chinese Sociolinguistics. Henry VI, part 1, begins with the autobiographical influences, funeral of King Henry V (which occurred in 1422), details the dissension at home and debating essay, the loss of life and territory abroad that result from the accession of a new monarch too young and weak to rule, and concludes with King Henry VI's foolish decision to marry Margaret of Anjou--a step that places the autobiographical paper, saintly King in the very unsaintly hands of an selling essay ambitious woman and a lustful nobleman (the Earl of Suffolk, who plans to enjoy Margaret as his own mistress and thereby rule both her, the King, and realm) and virtually assures the research paper analyzes, further degradation of vs education essay, a kingdom that has been in decline since the death of analyzes, Henry VI's famous warrior-king father. Henry VI , part 2, covers a ten-year span from Margaret of Anjou's arrival in England (1445) to the Duke of York's victory over his Lancastrian enemies at St. Albans in the first major battle of the essay, Wars of the research paper influences race, Roses (1455). The same kind of internecine strife that has left the noble Talbot exposed to the forces of the strumpet-witch Joan of essay, Arc in Henry VI , part 1, works here to research analyzes influences undo Henry VI's protector, Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, topple two of the good Duke's enemies (Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk), unleash the anarchic rebellion of the peasant Jack Cade, and further divide the warring factions (the Yorkists, who have chosen the red rose as their symbol in the famous Temple Garden scene, II.iv, of part 1, and the Lancastrians, who have rallied behind the white rose) that seem hell-bent to tear the kingdom asunder. Selling Essay. In Henry VI , part 3, the research analyzes influences, war is at bluest full pitch. As the feeble Henry VI withdraws into a private realm of pastoral longing, his brutal Queen and analyzes influences, her allies exchange outrages with one Yorkist enemy after another, father killing son and son killing father in a nightmarish world that has degenerated into a spectacle of unmitigated cruelty. By the time the dust settles, Henry VI and a number of selling essay, other would-be claimants to the throne are dead or on their way to the grave, and research paper analyzes influences race, the ominously crookbacked figure of Richard, Duke of Gloucester is debating essay on cheating slouching his rough way to the crown he will don in the blood-drenched final movement of autobiographical paper influences race, this hitherto unprecedented cycle of debating on cheating, historical tragedies. Richard III was first published in a 1597 quarto edition that many scholars believe to have been reconstructed from memory by actors plagued out of London theaters between July and October of that year.
The play was evidently quite popular, because it went through at least five more printings before it appeared in the 1623 First Folio edition based largely on the third and sixth quartos. Paper Analyzes. And it has remained popular ever since, with a stage tradition highlighted by school vs education, Richard Burbage in Shakespeare's own theater, David Garrick in the eighteenth century, Edmund Kean in the nineteenth, and Laurence Olivier in the twentieth. Nor is the reason hard to find. Autobiographical Paper Analyzes Influences Race. For despite the bold strokes with which he is portrayed, Richard III is a character of sufficient complexity to sustain a great deal of and married, dramatic interest. However much we find ourselves repelled by his ruthless treachery, we cannot help admiring the autobiographical research paper influences race, eloquence, resourcefulness, and virtuosity with which he confides and then proceeds to execute his wicked intentions. His wooing of the grieving Lady Anne in the first act is a case in aspects of chinese essays point: having set himself the seemingly impossible task of seducing a woman whose husband and research paper race, father-in-law he has recently murdered, Richard is just as astonished as we are by the ease with which he accomplishes it. In many ways Richard seems, and would have seemed to Shakespeare's first audiences, a conventional, even old-fashioned stage villain: the quick-witted, clever, self-disclosing Vice of the late-medieval Morality Play, the dissimulating Devil familiar from the scriptures. In other, more important, ways he seems, and would have seemed, disturbingly modern: the Machiavellian politician who acknowledges no law, human or divine, in restraint of his foxlike cunning and leonine rapacity; the totalitarian dictator who subverts every social and religious institution in pursuit of his psychopathic grand designs; the existentialist cosmic rebel whose radical alienation is a challenge to tutankhamun essay every form of order. But if Richard seems in many ways a relentlessly twentieth-century figure, we learn by research analyzes, the end of the play that his vaulting ambition (so proleptic of Macbeth's) is ultimately but an tutankhamun essay instrument of the same providential scheme that he scorns and paper influences, seeks to circumvent.
Richard may be a dreadful minister of hell, as Lady Anne calls him, but members of Shakespeare's audience (familiar with the story through such earlier renderings of it as the tutankhamun essay, portrait painted by Thomas More) would have seen him simultaneously as a scourge of God, unleashed to punish England for her sins of the past. Prophetic Margaret reminds us over and over that had there not been strife in the kingdom prior to the advent of Richard, there would have been no ripe occasion for this poisonous bunch-backed toad to ascend the throne in the first instance. And as the play ends, an action that has drawn our attention again and again to the past looks optimistically to the future. By God's fair ordinance, the bloody dog is autobiographical research paper dead, and Richmond and essay on cheating, Elizabeth (the forebears of Shakespeare's sovereign Elizabeth) are ushering in smooth-faced peace,/With smiling plenty, and fair prosperous days. One other English history play is research paper analyzes race now commonly believed to have been written during Shakespeare's apprenticeship, though scholars differ about whether to bluest thesis date it in the early 1590s or (more probably, in autobiographical paper analyzes race the opinion of most) in the transition years 1594-1595. The earliest surviving text of King John is the version printed in the 1623 First Folio, and it offers a drama about a king of doubtful title whose reign (1199-1216) had been viewed in widely divergent ways. Medieval Catholics, focusing on King John's presumed complicity in the death of school vs education, his nephew Arthur (whose claim to the throne was stronger than John's) and on his feud with Pope Innocent III (which had resulted in the King's excommunication before he finally capitulated five years later and returned his kingdom to the Church), had seen him as a usurper, a murderer, and a heretic. Sixteenth-century Protestants, on the other hand, had rehabilitated him as a proto-Tudor martyr and champion of English nationalism. In many respects, Shakespeare's own portrayal is research paper analyzes closer to the medieval view of King John: he does away with any ambiguity about sociolinguistics essays, John's role in the removal of Arthur, for example, presents the saintlike Arthur and his impassioned mother, Constance, as thoroughly engaging characters, and endows John with few if any sympathetic traits.
At the same time, however, Shakespeare's King John continues to receive the autobiographical paper influences race, loyalty of characters who are portrayed sympathetically--most notably the bastard son of school vs education, Richard the autobiographical paper race, Lion-hearted, Philip Faulconbridge--and by the end of the play it seems evident that a higher cause, the good of England, is to take precedence over such lesser concerns as John's weak title, his execution of a potential rival, and his inadequacies as a leader. The Bastard, a political realist who seems quite Machiavellian at first--particularly in eye beauty thesis his analysis of the all-pervasiveness of commodity (self-interest) in human affairs--eventually becomes a virtual emblem of patriotism. To him is given the concluding speech of autobiographical paper, King John , and it is frequently cited as Shakespeare's most eloquent summary of the moral implicit in all his early history plays: If Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the dramatization of bluest thesis, history derived from his response to the political climate of his day, his first experiments in comedy seem to have evolved from his reading in school and from his familiarity with the autobiographical analyzes, plays of such predecessors on the English stage as John Lyly, George Peele, Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe. Shakespeare's apprentice comedies are quite inventive in many respects, particularly in the degree to which they overgo the conventions and devices the young playwright drew upon. But because they have more precedent behind them than the debating on cheating, English history plays, they strike us now as less stunningly original--though arguably more successfully executed--than the tetralogy on the Wars of the autobiographical research race, Roses. Tutankhamun. Which of autobiographical race, them came first we do not know, but most scholars incline toward The Comedy of Errors , a play so openly scaffolded upon life and married life essay Plautus's Menaechmi and Amphitruo (two farces that Shakespeare probably knew in Latin from his days in grammar school) that one modern critic has summed it up as a kind of diploma piece. Set, ostensibly, in the Mediterranean city familiar from St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, the play begins with a sentence on the life of a luckless Syracusan merchant, Aegeon, who has stumbled into Ephesus in autobiographical analyzes race search of his son Antipholus. After narrating a tale of woe that wins the sympathy of the Duke of Ephesus, Aegeon is given till five in the afternoon to come up with a seemingly impossible ransom for his breach of an arbitrary law against Syracusans. Vs Education Essay. Meanwhile, unknown to paper analyzes Aegeon, the object of his search is in Ephesus too, having arrived only hours before him; Antipholus had set out some two years earlier to find a twin brother by the same name who was separated from the rest of the family in a stormy shipwreck more than twenty years in the past. By happy coincidence, the eye beauty, other Antipholus has long since settled in Ephesus, and so (without either's knowledge) has their mother, Aegeon's long-lost wife, Aemilia, who is now an abbess.
To complicate matters further, both Antipholuses have slaves named Dromio, also twins long separated, and of course both sets of twins are indistinguishably appareled. Into this mix Shakespeare throws a goldsmith, a set of merchants, a courtesan, a wife and autobiographical research analyzes influences race, a sister-in-law for the Ephesian Antipholus, and a conjuring schoolmaster. The result is a swirling brew of misunderstandings, accusations, and identity crises--all leading, finally, to a series of revelations that reunite a family, save Aegeon's life, and bring order to a city that had begun to seem bewitched by sorcerers. The Comedy of Errors reached print for the first time in the 1623 First Folio. We know that it was written prior to of chinese 28 December 1594, however, because there is record of analyzes, a performance on that date at single life one of the four Inns of paper race, Court.
Some scholars believe that the play was written for that holiday Gray's Inn presentation, but most tend to the view that it had been performed previously, possibly as early as 1589 but more likely in the years 1592-1594. Most critics now seem agreed, moreover, that for all its farcical elements, the play is a comedy of debating on cheating, some sophistication and depth, with a sensitivity to love that anticipates Shakespeare's great comedies later in the decade: when Luciana advises her sister Adriana about analyzes influences, how she should treat her husband Antipholus, for example, she echoes Paul's exhortations on Christian marriage in Ephesians. And with its use of the life life, devices of literary romance (the frame story of Aegeon comes from Apollonius of Tyre), The Comedy of Errors also looks forward to the wanderings, confusions of identity, and miraculous reunions so fundamental to the structure of late plays such as Pericles and The Tempest . What may have been Shakespeare's next comedy has also been deprecated as farce, and autobiographical research paper, it is frequently produced today with staging techniques that link it with the compare life life, commedia del l'arte popular in autobiographical research analyzes influences race Renaissance Italy. But for all its knockabout slapstick, The Taming of the tutankhamun essay, Shrew is too penetrating in its psychology and too subtle in its handling of the nuances of courtship to be dismissed as a play deficient in feeling. Its main event is autobiographical research influences race a battle of the sexes in which Petruchio, who has come to wive it wealthily in compare single and married life essay Padua, takes on a dare no other potential suitor would even consider: to win both dowry and docility from a sharp-tongued shrew avoided as Katherine the influences race, curst. Apparently recognizing that Katherine's willfulness is a product of the favoritism her father has long bestowed upon her younger sister, and selling essay, having the autobiographical research analyzes influences, further good sense to realize that the fiery Kate is capable of becoming a much more attractive wife than the much-sought-after but rather devious Bianca, Petruchio mounts a brilliant campaign to gain Kate's love and make her his. First, he insists that Kate is fair and essay, gentle, notwithstanding all her efforts to disabuse him of that notion. Second, he kills her in her own humour, with a display of arbitrary behavior--tantrums, scoldings, peremptory refusals--that both wears her down and shows her how unpleasant shrewishness can be.
At the end of the play Petruchio shocks his skeptical fellow husbands by wagering that his bride will prove more obedient than theirs. When Kate not only heeds his commands but reproaches her sister and the other wives for sullen, sour rebellion against their husbands, it becomes manifest that Petruchio has succeeded in analyzes his quest: Kate freely and school, joyfully acknowledges him to be her loving lord. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences. If we have doubts about whether Kate's transformation can be accepted as a happy ending today--and alterations of the final scene in many recent productions would suggest that it may be too offensive to current sensibilities to be played straight--we should perhaps ask ourselves whether the Kate who seems to wink conspiratorially at Petruchio as she puts her hands beneath his foot to win a marital wager is any less spirited or fulfilled a woman than the Kate who drives all her wouldbe wooers away in the play's opening scene. Whether or not The Taming of the Shrew is the school vs education, mysterious Love's Labor's Won referred to research paper analyzes influences race by Francis Meres in 1598, it seems to have been written in the early 1590s, because what is now generally believed to be a bad quarto of it appeared in essay 1594. The Taming of autobiographical research influences, a Shrew differs significantly from the version of bluest thesis, Shakespeare's play that was first published in the 1623 Folio--most notably in the fact that the drunken tinker Christopher Sly, who appears only in autobiographical research analyzes race the induction to the later printing of the play, remains on stage throughout The Taming of a Shrew , repeatedly interrupting the action of what is presented as a play for aspects of chinese essays, his entertainment and resolving at the end to autobiographical influences race go off and try Petruchio's wife-taming techniques on selling essay, his own recalcitrant woman. Some directors retain the autobiographical research race, later Sly scenes, but no one seriously questions that the Folio text is in general the more authoritative of the two versions of the play. The Folio provides the selling essay, only surviving text of The Two Gentlemen of Verona , a comedy so tentative in its dramaturgy (for example, its ineptitude in the few scenes where the playwright attempts to manage more than two characters on the stage at research influences once), and so awkward in its efforts to pit the claims of love and friendship against each other, that many scholars now think it to be the first play Shakespeare ever wrote. Based largely on a 1542 chivalric romance ( Diana Enamorada ) by Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor, The Two Gentlemen of Verona depicts a potential rivalry between two friends--Valentine and Proteus--who fall in love with the same Milanese woman (Silvia) despite the fact that Proteus has vowed his devotion to a woman (Julia) back home in thesis Verona. Proteus engineers Valentine's banishment from Milan so that he can woo Silvia away from him. But Silvia remains faithful to Valentine, just as Julia (who has followed her loved one disguised as his page) holds true to autobiographical race Proteus, notwithstanding the character he discloses as a man who lives up to aspects of chinese sociolinguistics essays his name. In the research influences race, concluding forest scene Valentine intervenes to save Silvia from tutankhamun essay being raped by Proteus; but, when Proteus exhibits remorse, Valentine offers him Silvia anyway, as a token of research, friendship restored.
Fortunately, circumstances conspire to essay forestall such an autobiographical paper analyzes influences race unhappy consummation, and the play ends with the two couples properly reunited. Unlike The Comedy of Errors and The Taming of the compare single life and married, Shrew , The Two Gentlemen of Verona has never been popular in the theater, even though it offers two resourceful women (whose promise will be fulfilled more amply in paper race such later heroines as Rosalind and bluest thesis, Viola), a pair of amusing clowns (Launce and Speed), and one of the most engaging dogs (Crab) who ever stole a stage. In its mixture of prose and verse, nevertheless, and in its suggestion that the green world of the woods is research analyzes race where pretensions fall and would be evildoers find their truer selves, The Two Gentlemen of compare life and married, Verona looks forward to the first fruits of Shakespeare's maturity: the romantic comedies of autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, which it proves to be a prototype. The one remaining play that most critics now locate in the period known as Shakespeare's apprenticeship is a Grand Guignol melodrama that seems to have been the young playwright's attempt to outdo Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy (produced circa 1589) in its exploitation of the horrors of bluest eye beauty, madness and revenge. The composition of Titus Andronicus is usually dated 1590-1592, and it seems to have been drawn from a ballad and History of Titus Andronicus that only survives today in an eighteenth-century reprint now deposited in the Folger Shakespeare Library. (The Folger also holds the sole extant copy of the 1594 first quarto of Shakespeare's play, the authoritative text for all but the one scene, III.ii, that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.) If Shakespeare did take most of his plot from the autobiographical research paper influences race, History of Titus Andronicus , it is school vs education essay clear that he also went to Ovid's Metamorphoses (for the autobiographical research paper race, account of Tereus's rape of Philomena, to which the tongueless Lavinia points to explain what has been done to her) and to Seneca's Thyestes (for Titus's fiendish revenge on Tamora and her sons at the end of the play). Although Titus Andronicus is not a history play, it does make an effort to evoke the social and tutankhamun, political climate of fourth-century Rome; and in its depiction of research paper analyzes influences, a stern general who has just sacrificed more than twenty of selling essay, his own sons to conquer the Goths, it anticipates certain characteristics of Shakespeare's later Roman plays: Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus . But it is primarily as an antecedent of paper analyzes race, Hamlet (influenced, perhaps, by the so-called lost Ur-Hamlet ) that Titus holds interest for us today. Because whatever else it is, Titus Andronicus is Shakespeare's first experiment with revenge tragedy. Its primary focus is the bluest eye beauty thesis, title character, whose political misjudgments and analyzes race, fiery temper put him at the mercy of the selling essay, Queen of the Goths, Tamora, and her two sons (Demetrius and Chiron). They ravish and mutilate Titus's daughter Lavinia, manipulate the Emperor into executing two of Titus's sons (Martius and Quintus) as perpetrators of the crime, and get Titus's third son (Lucius) banished for trying to rescue his brothers.
Along the way, Tamora's Moorish lover Aaron tricks Titus into having his right hand chopped off in a futile gesture to save Martius and Lucius. After Lavinia writes the names of her assailants in the sand with her grotesque stumps, Titus works out a plan for revenge: he slits the throats of Demetrius and Chiron, invites Tamora to a banquet, and serves her the flesh of her sons baked in a pie. He then kills Tamora and dies at research the hands of selling essay, Emperor Saturninus. At this point Lucius returns heading a Gothic army and autobiographical research paper analyzes influences, takes over single life and married life essay as the autobiographical paper analyzes influences, new Emperor, condemning Aaron to aspects of chinese essays be half-buried and left to starve and throwing Tamora's corpse to the scavenging birds and beasts. As Fredson Bowers has pointed out, Titus Andronicus incorporates a number of devices characteristic of other revenge tragedies: the autobiographical, protagonist's feigned madness, his delay in the execution of his purpose, his awareness that in seeking vengeance he is taking on a judicial function that properly rests in God's hands, and his death at the end in a bloody holocaust that leaves the throne open for seizure by the first opportunist to bluest arrive upon the scene. Revenge is also a significant motif in Shakespeare's other early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet , usually dated around 1595-1596. Paper Analyzes Influences. It is a blood feud between their two Veronan families that forces the lovers to woo and wed in secret, thereby creating the compare and married essay, misunderstanding that leads Mercutio to defend Romeo's honor in act three when the just-married protagonist declines his new kinsman Tybalt's challenge to duel. And it is both to avenge Mercutio's death and to paper analyzes influences race restore his own now-sullied name that Romeo then slays Tybalt and becomes fortune's fool--initiating a falling action that leads eventually to eye beauty a pair of suicides and autobiographical analyzes influences, a belated recognition by tutankhamun, the Capulets and the Montagues that their children have become poor sacrifices of our enmity.
But it is not for its revenge elements that most of us remember Romeo and Juliet . No, it is for autobiographical analyzes influences race, the lyricism with which Shakespeare portrays the beauty and idealism of love at first sight--all the more transcendent for the ways in which the playwright sets it off from the sociolinguistics, calculations of Juliet's parents (intent on arranging their daughter's marriage to advance their own status) or contrasts it with the earthy bawdiness of Juliet's Nurse or the worldly-wise cynicism of Romeo's friend Mercutio. The spontaneous sonnet of Romeo and autobiographical research influences race, Juliet's initial meeting at of chinese sociolinguistics essays Capulet's ball, their betrothal vows in the balcony scene later that evening, the ominous parting that concludes their one night together and foreshadows their final meeting in the Capulet tomb--these are the moments we carry with us from a performance or a reading of what may well be history's most famous love story. Romeo and Juliet may strike us as an early tragedy in its formal versification and in its patterned structure. It has been faulted for its dependence on coincidence and on autobiographical paper influences, causes external to the protagonists for selling essay, the conditions that bring about the tragic outcome--an emphasis implicit in autobiographical research the play's repeated references to Fortune and the stars. And critics have encountered difficulty in their attempts to tutankhamun reconcile the purity of Romeo and influences, Juliet's devotion to each other (for earth too dear) with the play's equal insistence that their relationship is a form of idolatry--ultimately leading both lovers to acts of selling essay, desperation that audiences in Shakespeare's time would have considered far more consequential than do most modern audiences. But whatever its supposed limitations and interpretive problems, Romeo and Juliet seems likely to hold its position as one of the classics of the dramatic repertory.
Romeo and Juliet first appeared in autobiographical research analyzes race a 1597 quarto edition that most scholars believe to life and married be a memorial reconstruction, though one with isolated passages (such as Mercutio's celebrated Queen Mab speech) printed in a form that some scholars believe superior to their rendering in the text today's editors accept as the best authority: the 1599 second quarto, newly corrected, augmented, and amended, and apparently derived primarily from Shakespeare's own foul papers. Two more printings appeared before the 1623 Folio, whose text--essentially a reprint of the third quarto edition (1609)--has no independent authority. The principal source for the play was a 1562 narrative, The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet , by Arthur Brooke, a didactic poem urging children to autobiographical research analyzes influences be obedient to their parents. Of Chinese. By telescoping three months into four days and by autobiographical research influences race, dramatizing the story in a manner more sympathetic to the young lovers, Shakespeare transformed a sermon into debating, a tragedy whose urgency must have been just as moving in the Elizabethan theater as we know it to be in research paper our own. If Romeo and Juliet is a play that has lost none of its freshness in the four centuries since its first appearance, Love's Labor's Lost now strikes us as so thoroughly Elizabethan in its rhetoric and topicality as to be nearly inaccessible to modern audiences. Evidently another product of the transition years when Shakespeare was working his way back into school vs education, the theater after a two-year hiatus due to the plague, Love's Labor's Lost appears to have been written in 1594-1595 for research paper analyzes influences race, private performance and may well have been revised in 1597 for a performance before the Queen during the Christmas revels. Its earliest known printing was a 1598 quarto announcing itself as newly corrected and augmented and probably set from Shakespeare's foul papers. The Folio text was essentially a reprint of this first quarto, which has the essay, distinction of being the first play to bear Shakespeare's name on research paper analyzes influences race, its title page. School Essay. Until recently no literary source had been found for the plot of Love's Labor's Lost , but Glynne Wickham has now turned up a 1581 analogue, The Four Foster Children of analyzes race, Desire , that helps account for much of the play's structure and of chinese essays, several of its themes. What emerges for a theatergoer or reader of the play today is a highly artificial comedy about a company of men whose well-intended but ill-conceived attempt to outwit nature makes them all look foolish and lands them in a pickle. No sooner have King Ferdinand of Navarre and his friends Longaville, Dumaine, and Berowne--hoping to conquer the frailties of the flesh and find an antidote to cormorant devouring time--forsworn the company of women and autobiographical analyzes influences, withdrawn to their quasi-monastic Academe than they find their fortress besieged by four beautiful ladies--the Princess of France and her attendants Maria, Katherine, and sociolinguistics, Rosaline--who camp in the park outside and research paper race, watch with amusement as each of the scholars falls in love, forsakes his vows, and gets caught by the others.
Eventually the men surrender and propose marriage, but by this time it has become clear that they are so far gone in aspects essays artifice that they need at least a year of penance--and time in real-world settings such as the autobiographical paper analyzes, hospital to which Berowne is consigned--before their protestations of devotion can be given any credit. Love's labor is lost, then, in sociolinguistics the sense that this is a comedy without the traditional happy consummation in wedding, feasting, and dancing. Its concluding lyrics move from research paper analyzes influences spring (When daisies pied) to tutankhamun essay winter (When icicles hang), and the year of penance to come is one that requires all of the men to reevaluate their aspirations with a renewed awareness of the autobiographical research analyzes, omnipresence of disease and the inevitability of tutankhamun essay, death. Love's Labor's Lost is one of Shakespeare's most self-conscious plays generically, and it is also one of his most demanding plays linguistically. Much is made of the autobiographical paper influences, literary artifice of the four men's rhetoric, and it is shown to be detrimental to normal human feeling. Tutankhamun. It is also shown to be an infection that touches such lesser characters as the autobiographical, bombastic braggart soldier Don Adriano de Armado, the of chinese, pedant schoolmaster Holofernes, and the clown Costard, all of whom, like the poor curate Nathaniel in the Pageant of the research paper influences, Nine Worthies, prove a little o'erparted. Essay. It is one of the ironies of the play that the four major male characters, who laugh so cruelly at autobiographical research analyzes race the participants in the pageant, also prove o'erparted in the end. Such are the wages of affectation. Affectation of another kind is bluest eye beauty depicted in autobiographical research influences a delightful scene from essays what many regard as Shakespeare's most charming comedy, A Midsummer Night's Dream . As the Athenian courtiers are quick to observe in their critiques of the tragical mirth of Pyramus and Thisby in V.i, the analyzes race, mechanicals who display their dramatic wares at the nuptial feast of Theseus and Hippolyta are even more fundamentally o'erparted than the hapless supernumeraries of Love's Labor's Lost . But there is something deeply affectionate about vs education, Shakespeare's portrayal of the affectations of Bottom and his earnest company of hempen home-spuns, and the simpleness and autobiographical research paper race, duty with which they tender their devotion is the playwright's way of reminding us that out of the mouths of babes and fools can sometimes issue a loving wisdom that hath no bottom. Like Bottom's Dream, the playlet brings a refreshingly naive perspective to issues addressed more seriously elsewhere.
And, by burlesquing the struggles and conflicts through which the lovers in essay the woods circumvent the arbitrariness of their elders, Pyramus and Thisby comments not only upon the fortunes of Demetrius and Helena, Lysander and Hermia, but also upon the misfortunes of autobiographical paper influences, Romeo and selling essay, Juliet. After all, both stories derive ultimately from the same source in autobiographical analyzes race Ovid's Metamorphoses , and Shakespeare's parallel renderings of the course of true love in Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream are so closely linked in time and treatment that it is tempting to regard the two plays as companion pieces--tragic and comic masks, as it were, for the same phase (1595-1596) of Shakespearean dramaturgy. Whether or not A Midsummer Night's Dream was commissioned for a wedding ceremony at Whitehall, as some scholars have speculated, the play is in fact a remarkable welding of disparate materials: the single life essay, fairy lore of Oberon and Titania and their impish minister Puck, the classical narrative of Theseus's conquest of the Amazons and their queen Hippolyta, the confused comings and goings of the young Athenian lovers who must flee to the woods to evade their tyrannical parents, and the rehearsals for a crude craft play by a band of well-meaning peasants. It is in some ways the most original work in the entire Shakespearean canon, and one is autobiographical analyzes influences anything but surprised that its something of great constancy has inspired the best efforts of such later artists as composer Felix Mendelssohn, painters Henry Fuseli and William Blake, director Peter Brook, and school, filmmakers Max Reinhardt and Woody Allen. A Midsummer Night's Dream is in many respects the epitome of festive comedy, an evocation of the folk rituals associated with such occasions as May Day and Midsummer Eve, and research analyzes influences race, its final mood is one of vs education, unalloyed romantic fulfillment. Romance is also a key ingredient in the concluding arias of Shakespeare's next comedy, The Merchant of autobiographical research influences, Venice , where Bassanio and Portia, Lorenzo and Jessica, and Gratiano and debating essay on cheating, Nerissa celebrate the happy consummation of three love quests and contemplate the music of the autobiographical research analyzes influences, spheres from a magical estate known symbolically as Belmont.
But the sweet harmony the lovers have achieved by the end of The Merchant of Venice has been purchased very dearly, and it is hard for a modern audience to selling essay accept the serenity of Belmont without at least a twinge of autobiographical paper influences race, guilt over what has happened in far-off Venice to bring it about. Whether The Merchant of Venice is best categorized as an anti-Semitic play (capitalizing on prejudices that contemporaries such as Marlowe had catered to single life essay in plays like The Jew of Malta ) or as a play about the evils of anti-Semitism (as critical of the Christian society that has persecuted the Jew as it is of the vengeance he vents in response), its central trial scene is autobiographical analyzes race profoundly disturbing for an audience that has difficulty viewing Shylock's forced conversion as a manifestation of mercy. Shylock's hath not a Jew eyes speech impels us to see him as a fellow human being--notwithstanding the compare single life and married, rapacious demand for justice that all but yields him Antonio's life before Portia's clever manipulations of the law strip the usurer of his own life's fortune--so that even if we feel that the Jew's punishment is less severe than what strict justice might have meted out to him, his grim exit nevertheless casts a pall over the festivities of the final act in Belmont. By contrast with A Midsummer Night's Dream , a play in which the disparate components of the analyzes, action are resolved in a brilliantly satisfying synthesis, The Merchant of Venice remains, for and married essay, many of us, a prototype of those later Shakespearean works that twentieth-century critics have labeled problem comedies. Even its fairy-tale elements, such as the casket scenes in which three would-be husbands try to analyzes divine the compare single life and married life, will of Portia's father, seem discordant to research paper analyzes race a modern audience that is asked to debating essay on cheating admire a heroine who dismisses one of her suitors with a slur on his Moroccan complexion.
Though it seems to have been written in late 1596 or early 1597 and, like A Midsummer Night's Dream , was first published in autobiographical race a good quarto in 1600, The Merchant of school essay, Venice feels closer in mood to Measure for Measure --which also pivots on a conflict between justice and mercy--than to most of the other romantic comedies of the analyzes race, mid to late 1590s. But if The Merchant of Venice strikes us now as a play that looks forward to a later phase of Shakespearean dramaturgy, the single life, plays he worked on next were a return to his beginnings. Possibly as early as 1595, and certainly no later than 1597, Shakespeare began a fresh exploration of the matter of autobiographical research analyzes race, English history with a play focusing on the events that precipitated the eye beauty, Wars of the Roses. It is autobiographical paper influences impossible to say whether Shakespeare knew, when he began composing Richard II , that he would go on to write the two parts of Henry IV and the drama on compare single life life essay, Henry V that would furnish the link between Richard II and the Henry VI trilogy with which he had begun his career as a playwright. But complete the cycle he did, and autobiographical analyzes race, the four English history plays Shakespeare wrote between 1595 and 1599 were even more impressive in their epic sweep than the four plays he had completed prior to the theatrical hiatus of 1593-1594. Richard II was, among other things, a major advance in Shakespeare's development as a poetic dramatist. Not only tutankhamun does the play contain the dying John of Gaunt's paean to This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, . This other Eden, demi-paradise, it also affords us a telling contrast between the laconic bluntness of Henry Bolingbroke, a man of action who is not quick to speak, and the self-indulgent lyricism of Richard II, a man of autobiographical paper analyzes influences, words who is, finally and bluest eye beauty, fatally, not quick to autobiographical paper analyzes influences race act. At the beginning of the play Richard's security in his presumption that God's deputy is above the law leads him to selling essay disregard the principles of primogeniture that are the basis of the King's own position as head of state. He disregards the autobiographical paper race, counsel of his elders, seizes the estates of John of life and married, Gaunt and other nobles, banishes in Bolingbroke a former ally who has maintained a discreet silence about crimes that would taint the monarch himself, and sets in motion the rebellion that will eventually render his throne untenable. By the climax of the play Richard is forced to surrender his crown in autobiographical research analyzes influences race a deposition scene that neatly counterpoises the eye beauty thesis, declining King's complicity for his own downfall with the rising King's usurpation of a throne to which he has no legitimate title. Influences. And by the end of the play Richard's pastoral musings in the Tower transform him into a quasi-martyr whose meditations on the death of kings are as deeply moving as anything that Shakespeare had written up to tutankhamun essay this point in his career.
As Richard prophesies, his murder at the hands of Henry IV's henchmen releases a tide of bloodshed that will not be stemmed until another legitimate monarch ascends the throne nearly a century in the future. When Richard II was published in a good quarto in 1597 it lacked the crucial deposition scene, owing almost certainly to influences the censor's awareness that it would seem threatening to the aging Queen Elizabeth. That such apprehensions were justified was borne out four years later when the play was performed on the eve of the abortive rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The deposition scene's first appearance in print was in selling essay the fourth quarto of 1608. As with the earlier English history plays, Richard II and the three Henry plays that followed derived in large measure from the 1587 second edition of autobiographical paper analyzes influences, Holinshed's Chronicles . But in all probability, they were also influenced by, and possibly even inspired by, the 1595 publication of Samuel Daniel's Civil Wars . In any event, it seems more likely that within a year of the completion of Richard II Shakespeare began work on its sequel, the first part of Henry IV . Taken together, parts 1 and bluest eye beauty, 2 of Henry IV focus our attention on the immediate consequences of Henry Bolingbroke's usurpation of the autobiographical research analyzes influences race, crown. The first consequence is selling essay signaled by research analyzes influences, the opening lines of the first part, where the selling essay, new King, shaken and wan with care, announces his desire to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, both as a means of expiating his guilt and as a means of unifying a giddy-minded nation that is now divided into warring factions. Unfortunately, rest is not to be attained by this tainted monarch. His claim to the throne is immediately challenged by autobiographical analyzes influences, his former allies, the Percies, and thereafter his reign is disturbed by one threat after another. The King does eventually arrive at Jerusalem near the essay on cheating, end of influences race, Henry IV , part 2, but ironically this destination turns out to aspects sociolinguistics be a room in the castle, and the setting for his deathbed scene, rather than the city he had hoped to wrest from pagan occupation at the birthplace of Christendom. The price that Henry IV pays for his usurpation turns out to be a nagging consciousness that uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.
And as significant as any other cause of the King's uneasiness is his fear that God has chosen to punish him with a wayward son whose loose behavior will forfeit the throne his father has expended so much anguish to mount and maintain. For all the King and his rivals can tell, the nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales is squandering his royal inheritance in the dissolute company of that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, and a low-life lot of tavern keepers, thieves, and prostitutes. But as we learn early in autobiographical research analyzes influences race Henry IV , part 1, Prince Hal is life and married life essay actually redeeming time in ways that surpass the political sagacity of even so Machiavellian a ruler as his father. Hal is acquiring firsthand knowledge of his nation's ordinary citizens, and the benefit he anticipates is autobiographical research analyzes influences that once he is King of essay, England he will be able to autobiographical paper analyzes influences race command all the compare life essay, good lads in Eastcheap. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes. As he prepares himself for the military trials with which he must be tested, moreover, he does so in the awareness that once he throws off the base contagious clouds that smother up his beauty from the world, he will emerge as England's true sun, rather than the flawed monarch he knows his father to be. And so he does. In the battle of Shrewsbury at single life the end of Henry IV , part 1, the valiant Hal defeats the fiery warrior the King would have preferred for research paper, a son.
By winning Hotspur's honors, Hal finally earns, at least for a moment, the respect and gratitude of a father whose life and kingdom he has saved. But it is not enough for Hal to essay have demonstrated the courage and prudence required of an heir apparent. In part 2 Shakespeare has him back at research paper analyzes race the Boar's Head tavern once again, and it is only after he has demonstrated the remaining kingly virtues of single and married life essay, temperance and justice--by casting off the influence of Falstaff and claiming as his second surrogate father the Lord Chief Justice--that Hal is autobiographical research paper influences race finally granted the crown for which he has been so thoroughly educated. Bluest Eye Beauty Thesis. His epic reaches its apogee in Henry V , a play described by its Chorus as a pageant in autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race honor of the tutankhamun essay, mirror of all Christian kings. Whether or not we are to feel that the paper, new King has dismissed some of his humanity in his rejection of the old fat man at tutankhamun his coronation, and whether or not we are to race regard with suspicion the ambiguous Salic Law that the Bishops invoke to justify the King's invasion of France, and whether or not we are to essay see the analyzes influences, King as cruel in his threat to allow the maidens and children of Harfleur to be raped and slaughtered if the essay, town refuses to surrender, the dominant impression that Henry V has made on most readers and producers is one of heroic celebration. The King proves firm and research paper analyzes influences race, resourceful in battle, mingling with his men in disguise on the eve of the engagement and exhorting them to noble valor in his famous St. Crispin's Day address. And once his happy few, his band of brothers, have triumphed against debating on cheating, all odds and paper, won the day, the King gives the glory to God.
He thus illustrates those qualities of the nurturing mother pelican--piety, self-sacrifice, humility, and magnanimity--that Christian kings were to display in single life and married addition to the monarchial attributes that Machiavelli and other political theorists had long associated with the lion and the fox. And in his wooing of his French bride, Katherine, at the end of the play, the King also exhibits the wit and charm that had endeared the historical Henry V to his admiring countrymen. It is possible that the wooden O referred to in the paper influences, Chorus's opening prologue was the Globe, newly opened on Bankside in 1599, and hence that Henry V was one of the first, if not the first, of Shakespeare's plays to school vs education essay be performed in that now-famous playhouse. Be that as it may, the play was probably completed in 1599, a year after Henry IV , part 2, and two years after Henry IV , part 1. All three plays had made their first appearances in print by 1600, the two parts of Henry IV in good quartos and Henry V in a bad quarto. The first reliable text of Henry V was that published in the First Folio in 1623. Autobiographical Paper Influences Race. The first good text of a related play, The Merry Wives of Windsor , also appeared in aspects sociolinguistics essays the Folio, but it too was initially published in autobiographical research paper analyzes influences a bad quarto, this one a memorial reconstruction dated 1602. On Cheating. Just when Merry Wives was written, and autobiographical research paper analyzes race, why, has been vigorously debated for decades. According to debating essay one legend, no doubt apocryphal but not totally lacking in plausibility, Shakespeare was commissioned to write the paper, play because the Queen wanted to see Falstaff in love.
If so, it seems likely that the play was also produced as an essay occasional piece in honor of the award of the Order of the Garter to autobiographical Lord Hunsdon, the essay, patron of the autobiographical paper race, Lord Chamberlain's Men, on 23 April 1597. There are references to a Garter ceremony at Windsor Castle in act five of The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Leslie Hotson has argued that even though the play may well have been performed later at the Globe, its first presentation was before Queen Elizabeth and Lord Hunsdon at Windsor on St. George's Day 1597. The Merry Wives of Windsor is aspects essays unique among Shakespeare's comedies in having an English town for research paper influences race, its setting. Its bourgeois characters have delighted audiences not only in the playhouse but also on the operatic stage, in what many critics consider the most successful of Verdi's numerous achievements in Shakespearean opera. Despite its obvious charms, however, the play has never been a favorite among Shakespeare's readers and literary interpreters. Debating Essay On Cheating. The reason is research analyzes influences race that the Falstaff we see in The Merry Wives of Windsor is selling essay a Falstaff largely lacking in the vitality and appeal of the character we come to love in the first part of Henry IV . Without Prince Hal and analyzes influences, the wit combats afforded by his jokes at Falstaff's expense, the Falstaff of Merry Wives is merely conniving and crude. We may laugh at the comeuppances he receives at the hands of the compare single life life essay, merry wives he tries to seduce--the buck-basket baptism he gets as his reward for the first encounter, the beatings and pinchings he suffers in paper analyzes his later encounters--but we see nothing of the inventiveness that makes Falstaff such a supreme escape artist in part 1 of school essay, Henry IV . So attenuated is the Falstaff of The Merry Wives of Windsor that many interpreters have argued that it is simply a mistake to approach him as the same character. In any case, we never see him in love. Autobiographical Research Paper Race. His is a profit motive without honor, and it is much more difficult for us to school vs education feel any pity for his plight in Merry Wives than it is in the three Henry plays that depict the pratfalls and decline of the young heir-apparent's genial lord of misrule. The play does have the autobiographical research, clever Mistress Ford and Mistress Page.
And in the jealous Master Ford and essay on cheating, the tyrannical Master Page it also has a pair of comic gulls whose sufferings can be amusing in the theater. But it is doubtful that The Merry Wives of Windsor will ever be among our favorite Shakespearean comedies, particularly when we examine it alongside such contemporary achievements as Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It . Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It were probably written in late 1598 and 1599, respectively, with the former first published in a good quarto in 1600 and the later making its initial appearance in the 1623 First Folio. Both are mature romantic comedies, and both have enjoyed considerable success in the theater. Nothing is a word of influences, potent ambiguity in Shakespeare (the playwright was later to explore its potential most profoundly in the nothing will come of nothing that constitutes the essence of King Lear ), and in Much Ado About Nothing its implications include the possibilities inherent in on cheating the wordplay on the Elizabethan homonym noting. Through the machinations of the surly Don John, who gulls the research analyzes race, superficial Claudio into believing that he notes his betrothed Hero in the act of giving herself to another lover, an innocent girl is rejected at the altar by a young man who believes himself to have been dishonored.
Fortunately, Don John and his companions have themselves been noted by the most incompetent watch who ever policed a city; and, despite their asinine constable, Dogberry, these well-meaning but clownish servants of the Governor of Messina succeed in bringing the crafty villains to justice. In doing so, they set in motion a process whereby Hero's chastity is eventually vindicated and she reappears as if resurrected from the selling essay, grave. Meanwhile, another pair of notings have been staged by research race, the friends of Benedick and Beatrice, with the result that these two sarcastic enemies to love and to each other are each tricked into believing that the other is secretly in love. At least as much ado is made of debating, Benedick and Beatrice's notings as of the others, and by the time the play ends these acerbic critics of amorous folly, grudgingly acknowledging that the paper influences, world must be peopled, have been brought to the altar with Claudio and Hero for a double wedding that concludes the play with feasting and merriment. Shakespeare could have drawn from a number of antecedents for the story of Hero and Claudio, among them cantos from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Spenser's Faerie Queene . But the nearest thing to a source for Beatrice and Benedick may well have been his own The Taming of the Shrew , whether another pair of unconventional would-be lovers struggle their way to a relationship that is all the more vital for the aggressive resistance that has to be channeled into harmony to bring it about. In any event, if there is some doubt about where Benedick and Beatrice came from, there is no doubt about the direction in which they point--to such gallant and eye beauty, witty Restoration lovers as Mirabell and Millamant in William Congreve's The Way of the World . Paper. With As You Like It Shakespeare achieved what many commentators consider to be the finest exemplar of a mode of compare single life, romantic comedy based on escape to autobiographical research and return from what Northrop Frye has termed the green world. As in A Midsummer Night's Dream (where the sociolinguistics, young lovers flee to autobiographical paper influences the woods to evade an Athens ruled by essay, the edicts of tyrannical fathers) and The Merchant of Venice (where Belmont serves as the antidote to all the venom that threatens life in Venice), in As You Like It the well-disposed characters who find themselves in the Forest of Arden think of it as an environment where even adversity is sweet and paper analyzes, restorative. Duke Senior has been banished from his dukedom by compare essay, a usurping younger brother, Duke Frederick. As the play opens, Duke Senior and his party are joined by Orlando and his aged servant Adam (who are running away from Orlando's cruel older brother Oliver), and later they in turn are joined by Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind and her cousin Celia (who have come to the forest, disguised as men, because the wicked Duke Frederick can no longer bear to autobiographical research have Rosalind in essay his daughter's company at court). The scenes in the forest are punctuated by a number of reflections on research paper analyzes influences, the relative merits of courtly pomp and pastoral simplicity, with the bluest eye beauty, cynical Touchstone and the melancholy Jaques countering any sentimental suggestion that the Forest of Arden is a golden world of paper analyzes influences race, Edenic perfection, and aspects of chinese, her sojourn in the forest allows the wise and witty Rosalind to paper analyzes influences use male disguise as a means of testing the affections of her lovesick wooer Orlando.
Eventually Orlando proves a worthy match for Rosalind, in large measure because he shows himself to be his brother's keeper. By driving off a lioness poised to devour the sleeping Oliver, Orlando incurs a wound that prevents him from life and married life appearing for autobiographical, an appointment with the disguised Rosalind; but his act of unmerited self-sacrifice transforms his brother into a new man who arrives on the scene in Orlando's stead and eventually proves a suitable match for bluest, Celia. Meanwhile, as the play nears its end, we learn that a visit to the forest has had a similarly regenerative effect on Duke Frederick, who enters a monastery and research influences race, returns the dukedom to its rightful ruler, Duke Senior. As You Like It derives in large measure from Thomas Lodge's romance Rosalynde or Euphues' Golden Legacy , a prose classic dating from 1590. But in his treatment of the strange events that draw the selling essay, play to a conclusion presided over by Hymen, the god of marriage, Shakespeare hints at the kind of miraculous transformation that will be given major emphasis in research analyzes influences race the late romances. The last of the great romantic comedies of Shakespeare's mid career, probably composed and performed in 1601 though not published until the 1623 First Folio, was Twelfth Night . Possibly based, in aspects part, on an Italian comedy of the 1530s called Gl'Ingannati , Twelfth Night is another play with implicit theological overtones. Its title comes from the name traditionally associated with the research, Feast of Epiphany (6 January, the twelfth day of the Christmas season), and much of its roistering would have seemed appropriate to an occasion when Folly was allowed to selling essay reign supreme under the guise of a Feast of autobiographical analyzes influences, Fools presided over by a Lord of Misrule. In Shakespeare's play, the character who represents Misrule is Sir Toby Belch, the carousing uncle of a humorless countess named Olivia. Together with such companions as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the jester Feste, and a clever gentlewoman named Maria, Sir Toby makes life difficult not only for Olivia but also for her puritan steward Malvolio, whose name means bad will and selling essay, whose function in the play, ultimately, is to be ostracized so that good will may prevail.
In what many consider to be the autobiographical analyzes, most hilarious gulling scene in all of essay on cheating, Shakespeare, Malvolio is tricked into thinking that his Lady is in love with him and persuaded to wear cross-gartered yellow stockings in research analyzes race her presence--attire that he believes will allure her, but attire that persuades her instead that he is deranged. Debating Essay On Cheating. The treatment that follows is autobiographical influences race a mock exercise in exorcism, and when Malvolio is finally released from his tormentors at thesis the end of the research paper race, play, he exits vowing revenge on the whole pack of them. As with the dismissal of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice , the punishment of Malvolio's presumption in on cheating Twelfth Night has seemed too harsh to research analyzes influences race many modern viewers and debating essay, readers. But that should not prevent us from seeing that Twelfth Night is also a play about other forms of self-indulgence (Count Orsino's infatuation with the autobiographical research paper influences race, pose of a courtly lover, and Olivia's excessively long period of mourning for her deceased brother) and essay, the means by which characters sick of self-love or self-deception are eventually restored to mental and emotional sanity. Through the autobiographical research paper race, ministrations of the wise fool, Feste, and the providential Viola, who arrives in Illyria after a shipwreck in which she mistakenly believes her brother Sebastian to have died, we witness a sequence of coincidences and single and married, interventions that seems too nearly miraculous to have been brought about by blind chance. Autobiographical Research Influences. By taking another series of potentially tragic situations and turning them to comic ends, Shakespeare reminds us once again that harmony and school essay, romantic fulfillment are at paper analyzes influences race the root of what Northrop Frye calls the argument of comedy. If Shakespeare's middle years are notable for sophisticated achievements in the genre we now refer to as romantic comedy, they are equally notable for the playwright's unprecedented strides in of chinese sociolinguistics essays the development of two other genres: tragedy and tragicomedy. In 1599, probably at the Globe, the autobiographical research paper, Lord Chamberlain's Men offered the compare life essay, earliest recorded performance of Julius Caesar (the first of three mature tragedies, now grouped as the Roman Plays, which all saw print for the first time in the 1623 Folio). Research Analyzes. Two years later, in late 1600 or early 1601, the company probably added to its repertory Hamlet (a play whose immediate and on cheating, sustained popularity was attested to by its 1603 publication in an unauthorized bad quarto, succeeded a year later by a good quarto that most textual scholars still rely upon for all but a few passages, in preference to the slightly revised text in the 1623 Folio, which was set principally from a copy of the prompt-book). Then in late 1601 or early 1602--once again drawing on the classical matter that had been the basis for the action of Julius Caesar and for many of the allusions in Hamlet --Shakespeare completed Troilus and Cressida , a play so uncompromisingly intellectual in its insistence that the audience by indirections find directions out that critics from the seventeenth century to the present have found it all but impossible to classify. If Troilus and Cressida is a comedy, as the epistle prefacing the research paper analyzes influences, 1609 First Quarto would indicate, it is at best a specimen of black humor very different in tone and treatment from Shakespeare's other efforts in tragicomedy.
If it is a tragedy, as its equivocal placement (occupying a no-man's-land between the Histories and eye beauty, the Tragedies) in the First Folio has led some scholars to argue, it is unique to the genre in autobiographical research race the way its language and action undercut the dignity of its heroic protagonists. Troilus and Cressida was followed, in 1602-1603 and 1604 respectively, by two other plays, again ambiguous in tone, that are also frequently discussed today as problem plays. All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure (both of which made their initial appearances in selling essay print in the First Folio) are tragicomedies that turn on bed tricks, and in their preoccupation with the autobiographical analyzes influences race, seamier aspects of sexuality they can be viewed as links between Hamlet , the first of Shakespeare's great tragedies, and Othello , the second (which seems to have been composed in 1604, when there is aspects a record of research analyzes influences, performance at Court). Julius Caesar --a play that may owe something to compare single sources as seemingly remote as St. Augustine's City of God and Erasmus's Praise of Folly in autobiographical research paper race addition to such obvious classical antecedents as Plutarch's Lives and Tacitus's Annals --is now regarded as a dramatic work of tutankhamun, considerable complexity. On the research analyzes, one hand, the play captures with remarkable fidelity the ethos and rhetorical style of late-republican Rome--so much so, indeed, that it may be said that Shakespeare's portraits of Caesar and selling essay, his contemporaries have largely formed our own impressions of autobiographical research analyzes race, how the school vs education, ancient Romans thought and talked and conducted their civic affairs. Recent studies of the play's references to research philosophy indicate, moreover, that Shakespeare knew a good deal about Roman Stoicism and aspects sociolinguistics essays, perceived it as one of the characterizing traits that differentiated Brutus from Cassius, an Epicurean continually nonplussed by his companion's mental rigidity and emotional aloofness. But if Shakespeare brought to research paper analyzes his dramatic art a historical imagination capable of reconstructing a self-consistent Roman world--and one that was distinct in significant ways from his own Elizabethan England--he was also capable of embodying in his representation of that world a perspective that amounted, in sociolinguistics essays effect, to research influences a Renaissance humanist critique of pre-Christian civilization. Thus it was quite possible for Shakespeare to portray the conspirators and eye beauty, their cause, as it were, sympathetically--so much so, indeed, that a twentieth-century audience, unwittingly misreading the play, finds it almost impossible not to hear in such exclamations as peace, freedom, and liberty! the precursors of America's own founding fathers. At the same time, however, Shakespeare would have known that he could rely on his Elizabethan contemporaries to research paper analyzes influences race regard as foredoomed any attempt to achieve social harmony through what they would have seen on compare and married, the stage as bloody butchery and regicide.
By the autobiographical paper influences race, same token, of course, Shakespeare could encourage his audience to identify with Brutus through participation in selling essay his soliloquies, while simultaneously assuming that alert members of that audience would recognize that Brutus's thought processes are often misguided and self-deceptive. In the late 1930s Mark Van Doren observed that, whatever Brutus's positive qualities as a high-minded patriot, he tends to come across in the play as a self-righteous, almost pharisaical prig, particularly in the quarrel scene with Cassius. In recent years a number of scholars have confirmed the validity of paper influences race, Van Doren's perception by showing that it is consistent with the hypothesis that in his portrayal of Brutus Shakespeare was drawing on a widely held Christian tradition that regarded Stoicism as a philosophy that rendered its adherents hard-hearted, arrogant, and selling essay, so assured of their own virtue as to be largely incapable of recognizing or repenting of autobiographical research analyzes, their faults. If this reading of Brutus is closer to bluest eye beauty Shakespeare's intention than the more sentimental view that approaches everything in the play from the retrospective vantage-point of Mark Antony's eulogy for the noblest Roman of them all, it tends to cast much of Julius Caesar in an ironic light--and by autobiographical paper influences, implication to require an selling essay audience alert to clues that are not always so self-evident as a twentieth-century reader or viewer might expect. Such an audience seems called for by Hamlet as well, at research paper analyzes influences race least if we are going to take seriously Hamlet's admonition that the players address their performance to the judicious, to those who are capable of viewing all the action, including that involving the selling essay, most engaging of protagonists, with a critical eye. This is difficult for us, because we have long been accustomed to thinking of Hamlet as the research paper influences race, sweet prince who epitomizes the ideal Renaissance courtier. Sociolinguistics Essays. There is autobiographical research no danger, to be sure, that Hamlet will ever lose his appeal as an compare single life articulate and research paper analyzes influences race, ardent existentialist--as the prototype of tutankhamun essay, modern man in spiritual crisis. But recent critical studies and productions of the play have raised questions about the autobiographical research analyzes influences race, matter of debating, Hamlet in Elizabethan terms that suggest a somewhat less admirable protagonist than most of us would like to believe the play presents. It is no longer universally assumed, for example, that the play within the play, by proving the Ghost honest in his testimony about Claudius's guilt, is sufficient to autobiographical paper analyzes race prove the Ghost honest in Hamlet's more fundamental sense. Enough evidence remains in the play to suggest that the Ghost may yet be a devil intent on abusing the melancholic Hamlet by exhorting him to debating the kind of autobiographical analyzes influences, vengeance that Elizabethan Christians believed to belong only to God or to his deputed magistrates.
And Hamlet's disinclination to try the spirit earlier in the play is but one of many indications in the text that he fails to put to proper use what he elsewhere describes as godlike reason. A close examination of many of Hamlet's reflective speeches, including his celebrated To be nor not to essay be soliloquy, will show that they serve functions similar to those of Brutus in Julius Caesar . By bringing the audience into research analyzes race, the protragonist's confidence, they endear him to us and bluest thesis, incline us to see everything and everyone else in research paper analyzes influences the action through his eyes. But if we pay careful attention to the nuances of thought in these reflections, we will notice that many of them tend to be irrational--peppered with non sequiturs and disclosing the kind of essay on cheating, emotional stress that renders a man prone to error. A dispassionate scrutiny of the influences, roles of selling essay, Rosencrantz and research analyzes influences race, Guildenstern will reveal that, however conventionally ambitious these young courtiers may be, they mean Hamlet well and are anything but the vs education essay, adders fanged that Hamlet regards them as having become. The play provides no evidence that they deserve the research paper analyzes race, sudden death, not shriving time allowed that Hamlet gleefully bequeaths them; and it is arguable that Shakespeare expected his audience to sociolinguistics essays feel that they should be near Hamlet's conscience when he assures Horatio that they are not. And near the end of the play, when Hamlet disregards the gaingiving that warns him not to autobiographical paper analyzes accept the wager proffered by the treacherous Claudius--when he dismisses Horatio's prudence and disdains the essays, kind of premonition that would perhaps trouble a woman--he allows himself to be seduced (and in a way that parallels Julius Caesar's being led to the Capitol) into a trap that means certain death. Far from research influences being guided by eye beauty thesis, providence, as his New Testament allusions would suggest at paper this point in the action, Hamlet is being lured by pride into an ambush that he might have avoided by single life life essay, heeding his godlike reason. As Claudius had predicted, Hamlet shows himself to be remiss.
None of which in any way diminishes the attractiveness of autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, Hamlet's wit and fervor, or suggests that he is not infinitely to be preferred to the mighty opposite aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, whose regicide and research paper analyzes, usurpation he puts to aspects sociolinguistics essays scourge. No, there is autobiographical research paper analyzes race no doubt that Hamlet uncovers and sets right much that is rotten in the state of Denmark. Selling Essay. The only autobiographical research paper analyzes race question is whether the compare single essay, play invites us to consider a set of might have beens that would have permitted us to approve of the protagonist even more unreservedly than we do. Autobiographical Research Influences Race. If the findings of essay, recent commentators are to be credited, it would seem likely that our identification with Hamlet's cause should be qualified by autobiographical paper analyzes influences, an awareness that he did not completely find the way rightly to be great. The whole argument is school essay a whore and a cuckold.
So the autobiographical research analyzes race, acid-tongued Thersites sums up the matter of Troy and the occasion of Troilus and tutankhamun essay, Cressida . We may not wish to see our legendary forebears reduced so unceremoniously to the base matter of lust and dishonor, but there is autobiographical research analyzes race little in school essay the plot or dialogue of influences race, Shakespeare's play to cite in refutation. The Trojan War is in fact a conflict over the ravishingly beautiful but thoughtless Helen (the whore whom Paris has stolen away from the cuckold Menelaus), and one would have to search hard to aspects of chinese sociolinguistics essays find anything to admire in most of the principals who figure in the inconsequential council scenes, squalid intrigues, and interrupted combats that dominate the action. Because what Troilus and Cressida is paper race largely about is a ludicrously unheroic siege to determine whether the Trojans return Helen to selling essay the Greeks or see their city fall in defense of a cause that even the greatest Trojan warrior considers unworthy of their several honors. As Hector points out, the Trojans can appeal to neither justice nor reason in support of their determination to keep Helen; the best that anyone can say of her is that, quite apart from what she may be in and of herself, she is autobiographical race a theme of honor and renown,/A spur to debating valiant and magnanimous deeds. Paper Analyzes. But when we look for such deeds in the play, what we find on both sides are acts of questionable valor at best (as when Hector, having challenged the selling essay, Greeks to find a combatant to uphold their honor as lovers, breaks off a hand-to-hand duel with Ajax on the grounds that they are cousins) and downright cowardice at worst (as when Achilles, having come upon Hector at research paper a moment when he has removed his armor to rest, merely summons his Myrmidons to slaughter the champion of the Trojans). In the essay on cheating, meantime we are treated to the voyeurism of Pandarus, an impotent and diseased bawd whose only pleasure in autobiographical paper race life is to serve as go-between for Troilus and Cressida, and the homoerotic indulgence of Achilles and Patroclus, who have withdrawn from combat because of a slight the prima donna Achilles thinks he has suffered at the hands of the Greek general, Agamemnon. Small wonder that Ulysses should observe that degree is shak'd. And little wonder that director Jonathan Miller, in his 1982 BBC television production of Troilus and Cressida , hit upon M*A*S*H as the most apt twentieth-century analogue for a satiric seventeenth-century depiction of war as the triumph of unreason, ennui, and depravity. There is, to vs education be sure, some momentary relief in the scenes depicting the wooing of Troilus and Cressida.
And when Cressida is eventually delivered back to the Greek camp at the request of her father, one feels that her surrender to Diomede is more a result of her feminine helplessness in research paper analyzes influences a male-controlled world than a manifestation of some prior proclivity to compare single life essay infidelity. But despite the lyricism of Troilus and autobiographical research race, Cressida's lovemaking, and selling essay, the agony both lovers feel upon parting, one emerges from this play moved less by the pathos of the love story than by Shakespeare's presentation of what T. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes. S. Eliot, writing three centuries later about another literary work deriving ultimately from Homer, praised as a reflection of the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. It may well be that Troilus and Cressida seemed just as modern and puzzling in bluest thesis the early seventeenth century as Joyce's Ulysses seemed when it appeared in the early twentieth. Modern in another sense may be a good way to describe All's Well That Ends Well . After a long history of neglect, this tragicomedy has recently enjoyed a good deal of success in the theater and on television, and one of the explanations that have been given is that it features a heroine who, refusing to accept a preordained place in a hierarchical man's world, does what she has to do to autobiographical research paper influences race win her own way. Orphaned at an early age and reared as a waiting-gentlewoman to the elegant and sensitive Countess of Rossillion, Helena presumes to eye beauty thesis fall in love with the Countess's snobbish son Bertram. Using a cure she learned from her dead father, who had been a prominent physician, Helena saves the life of the ailing King of France, whereupon she is rewarded with marriage to the man of autobiographical research analyzes influences race, her choice among all the eligible bachelors in the land. Eye Beauty Thesis. She astonishes Bertram by selecting him. Research Paper Analyzes Influences. Reluctantly, Bertram consents to matrimony, but before the marriage can be consummated he leaves the country with his disreputable friend Parolles, telling Helena in a note that he will be hers only when she has fulfilled two presumably impossible conditions: won back the ring from his finger and borne a childe to school him.
Disguised as a pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to Florence. There she substitutes herself for a woman named Diana, with whom Bertram has made an assignation, and satisfies the despicable Bertram's demands. Paper Influences Race. One of the problems that have troubled critics of All's Well That Ends Well is the device of the bed trick. But we now know that Shakespeare had biblical precedent for such a plot (Genesis 35) and that it was associated in essays the Old Testament with providential intervention. Which may be of some value to us in dealing with the other major issues: why should Helena want so vain and selfish a man as Bertram in the first place, and autobiographical paper influences, how can we accept at face value his reformation at the end?
If we suspend our disbelief enough to grant the fairy-tale premises of the plot (which derived from a story in Boccaccio's Decameron ,) we should be able to grant as well that in selling essay a providentially ordered world, the end may not only justify the means but sanctify them. Autobiographical Paper Analyzes. And if the end that Helena has in view is not only to win Bertram but to make him love her dearly ever, ever dearly, we must grant the playwright the final miracle of a Bertram who can be brought to see his evil ways for what they are and repent of them. A similar miracle would seem to be the final cause of Measure for compare life life, Measure . At the beginning of the play, Duke Vincentio, noting that he has been too lenient in his administration of the laws of Venice, appoints as deputy an icy-veined puritan named Angelo, whom he expects to be more severe for a season of much-needed civic discipline. Research Paper. Almost immediately upon the Duke's departure, Angelo finds himself confronted with a novitiate, Isabella, who, in pleading for the life of a brother condemned for fornification, unwittingly arouses the new deputy's lust. Vs Education. Angelo offers her an exchange: her brother's life for her chastity. Astonished by the deputy's disregard for both God's laws and man's, Isabella refuses. Later, as she tries to prepare Claudio for his execution and discovers that he is less shocked by the deputy's offer than his sister had been, Isabella upbraids him, too, as a reprobate. At this point the Duke, who has been disguised as a friar, persuades Isabella to accept Angelo's offer on the understanding that his former betrothed, Mariana, will sleep with him instead. Once again the bed trick proves effectual and autobiographical research analyzes race, providential. In the trial that takes place at thesis the entrance to the city upon the Duke's return, Isabella accuses Angelo of having corrupted his office and executed her brother despite an analyzes influences race agreement to selling essay spare him (an order of the deputy's that, unknown to Isabella, has been forestalled by the friar).
But then, in response to Mariana's pleas for her assistance, she decides not to press her claim for justice and instead kneels before the Duke to beg that Angelo's life be spared. The Duke grants her request, and Angelo--illustrating Mariana's statement that best men are molded out of autobiographical research paper race, faults--repents and accepts the Duke's mercy. Measure for Measure qualifies as a tragicomedy because the of chinese, questions it raises are serious (how to balance law and autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, grace, justice and mercy, in human society) and the issue (whether or not Angelo will be executed for his evil intentions with respect to Claudio) is in doubt until the moment when, by kneeling beside Mariana, Isabella prevents what might have been a kind of revenge tragedy. (The Duke tells Mariana, Against all sense you do importune her./Should she kneel down in mercy of life life essay, this fact,/Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,/And take her hence in horror.) In Shakespearean comedy, of course, all's well that ends well. Revenge gives way to forgiveness or repentance, and characters who might have died in self-deception or guilt are given a second chance. As for Isabella, she too gains insight and sensitivity as a consequence of her trials, and at the conclusion of the autobiographical paper race, play she finds herself the recipient of a marriage proposal from her previously disguised counselor, the school vs education, Duke. Whether she accepts it, and if so how, has become one of the chief problems to be solved by directors and actors in modern productions. After Measure for Measure , so far as we can tell, Shakespeare turned his attention entirely to tragedy for three or four years.
By 1604, apparently, he completed Othello , the second of the four major tragedies. By 1605 he seems to autobiographical research analyzes influences have completed King Lear , the third and, in the estimation of many, the greatest of the tragedies. And by 1606 he had evidently written the last of the tutankhamun, big four, Macbeth . During the next two to research paper analyzes influences three years Shakespeare turned once more to classical sources, completing Antony and Cleopatra and compare and married, Coriolanus , respectively, in 1606-1607 and 1607-1608, and analyzes influences race, abandoning Timon of selling essay, Athens (if we are correct in thinking that it was left unfinished and unacted) sometime around 1607 or 1608. Only two of these plays appeared in quarto printings, King Lear in 1608 in what many scholars now regard as a memorial reconstruction of an early version of the play, and Othello in 1622 in a text of paper race, uncertain provenance. Most modern editions of eye beauty thesis, King Lear and Othello follow the First Folio texts as their prime authorities, supplementing those texts where appropriate with readings or passages from the analyzes influences, quartos (although, particularly with King Lear , where the two printings of the play are thought by some to derive from aspects essays discrete and influences, self-consistent earlier and later scripts of the play, there is now a school of thought that opposes conflating the compare essay, Folio and autobiographical research paper analyzes, quarto versions). The other three tragedies all appeared for the first time in the 1623 Folio. Debating. When we come to Othello fresh from a reading of either Hamlet or Measure for Measure , we can see links with the earlier plays in Othello 's treatment of autobiographical research analyzes, sexual love and in selling essay the play's preoccupation with ethical questions that turn, ultimately, on revenge versus forgiveness. Research Paper Analyzes Influences. For whatever else Othello is, it is a species of revenge tragedy. To the extent that Iago is impelled by debating essay on cheating, something more specific than what Coleridge termed motiveless malignity, he is motivated by a determination to autobiographical analyzes influences prove Othello egregiously an ass for promoting Michael Cassio rather than Iago to the lieutenancy. Debating Essay On Cheating. And Iago's vengeance extends to Cassio as well as to Othello.
But more to autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race the point, once Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has slept with Cassio, he transforms Othello into the principal tool as well as the prime object of tutankhamun essay, his revenge. Iago's poison is administered in autobiographical analyzes influences race two doses. First he provides enough circumstantial proof to selling essay make plausible his insinuation that Desdemona has been unfaithful to research Othello. But second and far more crucial, he works Othello into such a frenzy that he is unable to give serious consideration to any response to his knowledge other than revenge. Once Othello becomes persuaded that Desdemona is indeed guilty of infidelity, his instinctive reaction is to tutankhamun exclaim But yet the paper analyzes influences, pity of it, Iago! O Iago, the aspects sociolinguistics essays, pity of it, Iago!
To which Iago replies If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody. Here as elsewhere Iago's method is to get Othello to focus, not on Desdemona, but on himself. By constantly reiterating such terms as reputation, good name, and honor, Iago plays upon Othello's insecurity as a Moorish alien and implies that his wife's behavior will make him the autobiographical research paper race, laughingstock of Venetian society. Essay. It is autobiographical research analyzes influences race a mark of his worthiness as a tragic hero that, to the end, Othello retains the free and open nature that made him vulnerable to Iago in the beginning. Iago may manipulate Othello into committing a rash and single life essay, terrible murder, but he cannot reduce Othello entirely to a blunt instrument of the ensign's vengeance. Before Othello can bring himself to suffocate Desdemona, he must first delude himself into believing that he is an agent of divine justice. And even in that role his innate compassion leads him to offer his wife a moment to prepare her soul for research paper analyzes, heaven. It is single life true that Othello becomes angry again when Desdemona fails to confess to a crime that would have been inconceivable to her, but one of the things that makes his act pathetic rather than malicious is the fact that he continues to express his devotion for autobiographical, Desdemona even as he forces himself to school vs education essay snuff out her life.
In that sense as well as in paper influences Iago's more cynical sense, then, Othello becomes an honorable murderer. And no matter how we judge Othello's final speech and bloody period, we have to agree with Cassio's assessment that he was great of school vs education, heart. With King Lear we come to a tragedy whose pattern is autobiographical research paper without parallel in the Shakespearean canon. In all the other tragedies, despite the beauty of the benedictions that convey the school vs education, protagonists to their eternal destinies, we are left at autobiographical analyzes the end with a nagging sense of purposes mistook that might have been averted or deflected. The basic movement of the plot has been downward, and we come away feeling that we as audience have perceived something that the tragic protagonists themselves have been unable or unwilling to see. In those tragedies in which the selling essay, protagonists have committed suicide, we are shown that in so doing they are wittingly or unwittingly admitting failure or surrendering to despair, notwithstanding their best efforts to keep their spirits up and research paper analyzes, evade the full consequences of the choices that have brought them to their present pass. But this is not the pattern we find in King Lear . In this play the spiritual movement (as distinguished from the protagonists' outward fortunes) is essentially upward. To be sure, there are terrible errors and terrifying consequences; in this play, however, we are led to believe that at least some of the pain is cathartic. There can be little doubt that both Lear and Gloucester are in debating on cheating some sense better men at research paper analyzes influences the end of their lives than they were at the beginning of the action. And if the play is school performed in such a way as to emphasize the degree to influences race which the protagonists have been able to learn and grow through the endurance of tragic suffering, the audience is likely to emerge with a sense of uplift rather than with the of chinese, weight of unmitigated pity and autobiographical research influences race, fear.
This is not to suggest, of course, that there is essay any less agony and tragic loss in King Lear than in Shakespeare's other works in the same genre. Indeed, given the play's cosmic resonance--the honored place it now holds in the tradition represented by such theodicies as the Book of autobiographical race, Job-- King Lear has been thought by many to evoke more existential terror than all of Shakespeare's other tragedies combined. Single Life And Married. Lear eventually comes to the realization that he has been a foolish fond old man. Paper Race. In a parallel recognition the blinded Gloucester acknowledges that he stumbled when [he] saw. But first both fathers must feel the brunt of the savagery their earlier misdeeds have unleashed upon the world. Having abdicated his throne and life and married, divided his kingdom, Lear soon discovers that he is powerless to prevent his pelican daughters from joining with Gloucester's bastard son in an all-out effort to devour it--and each other. Lear's faithful Fool wastes away. The loyal Kent and Edgar are reduced to wretches. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes Influences. And, most insupportable of all, at the end of the play the innocent Cordelia is hanged. For Lear as he enters cradling his beloved daughter in his arms, this is the ultimate punishment for the arrogance and folly that had led him, at the beginning, to spurn and disinherit her.
But as heartrending as this concluding pietà is for any of the play's audiences, it can represent a chance which does redeem all sorrows if it is staged in bluest thesis harmony with the psychological and spiritual undulations of Lear's dying moments. Just before he says Pray you undo this button, Lear believes that, as Kent puts it, all's cheerless, dark, and deadly. Research Analyzes. After he says Thank you, sir, however, Lear utters what can be read as an exclamation that by some miracle Cordelia yet lives: Do you see this? Look on her! Look, her lips,/Look there, look there! In our time these words have most often been interpreted as expressions of aspects, bleak despair. But a reading that is at least as consistent with the rest of the play is that Lear, like Gloucester, 'Twixt two extremes of research paper race, passion, joy and grief,/[Bursts] smilingly.
We know, of course, that Cordelia is selling essay dead as earth. But it seems fitting that as he dies Lear should see her as alive. If so, it may be nothing more than a merciful hallucination. It may be a desperate man's last grasp at something to sustain a flicker of faith. Autobiographical Paper Influences. But it may also register an experience comparable to that of another long-suffering king, the protagonist in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus . In short, it may be that Lear is selling essay here granted a last epiphany that takes him out of this tough world to a glimpse of something better beyond: because by the end of his long pilgrimage, in the words of T. S. Eliot's Little Gidding , it would seem that Lear has finally arrived at autobiographical the true meaning of nothing: a condition of complete simplicity, costing not less than everything.
Near the debating essay, end of autobiographical research paper analyzes influences race, Macbeth's bloody reign, as he braces for the closing in of his adversaries, he too would like to achieve a kind of simplicity: I gin to be aweary of the sun,/And wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone. But in Macbeth's case the goal to be obtained is mere oblivion, not the brief but beatific vision of a broken old man for whom at last something has come of eye beauty thesis, nothing. For, unlike Lear's, Macbeth's career has charted a downward course, from the magnificently heroic champion whom Duncan has greeted as valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! to paper analyzes influences the desperate tyrant whose acts of regicide and wanton slaughter have tied [him] to a stake as the fiend who must be executed to set the time free. As a tragic action, Macbeth is almost the polar opposite tutankhamun, of King Lear . Whereas in autobiographical influences race Lear we may be inclined to feel that death is swallowed up in selling essay victory, in Macbeth we feel that the protagonist's defeat is merely the influences race, prelude to final judgment and damnation. Lear's is the selling essay, kind of paper race, fortunate fall that results from a miscalculation born of habitual self-indulgence; it forces the King to contemplate unaccommodated man in all his vulnerability, and it subjects him to a refining wheel of selling essay, fire that purifies him spiritually. Macbeth's, on the other hand, is the kind of paper influences, fall that results from premeditated murder in the service of vaulting ambition. As he himself acknowledges, there are no extenuating circumstances behind which he can shield his crime, and the only selling essay change it brings about in Macbeth is temporarily to rob him of sleep and security until, supp'd full with horrors, he eventually loses all capacity for the taste of fears or any other humanizing emotion or sensation. By the final act, life for Macbeth is but a walking shadow, a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing. Paper Analyzes Race. And yet, despite his infamy, we still find it possible to participate in, and vs education essay, even in some fashion to identify with, Macbeth's descent into hell. Research Influences. In part this results from our awareness of his auspicious beginnings--our recollection of that period at the outset when we see Macbeth tempted but nevertheless resisting the promptings of the school, Witches and Lady Macbeth.
Because Macbeth himself is aware of the autobiographical research race, heinousness of the deed he is on the verge of committing, we can sympathize with him as a man like one of us. And then, once he has taken the tutankhamun essay, fatal plunge, we become parties to his inner turmoil. Autobiographical Analyzes Race. By means of the debating on cheating, soliloquies and meditations that Shakespeare allows us to overhear, we share Macbeth's torment and anxiety, his feverish desire to put out of mind that which he cannot bear to autobiographical research analyzes race dwell upon. And thus, even though what he and Lady Macbeth do is beyond the pale of thinkable human behavior, we can still bring pity and fear to both their stories--recalling, in the words of a famous prayer, that there, but for selling essay, the grace of God, go I. Moving from Macbeth 's Scotland to the Mediterranean ambience of Antony and Cleopatra is autobiographical research paper influences a culture shock so disorienting as almost to aspects sociolinguistics make us lose our bearings. Can the same author who gave us Macbeth and research paper influences race, Lady Macbeth, two potent personalities who seize power and then degenerate into tremulous tyrants, so soon thereafter have created Antony and Cleopatra, two mercurial rulers who seem, at least in eye beauty their grandiloquent gestures, to become increasingly engaging as their fortunes wane and they almost willfully throw their power away? And how do we graph the movement of the action in a play where at least part of the problem is to assess the relative merits of a Roman way of looking at things (which judges both lovers as failures because they have declined to elevate civic and military duty above all other human concerns) as opposed to autobiographical analyzes race an Egyptian way of bluest thesis, looking at things (which is based on the premise that one should be willing, in Dryden's later phrase, to sacrifice all for love)?
Is it likely that Shakespeare expected his audience to paper analyzes influences bring a coherent Elizabethan perspective to bear on both ancient cultures? And if so, what would an audience viewing the play from that perspective have thought about Antony and Cleopatra? These are the kinds of question a reading of essays, Antony and Cleopatra elicits, and the majority of its interpreters during the last three centuries have answered them in such a way as to place this second Roman play in a category largely its own. Noting that the Roman characters are bloodless and coldly calculating--particularly Octavius and his sister Octavia, whose hand Octavius gives to Antony in an effort to resolve the political differences he has been having with his slothful counterpart in research paper influences Egypt--most critics and tutankhamun, theater professionals have found them much less appealing than they do the two lovers. The consequence has been that readers and viewers have tended to see Antony and Cleopatra as the characters see themselves and thus to regard the autobiographical analyzes race, play primarily as a dramatization of what John Donne termed the canonization of love. The main problem with this interpretation of the action is that it requires us to ignore the many indications, throughout the play, that both lovers are impulsive and escapist. A sentimental approach to tutankhamun Antony and Cleopatra blinds us to clues that the new heaven and new earth to which the lovers direct their suicides is little more than a fantasyland that they have created as a way of palliating their defeat and impending capture. We may be stirred by the magic of Enobarbus's descriptions of Cleopatra's transcendent charms, and we cannot help but admire the eloquence with which Antony and Cleopatra prepare themselves for death. But we should remember at the same time that it is relatively simple to influences count the world well lost if through neglect one has already handed it over to one's enemies. An apt Elizabethan gloss on Antony and Cleopatra might well be borrowed from Shakespeare's Sonnet 129: All this the essay, world well knows, yet none knows well/To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. Research Analyzes Race. Because of the aspects of chinese, vividness of its central figures and the exoticism and luxuriousness of its language, Antony and Cleopatra has long been one of Shakespeare's most popular plays.
But nothing could be farther from the autobiographical research paper analyzes race, case with its successor. Coriolanus the third and last of Shakespeare's mature Roman plays, is school vs education essay sparing and autobiographical research paper analyzes race, harsh in its diction and selling essay, spartan in its spectacle. And only rarely--but usually with distinction--has it been performed, even in paper influences our own production-rich century. The hero of the on cheating, play is one of the least endearing of Shakespeare's major characters. Godlike in autobiographical research analyzes influences race battle, where his feats of valor and leadership are so extraordinary as to seem Herculean, Coriolanus becomes a veritable beast when called upon to participate in the civic affairs of early republican Rome. His contempt for the moblike plebeians is exceeded only by his hatred of the tribunes and senators who play the soldier-general and the common people off against one another.
Coriolanus refuses to flatter anyone for any reason, and he lashes out at the hypocrisy required of him when he is essay on cheating told that he must bare his wounds and beg for the voices of the citizens in order to analyzes influences race be elected tribune, an office he has not sought and a responsibility he makes clear he does not want. Eventually his intransigence makes him so unpopular that he gets himself banished from Rome. To which he offers an tutankhamun arch retort that is perfectly in character: I banish you! Confident that there is autobiographical research paper influences race a world elsewhere, Coriolanus departs from the city as a lonely dragon. But soon, to the astonishment and terror of his former fellows, he joins forces with Rome's arch-enemies, the selling essay, Volscians. In the final movement of the play we see him lead an army to the gates of Rome that threatens to destroy the research paper analyzes influences race, Empire in its infancy. But at this point Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, intervenes and pleads with the hero to spare his native city for her sake. Reluctantly, and aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, with a premonition that his decision will prove fatal to him, Coriolanus accedes to his mother's request. Autobiographical Paper Analyzes Influences. Then, cunningly provoked to one last intemperate outburst by the foxlike Volscian general Aufidius, who calls him a boy of tears, Coriolanus brings down upon himself the wrathful hordes of the Volscians he has just betrayed.
Just what this rough-hewn and inhospitable play is about has been much debated. But critics as varied as T. Selling Essay. S. Eliot and Frank Kermode, and actors as distinguished as Laurence Olivier and Alan Howard, have shown that it can be a challenging and at times a thrilling dramatic achievement. Research Analyzes. In all likelihood it will receive more attention--and admiration--in the future than it has tended to receive in the past. Whether this will be true of aspects of chinese essays, Shakespeare's final experiment in tragedy, Timon of autobiographical research analyzes, Athens is less certain. Selling Essay. Derived, like the autobiographical paper, three major Roman plays, primarily from Plutarch's Lives , Timon of Athens is generally regarded as a play that the author left unfinished. There is no record of essays, its having been performed in Shakespeare's lifetime, and it has only appeared sporadically (and seldom notably) in autobiographical influences race the centuries since. Tutankhamun Essay. As a character, Timon has affinities with Lear and Coriolanus. Like Lear, he comes to think of himself as a victim of ingratitude, a man more sinned against than sinning.
And, like Coriolanus, he responds to his mistreatment by banishing all society from his presence. Unlike either character, however, Timon is incapable of growth or compromise. Once he has spurned the friends who have refused to help him with the creditors his excessive generosity has brought to the door, Timon retreats to a cave and disregards every entreaty to concern himself with his fellow man. His foil, Alcibiades, can forgive Athens its injustices and return to save the city from ruin. But Timon elects to spend the rest of autobiographical research paper race, his life in tutankhamun essay solitude, cursing all of humanity with an autobiographical research paper analyzes invective that eventually becomes tedious in the extreme. Critics such as G. Wilson Knight and Rolf Soellner have argued valiantly for the poetic and theatrical merits of Timon of Athens . But thus far their adherents have proven only debating essay slightly more numerous than the followers of Timon himself. Original the research, play may be; but few have come to selling essay praise it as a fully realized work of dramatic art. After Coriolanus and Timon of Athens , Shakespeare seems to have shifted his focus again.
He wrote no more tragedies, so far as we know, and the single history play that appeared was so different from his previous efforts in that genre that it seems to belong to the realm of romance rather than to the world of ordinary political and social interaction. And indeed romance is now the generic term most frequently applied to the mature tragicomedies that critics once referred to somewhat loosely as the Late Plays. Research Paper Analyzes Influences Race. If we include Henry VIII in their number, there are six surviving works that qualify as late romances. One of them, The Two Noble Kinsmen , we know to have been written by Shakespeare in essay collaboration with his fellow dramatist John Fletcher. Two others, Pericles and Henry VIII , are also regarded by many scholars as likely to autobiographical research paper analyzes race have resulted from joint authorship--as was evidently the case, too, with the lost Cardenio , attributed to Shakespeare and Fletcher in a Stationers' Register entry of 1753. Which leaves us with three plays-- Cymbeline , The Winter's Tale , and school essay, The Tempest --that are unanimously accepted as works entirely by Shakespeare. Autobiographical Influences Race. Since all but one of the Late Plays ( Pericles , which seems to have been completed in 1606-1608) appeared after Shakespeare's company added the Blackfriars as a venue for performance--and since even that work may have been written with indoor staging in debating on cheating view (we know that Pericles was presented at autobiographical Court sometime between January 1606 and November 1608)--it seems eminently possible, as Gerald Eades Bentley has suggested, that Shakespeare's modifications in dramaturigcal style resulted, at least in bluest thesis part, from changes in emphasis by the King's Men. If Shakespeare and his colleagues were easing away from total dependence on the comparatively broad-based audiences they had long attracted to the Globe and were beginning to cast their fortunes more confidently with the aristocratic clientele they served at Court or would be able to cultivate at the private Blackfriars theater, they may well have begun to rethink their dramatic repertory. Under these circumstances, Shakespeare and his fellow shareholders could readily have arrived at research analyzes influences a determination to vs education concentrate on offerings such as their more well-to-do audiences had grown accustomed to research seeing: masquelike entertainments of the sort that Court patronage encouraged, and essay, mythological and fanciful diversions of the type that the children's companies had made their specialty in autobiographical indoor halls like the Blackfriars.
In any event, the sequence of dramatic works initiated by aspects, Pericles is strikingly different in race many respects from the sequence that preceded it. Relying as many of them do on such devices as a choral presenter (Gower in Pericles , or Time in The Winter's Tale ) to bluest eye beauty thesis narrate background incidents, the romances tend to be rambling and panoramic by comparison with the earlier plays (the salient exception being The Tempest, which is unusually focused in time, place, and action). Frequently, they contain incidents that are wildly implausible (as when Antigonus exits pursued by autobiographical research paper race, a bear in The Winter's Tale ), and most of aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, them draw heavily on storms, shipwrecks, and other violently disruptive acts of God to move the action forward. Families are separated at sea, left to wander for years in adversity, and then miraculously reunited at the close. Symbolically named children (Marina in Pericles , Perdita in The Winter's Tale , Miranda in The Tempest ) function dramatically as instruments of special grace, restoring faith and vision to parents who have temporarily lost their way. Paper. Terrible calamities are but narrowly averted, and then only because of sudden reversals that depend either upon some character's astonishing change of heart or upon an inexplicable visitation from above. Rather than conceal their artifice, the romances tend to display it openly, on of chinese, the one hand reminding the audience that what it is research analyzes influences race witnessing is only make-believe, on the other hand manipulating viewers' responses so as to bluest thesis prepare the influences, audience for some climactic wonder toward which the entire sequence has been directed. The first three acts of Pericles seem so naive dramaturgically that many scholars consider them to be by of chinese sociolinguistics essays, a playwright other than Shakespeare. Among the contemporaries whose names have been proposed for the dubious honor of collaborator in accordance with this hypothesis is George Wilkins, whose novel The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre appeared in the same year (1608) as the entry for Pericles in the Stationers' Register.
All we know for certain is that the play was first published in 1609 in a relatively crude quarto that was reprinted several times before Pericles made its initial folio entry when it was added to the second issue of the Third Folio in autobiographical paper 1664. Just why Pericles was not included in compare and married essay the First Folio has never been determined. Its omission may have had something to do with the poor condition of the only available text. Paper Influences. Or it may have stemmed from the essay, assumption that the play was not completely by Shakespeare. Autobiographical Research Analyzes. The second of vs education, these hypotheses would also explain the exclusion of The Two Noble Kinsmen (though of course it would not explain the in clusion of Henry VIII if, as many scholars believe, that too was a play that Shakespeare wrote in collaboration with another playwright). Whatever the research paper analyzes influences, case, Pericles is immediately recognizable as a point of debating essay on cheating, departure. Drawing from a fifth-century romantic narrative by Apollonius of Tyre as retold in the Confessio Amantis of the fourteenth-century English poet John Gower, the play is autobiographical paper studiously antique in its apparently unsophisticated presentational style. Eye Beauty. Old Gower himself is resurrected to serve as the barnacled chorus, and the singsong tetrameters that serve as the influences race, metrical vehicle for essay on cheating, his medieval diction remove the play's events from the present to a dreamlike past more suited to fairy lore than to realistic fiction. In such an atmosphere the audience is analyzes race more readily induced to suspend its disbelief--with the consequence that we become vicarious participants in episode after episode as the hero's adventures convey him from youth (when he solves the riddle of Antiochus and is immediately forced to flee for his life upon disclosing his knowledge of the wicked King's incestuous relationship with his daughter) through old age (when, having been reduced almost to selling essay despair by decades of wandering and loss, Pericles is miraculously rejoined with his radiant daughter, Marina). As we allow ourselves to be hypnotized into accepting the premises of such a providential universe, we fall under the spell of a moldy tale peopled by such characters as a wicked stepmother (Dionyza), a Bawd, and a Governor (Lysimachus) who becomes so enraptured by Marina's innocence that he forswears a life bedimmed by vice.
Pericles' final awakening has often been compared to Lear's reunion with Cordelia. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes Race. And a lovely lyric (Marina) by T. S. Aspects Sociolinguistics. Eliot is research eloquent in its testimony that twentieth-century audiences can still be moved by bluest, a beloved child's power to regenerate her father and renew his faith in life. Until recently Pericles has rarely been performed, but as the magic of its marvels becomes more widely appreciated it may one day find its way to a more secure footing in the repertory. Autobiographical Paper Influences. Such may also be the case with Cymbeline . Selling Essay. First printed in the 1623 Folio, it probably enjoyed its initial performances in 1609-1610, either at Blackfriars or at the Globe (where the physician Dr. Simon Forman saw it, probably in 1611). Its historical frame, featuring a pre-Christian monarch from approximately the same era as King Lear, Shakespeare derived primarily from Holinshed's Chronicles . In this portion of the paper, play, wherein Cymbeline at first refuses and then later volunteers Britain's annual tribute to Emperor Augustus Caesar, Shakespeare adumbrates the commingling of tutankhamun, British and Roman traits that Renaissance Englishmen believed to be at research analyzes influences race the root of essay, their nation's greatness.
Shakespeare combined with this theme a number of other romantic motifs, his sources varying from autobiographical research paper race Boccaccio's Decameron to a pair of anonymous plays of the 1580s, The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune and Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes . The result is a romantic tragicomedy unusually episodic in structure and so bewildering in the rapidity and complexity of its concluding disclosures as to leave an audience wondering how any agency other than providence could possibly have untangled the various strands of the plot. At the heart of the play is Imogen, a woman of exemplary chastity whose foolhardy husband Posthumus allows himself to be tricked into thinking that she has been seduced by a braggart named Iachimo. Like the resourceful heroines in Shakespeare's earlier tragicomedies, Imogen assumes a disguise in her efforts to win her husband back. In time her circumstances bring her to the cave where Cymbeline's long-lost sons, Guiderius and Arviragus, have been reared in rustic exile by essay, an old lord, Belarius, whom the King had unjustly banished. She casts her lot with them and becomes a participant in Britain's war against Rome. Once the conflict is autobiographical research paper over, the King and his sons are reunited in the same denouement in which Posthumus recognizes Imogen as his most constant wife. And in a reconciliation scene that carries overtones of the Augustan pax Romana under which Christ was born, Cymbeline announces that Pardon's the word to all. Evil has been exorcised (Cymbeline's bad angels, his wicked Queen and her doltish son Cloten, have died), and the way-ward characters who survive have all experienced enlightenment and contrition.
Enlightenment and contrition are prerequisite to the happy ending of selling essay, The Winter's Tale , too. Here again a husband falls victim to vengeful jealousy, and research influences race, here again the selling essay, plot builds up to the moment when he can be forgiven the folly that, so far as he knows, has brought about his innocent wife's death. Based primarily on Robert Greene's Pandosto: The Triumph of Time , a prose romance first published in 1588 and reprinted under a new title in 1607, The Winter's Tale was probably completed in 1610 or 1611. Its initial appearance in print was in the 1623 Folio. The action begins when Leontes, King of Sicilia, is seized with the humour that his wife Hermione has committed adultery with his childhood friend Polixenes. It is abundantly clear to everyone else, most notably Hermione's lady-in-waiting Paulina, that Leontes' suspicions are irrational. But he refuses to listen either to the counsel of his advisers or to the oracle at Delphi--persisting with this trial of Hermione until he has completely devastated his court.
He drives Polixenes away with the faithful Sicilian lord Camillo; he frightens to death his son Mamilius; and he pursues Hermione so unrelentingly that she finally wilts into autobiographical paper, what Paulina declares to be a fatal swoon. At this point, suddenly recognizing that he has been acting like a madman, Leontes vows to do penance for selling essay, the remainder of research paper, his life. Years later, after Perdita (the lost child whom the raging Leontes has instructed Paulina's husband Antigonus to bluest expose to the elements) has grown up and fallen in love with Florizel, the heir to paper Polixenes' throne in Bohemia, the major characters are providentially regathered in Leontes' court. Leontes is reunited with his daughter. And then, in essay one of the most stirring and unexpected moments in autobiographical research race all of Shakespeare's works, a statue of Hermione that Paulina unveils turns out to be the life, living--and forgiving--Queen whom Leontes had killed some sixteen years previously. In a speech that might well serve to epitomize the import of all the autobiographical influences race, late romances, Paulina tells the King It is requir'd/You do awake your faith. Compare And Married Life Essay. The regenerated Leontes embraces his long-lamented wife, bestows the widowed Paulina on the newly returned Camillo, and paper analyzes influences, blesses the essay on cheating, forthcoming marriage of paper analyzes influences race, Perdita to the son of life essay, his old friend Polixenes, the object of the jealousy with which the whole agonizing story has begun. Autobiographical Analyzes Race. The circle that is completed in The Winter's Tale has its counterpart in The Tempest , which concludes with the marriage of Prospero's daughter Miranda to Ferdinand, the son of the Neapolitan king who had helped Prospero's wicked brother Antonio remove Prospero from his dukedom in Milan a dozen years previously. Like The Winter's Tale , The Tempest was completed by selling essay, 1611 and printed for the first time in the 1623 Folio. Because it refers to paper analyzes race the still-vext Bermoothes and derives in part from three accounts of the 1609 wreck of single and married essay, a Virginia-bound ship called the autobiographical research race, Sea Adventure , the play has long been scrutinized for essay, its supposed commentary on the colonial exploitation of the New World. But if the brute Caliban is not the noble savage of Montaigne's essay on autobiographical research paper influences, cannibals, he is probably not intended to school vs education essay be an instance of Third World victimization by European imperalism either.
And Prospero's island is at least as Mediterranean as it is Caribbean. More plausible, but also too speculative for uncritical acceptance, is the time-honored supposition that the magician's staff with which Prospero wields his power is meant to be interpreted as an analogy for Shakespeare's own magical gifts--with the corollary that the protagonist's abjuration of his potent art is the analyzes race, dramatist's own way of saying farewell to the theater. Were it not that at least two plays were almost certainly completed later than The Tempest , this latter hypothesis might win more credence. Of Chinese Sociolinguistics Essays. But be that as it may, there can be no doubt that Prospero cuts a magnificent figure on autobiographical research paper, the Shakespearean stage. Single And Married Life. At times, when he is recalling the usurpation that has placed him and his daughter on autobiographical paper analyzes race, the island they have shared with Caliban for a dozen lonely years, Prospero is reminiscent of Lear, another angry ruler who, despite his earlier indiscretions, has cause to tutankhamun essay feel more sinned against than sinning. At other times, when Prospero is using the autobiographical paper influences, spirit Ariel to manipulate the comings and goings of the enemies whose ship he has brought aground in compare single and married essay a tempest, the analyzes, once and future Duke of Milan reminds us of the Duke of Vienna in Measure for Measure . But though his influence on the lives of others turns out in the end to have been providential, Prospero arrives at that beneficent consummation only through a psychological and spiritual process that turns on his forswearing vengeance in favor of the rarer action of forgiveness. Such dramatic tension as the play possesses is to be found in the audience's suspense over whether the protagonist will use his Neoplatonic magic for good or for ill. And when in fact Prospero has brought the selling essay, men of sin to a point where they must confront themselves as they are and beg forgiveness for analyzes influences race, their crimes, it is paradoxically Ariel who reminds his master that to be truly human is finally to sociolinguistics essays be humane. Uniquely among the late tragicomic romances, The Tempest has long been a favorite with both readers and audiences. Its ardent young lovers have always held their charm, as has the effervescent Ariel, and its treatment of the temptations afforded by access to transcendent power gives it a political and religious resonance commensurate with the profundity of its exploration of the depths of poetic and dramatic art. Autobiographical Analyzes. In the end its burden seems to be that an essay acknowledgment of the limits imposed by the human condition is the beginning of analyzes influences race, wisdom.
The last of the essay, plays attributed wholly to autobiographical analyzes Shakespeare by its inclusion in vs education the First Folio, where it first achieved print, is Henry VIII . Modern stylistic analyses have called Shakespeare's sole authorship into question, of course, but since the case for collaboration has never been definitively proven we may do just as well to proceed on autobiographical analyzes influences race, the assumption that Henry VIII was mostly if not entirely a play for bluest, which the playwright was responsible. Its theatrical history has had more ups and downs than is true of many of Shakespeare's other dramatic works (the most notable occurrence on the down side being the accident during its earliest recorded performance, on influences, 29 June 1613, that burned the Globe to the ground), and its critical reception, like that of thesis, Troilus and Cressida , has been complicated by debates about the play's genre. In many respects Henry VIII seems to be the capstone to Shakespeare's nine earlier English history plays. Autobiographical Analyzes Influences Race. It focuses on kingship as the compare life and married life essay, key to a nation's political and social stability, and it glorifies the Tudor dynasty as God's means of bringing peace, prosperity, and empire to an England whose greatness had reached new heights during the autobiographical race, reigns of the two monarchs under whom Shakespeare had served. Fittingly, the play's final cause is the birth of Elizabeth, the royal infant whose advent, according to the prophecy uttered by Archbishop Cranmer at the end of the play, promises/Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings. But, as is so often true in bluest Shakespeare, it also offers the audience a topical glance at an event of contemporary significance, the February 1613 wedding of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I and his Queen, to Frederick, the Elector of research race, Palatine. Like the earlier English history plays, Henry VIII is epic in school its scope and in its patriotic impulse. And like them, it reflects Shakespeare's interest in research influences the grand themes of English historiography, as derived not only from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles but also from tutankhamun essay other sources as varied as John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (1563) and John Speed's History of Great Britain (1611).
In its earliest performances the autobiographical analyzes race, play even seems to essay have had an alternate title, All is True , to assert its fidelity to the essence of its historical subject matter. But a close examination of its way of treating that matter will indicate that Henry VIII is autobiographical more cosmic than the history plays that preceded it--a play that presents the events it dramatizes almost solely in school vs education the light of eternity. Though the King is not without his faults, he is portrayed more positively in Shakespeare than he had usually been depicted by historians prior to Henry VIII . During the first half of the play the bluff Henry may be misled by his bad angel Cardinal Wolsey; but the King's intentions are noble, and after Wolsey's discomfiture he evolves into a creditable exemplar of God's deputy. Research Paper Race. Meanwhile, there is an unmistakable emphasis on essay, providential design throughout the play. The action is autobiographical research analyzes influences structured around a succession of trials, each of which serves to test a character's mettle and to induce in him or her a new degree of self-knowledge, humility, faith, and compassion.
Buckingham is framed by debating essay on cheating, Wolsey's machinations, but as he proceeds to his execution he forgives his enemies and blesses the King who has condemned him. Katherine, another of Wolsey's victims, pleads eloquently and autobiographical research analyzes influences race, forcibly in her own defense; but once her fate is settled, she resigns herself with patience to the destiny prepared for her and goes so far as to express pity for tutankhamun, her archenemy Wolsey. Autobiographical Analyzes. And once he recognizes that there is no escape from the noose he has unwittingly prepared for himself, Wolsey himself dies penitent and never so happy. In each instance death is swallowed up in a victory of sorts, and vs education, the sequence as a whole reinforces the audience's sense that even in the often-brutal arena of English history all's well that ends well. Autobiographical Research Influences. Perhaps the best way to describe Henry VIII is to call it a tragicomic historical romance. But whatever it is generically, it is tutankhamun essay a play that offers a plenitude of majestic pageantry. As the research paper influences, 1979 BBC television production reminded us, it is Shakespeare's version of Masterpiece Theatre . Whether or not it is the last play in which Shakespeare had a hand, The Two Noble Kinsmen is the last surviving instance of his dramaturgy.
With but a handful of exceptions, modern scholars regard the bluest thesis, play as a collaborative effort in which the autobiographical paper, guiding hand may have been John Fletcher's rather than William Shakespeare's. School Vs Education Essay. It was probably completed in 1613, and its first appearance in autobiographical research paper influences race print was in a quarto edition of tutankhamun essay, 1634 that attributed it to both playwrights. It was reprinted in autobiographical research paper analyzes race the Beaumont and Fletcher second folio of essay, 1679, but it never appeared in any of the seventeenth-century folios of Shakespeare's dramatic works. The play is autobiographical analyzes race a dramatization of selling essay, Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale about race, two cousins, Palamon and Arcite, who come to blows as a consequence of their both having fallen in love with the same damsel, Emilia. Selling Essay. Like the other late romances of Shakespeare, it has a remote Mediterranean setting (ancient Thebes and Athens), it invokes the gods for autobiographical research influences, intervention in debating human affairs, and it depends for its effects on scenes of autobiographical influences race, grand pageantry such as the wedding procession of Theseus and Hippolyta. School Vs Education. It is not a great work, but it has probably received less attention than it should as a play that deserves, at least as much as does The Tempest , to be considered as Shakespeare's epilogue to the theater. Tradition holds that Shakespeare returned to Stratford for research paper race, his declining years, and three years after the essays, burning of the Globe his own flame went out. Following his death on 23 April 1616, he was laid to rest where fifty-two years earlier he had been christened. Shortly thereafter, a monument to his memory was erected above the tomb in race Holy Trinity, and compare life and married, that monument is still in place for Shakespeare admirers to autobiographical race see today. But an even greater monument to his memory appeared seven years later, when his theatrical colleagues, John Heminge and Henry Condell (both of whom had been mentioned in the playwright's will) assembled a large volume of his collected plays.
The 1623 First Folio was a labor of love, compiled as an office to the dead, to procure his orphans guardians and to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare. Our Shakespeare. It is not without exaggeration that the book that preserves what is probably his most reliable portrait and the most authoritative versions of the on cheating, majority of his dramatic texts (indeed the only surviving versions of half of them) has been called incomparably the most important work in the English language. In the words and actions that fill his poems and plays, in the performances that enrich our theaters and silver screens, in the countless off-shoots to be found in other works of autobiographical research paper analyzes race, art, and in eye beauty the influence the playwright continues to autobiographical influences race have on virtually every aspect of popular culture throughout the world, now as much as in the age of compare, Elizabeth and autobiographical research paper analyzes, James, Shakespeare lives. William Jaggard, Shakespeare Bibliography: A Dictionary of life and married, Every Known Issue of the autobiographical paper influences race, Writings of Our National Poet and of Recorded Opinion Thereon in the English Language (Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare Press, 1911). Walter Ebish and Levin L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931).
Gordon Ross Smith, A Classified Shakespeare Bibliography, 1936-1958 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1963). Ronald Berman, A Reader's Guide to Shakespeare's Plays, revised edition (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973). David Bevington, Shakespeare (Arlington Heights, Ill.: AHM Publishing, 1978). Larry S. Champion, The Essential Shakespeare: An Annotated Bibliography of Major Modern Studies (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986). Alfred Harbage, William Shakespeare: A Reader's Guide (New York: Noonday, 1963). Selling Essay. F. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes Influences Race. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion, 1564-1964 (London: Duckworth/Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964).
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E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 4 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923), III: 479-490. Wolfgang Clemen, The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951). Ruby Cohn, Modern Shakespeare Offshoots (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). Ann Jennalie Cook, The Privileged Playgoers of Shakespeare's London: 1576-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981). Richard David, Shakespeare in the Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978). Madeleine Doran, Endeavors of Art: A Study of bluest thesis, Form in Elizabethan Drama (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1954).
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Hosley, The Gallery over the Stage in the Public Playhouses of Shakespeare's Time, Shakespeare Quarterly, 8 (Winter 1957): 15-31. Hosley, ed., Shakespeare's Holinshed (New York: Putnam's, 1968). Jack Jorgens, Shakespeare on life, Film (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977). Bertram Joseph, Elizabethan Acting (London: Oxford University Press, 1951). George R. Kernodle, From Art to Theatre: Form and Convention in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944). Helge Kökeritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953). Wallace T. MacCaffrey, The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). Scott McMillin, The Elizabethan Theatre The Book of Sir Thomas More (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987).
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Robert Y. Turner, Shakespeare's Apprenticeship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). Mark Van Doren, Shakespeare (New York: Holt, 1939). Selling Essay. Brian Vickers, ed., Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage, 6 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1973-1981). Enid Welsford, The Fool: His Social and Literary History (London: Faber Faber, 1935). Robert H. West, Shakespeare and the Outer Mystery (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1968). Stephen Booth, An Essay on Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969). Edward Hubler, The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952). Hubler, Northrop Frye, Stephen Spender, and R. P. Blackmur, The Riddle of Shakespeare's Sonnets (New York: Basic Books, 1962). Murray Krieger, A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Modern Poetics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964). Autobiographical Analyzes Race. J. B. Thesis. Leishman, Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961).
J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love Sonnet (London: Methuen, 1956). Giorgio Melchiori, Shakespeare's Dramatic Meditations: An Experiment in Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). Hallett Smith, Elizabethan Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). C. L. Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to Social Custom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959). Sylvan Barnet, 'Strange Events': Improbability in As You Like It, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 119-131. Research Influences. Harry Berger, Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare's Tempest, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 253-283. Ralph Berry, Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Form (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). M. Sociolinguistics. C. Bradbrook, The Growth and Structure of autobiographical research analyzes, Elizabethan Comedy, revised edition (London: Chatto Windus, 1973). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare and His Comedies, revised edition (London: Methuen, 1962). O. J. Campbell, Comicall Satyre and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1938). H. B. Bluest Thesis. Charlton, Shakespearian Comedy (London: Methuen, 1938).
Nevill Coghill, The Basis of Shakespearian Comedy: A Study in Medieval Affinities, Essays Studies, new series 3 (1950): 1-28. Jackson I. Cope, The Theater and the Dream: From Metaphor to Form in Renaissance Drama (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973). Bertrand Evans, Shakespeare's Comedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960). Howard Felperin, Shakespearean Romance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Northrop Frye, The Argument of Comedy, in English Institute Essays 1948 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949), pp. Research Race. 58-73. Frye, A Natural Perspective: The Development of Shakespearean Comedy and Romance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). Tutankhamun Essay. Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Darryl J. Gless, Measure for autobiographical paper analyzes, Measure, the Law, and vs education essay, the Covenant (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). William Green, Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962).
Joan Hartwig, Shakespeare's Tragicomic Vision (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972). Sherman H. Hawkins, The Two Worlds of Shakespearean Comedy, Shakespeare Studies, 3 (1967): 62-80. John Hollander, Twelfth Night and research, the Morality of Indulgence, Sewanee Review, 67 (April-June 1959): 220-238. G. K. Hunter, William Shakespeare: The Late Comedies (London: Longmans, Green, 1962). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and selling essay, the Comedy of Forgiveness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965).
Frank Kermode, What is Shakespeare's Henry VIII About?, Durham University Journal, 40 (Spring 1948): 48-55. Kermode, William Shakespeare: The Final Plays (London: Longmans, Green, 1963). Alvin B. Race. Kernan, The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959). Arthur C. Kirsch, The Integrity of Measure for Measure, Shakespeare Survey, 28 (1975): 89-105. G. Bluest Eye Beauty. Wilson Knight, The Crown of Life: Essays in Interpretation of Shakespeare's Final Plays (London: Oxford University Press, 1947). W. W. Lawrence, Shakespeare's Problem Comedies (New York: Macmillan, 1931).
Clifford Leech, Twelfth Night and Shakespearian Comedy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965). Alexander Leggatt, Citizen Comedy in the Age of Shakespeare (Toronto: University of analyzes influences race, Toronto Press, 1973). Leggatt, Shakespeare's Comedy of Love (London: Methuen, 1974). Barbara Lewalski, Biblical Allusion and Allegory in The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare Quarterly, 13 (Summer 1962): 327-343. Barbara Mowat, The Dramaturgy of Shakespeare's Romances (Athens: University of debating essay on cheating, Georgia Press, 1976). Autobiographical Paper Influences Race. Kenneth Muir, ed., Shakespeare, The Comedies: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). School. A. D. Nuttall, Two Concepts of Allegory: A Study of Shakespeare's The Tempest and the Logic of Allegorical Expression (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). Stephen Orgel, The Illusion of Power: Political Theater in paper race the English Renaissance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975). Douglas L. Peterson, Time, Tide, and Tempest: A Study of Shakespeare's Romances (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1973). E. C. Pettet, Shakespeare and the Romance Tradition (London: Staples, 1949).
Hugh M. Richmond, Shakespeare's Henry VIII: Romance Redeemed by History, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 334-349. Jeanne Addison Roberts, Shakespeare's English Comedy: The Merry Wives of Windsor in Context (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). Leo Salinger, Shakespeare and the Traditions of Comedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974). Ernest Schanzer, The Problem Plays of Shakespeare: A Study of Julius Caesar, Measure for Measure, and Antony and Cleopatra (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1963). Bluest Eye Beauty. David L. Stevenson, The Achievement of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Autobiographical Research Analyzes Influences. Joseph H. Summers, The Masks of Twelfth Night, University of Kansas City Review, 22 (Autumn 1955): 25-32. E. M. Tutankhamun Essay. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's Last Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1938). Tillyard, Shakespeare's Problem Plays (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1949). Derek Traversi, Shakespeare: The Last Phase (London: Hollis Carter, 1954). Autobiographical. Glynne Wickham, Love's Labor's Lost and The Four Foster Children of Desire, 1581, Shakespeare Quarterly, 36 (Spring 1985): 49-55. David Young, The Heart's Forest: A Study of Shakespeare's Pastoral Plays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972).
Young, Something of Great Constancy: The Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Edward I. Compare Single Life Essay. Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's Early Histories (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories: Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1947). Larry S. Champion, The Function of Mowbray: Shakespeare's Maturing Artistry in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Winter 1975): 3-7. Alan C. Dessen, The Intemperate Knight and autobiographical race, the Politic Prince: Late Morality Structure in aspects sociolinguistics 1 Henry IV, Shakespeare Studies, 7 (1974): 147-171. Donna B. Hamilton, The State of Law in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 34 (Spring 1983): 5-17. Sherman H. Hawkins, Henry IV: The Structural Problem Revisited, Shakespeare Quarterly, 33 (Autumn 1982): 278-301. Hawkins, Virtue and Kingship in Shakespeare's Henry IV, English Literary Renaissance, 5 (Autumn 1975): 313-343. G. K. Hunter, Shakespeare's Politics and the Rejection of Falstaff, Critical Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1959): 229-236.
Harold Jenkins, The Structural Problem in influences Shakespeare's Henry the Fourth (London: Methuen, 1956). Essay. Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage: The Achievement of Shakespeare's History Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). Robert B. Pierce, Shakespeare's History Plays: The Family and the State (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971). Autobiographical Research Influences. Moody E. Prior, The Drama of Power: Studies in Shakespeare's History Plays (Evanston: North-western University Press, 1973). M. M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty: A Study of Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Arnold, 1961). Compare Single Life Life. Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of autobiographical race, Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). David Riggs, Shakespeare's Heroical Histories: Henry VI and Its Literary Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).
Peter Saccio, Shakespeare's English Kings: History, Chronicle, and Drama (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1944). Harold E. Toliver, Falstaff, the Prince, and the History Play, Shakespeare Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1965): 63-80. Eugene M. Waith, ed., Shakespeare, The Histories: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). Karl P. Selling Essay. Wentersdorf, The Conspiracy of Silence in Henry V, Shakespeare Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1976): 264-287. Richard P. Wheeler, Shakespeare's Development and the Problem Comedies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). J. Dover Wilson, The Fortunes of autobiographical paper race, Falstaff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943).
Janet Adelman, The Common Liar: An Essay on Antony and Cleopatra (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). John F. Andrews, The Catharsis of Romeo and Juliet, in Contributi dell' Istituto di filologia moderna, Serie inglesi, 1, edited by Sergio Rossi (Milan: Unversita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1974), pp. 142-175. Selling Essay. Andrews, 'Dearly Bought Revenge,': Hamlet, Samson Agonistes, and Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, Milton Studies, 13 (1979): 81-108. Research Race. John S. Anson, Julius Caesar : The Politics of the thesis, Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Studies, 2 (1966): 11-33. Howard Baker, Induction to Tragedy: A Study in a Development of Form in Gorboduc, The Spanish Tragedy, and Titus Andronicus (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1939). J. Leeds Barroll, Artificial Persons: The Formation of research, Character in the Tragedies of Shakespeare (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1974).
Barroll, Shakespeare and Roman History, Modern Language Review, 53 (July 1958): 327-343. Roy W. Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). Essay. Adrien Bonjour, The Structure of Julius Caesar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958). Stephen Booth, King Lear, Macbeth, Indefinition, and Tragedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Autobiographical Research Analyzes Influences Race. Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, 1587-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940). Bowers, Hamlet as Minister and Scourge, PMLA, 70 (September 1955): 740-749. M. C. Bradbrook, Themes and compare life and married life, Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935). A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and autobiographical paper analyzes influences, Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1904). Bluest Thesis. Nicholas Brooke, Shakespeare's Early Tragedies (London: Methuen, 1968). Cleanth Brooks, The Naked Babe and the Cloak of autobiographical research paper race, Manliness, in his The Well-Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal Hitchcock, 1947), pp.
21-46. Selling Essay. Reuben A. Research Paper Influences Race. Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930). Paul A. Cantor, Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Larry S. Debating. Champion, Shakespeare's Tragic Perspective: The Development of His Dramatic Technique (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). H. B. Charlton, Shakespearian Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948). Maurice Charney, Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of autobiographical research, Imagery in the Drama (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961). Charney, Style in Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969). Dolora G. Selling Essay. Cunningham, Macbeth: The Tragedy of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Quarterly, 14 (Winter 1963): 39-47. J. Research Analyzes Influences Race. V. Cunningham, Woe or Wonder: The Emotional Effect of debating, Shakespearean Tragedy (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951). John F. Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of autobiographical analyzes influences, Nature: A Study of King Lear (London: Faber Faber, 1949).
Alan C. Dessen, Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 53-69. Selling Essay. Franklin M. Dickey, Not Wisely But Too Well: Shakespeare's Love Tragedies (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1957). T. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences. S. Eliot, Hamlet and His Problems, in his The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen, 1920).
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How to Write Iranian-America, or The Last Essay. Begin by autobiographical, writing about anything else. Go to the public library in your Los Angeles suburb and ask for essay, all the great books people in paper analyzes race New York City read, please. Wonder if the reference librarian knows a living writer and ask her what would a living writer read— and an American one, please . When she realizes you are still single digits and asks, Where are your parents, young lady? don’t answer and demand Shakespeare and take that big book home and tutankhamun cry because you can’t understand it. Tomorrow, go back to reading the research paper dictionary a letter at sociolinguistics a time and cry because you can’t learn the words. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes Influences? (Ask your father if you will cry daily for the rest of your life and eye beauty remember his answer decades later: When you are older you will care less about things. ) Pray to a god you still believe in that you will once more avoid ESL with all its teachers who look to you with the shine of research paper analyzes, love but the stench of pity: refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner the only words you know that you don’t want to know. Write because it’s something to do, something your parents will let you do because it looks like homework. Essay On Cheating? Write because one place to live is in your head and it’s not broken yet; write because it’s something to drown out the sound of their fighting deep into every night.
When the second-grade teacher—the teacher your father calls an research paper influences race, alcoholic—tells you that you will be an author one day and essay suggests The Market Guide for Young Writers, step right up and call yourself a Young Writer. Research Analyzes? Decide to really write and write about anything but Iranian-America. Ghosts. Victorian girls, maybe ones with tough names. Life And Married Life Essay? Easter bunnies that are homicidal (you might have ripped off Bunnicula ). Candy. White girls. Research Paper Race? More white girls. Of Chinese Sociolinguistics? (Even then you understood sales.) Worry about the fact that your family won’t be able to paper analyzes race afford a computer and worry about aspects sociolinguistics essays how your fingers get stuck in between the keys of a yellow typewriter your father brought back from Iran, and learn that the research paper influences race only way for your brain not to selling essay spiral in autobiographical analyzes worry is to vs education essay write. Worry about how you, Young Writer, will ever get to New York City, until you do. Get a scholarship to a fancy college with writers and writing workshops , a thing you’ve heard of, full of other students told they’d be an author one day.
Ignore the dorm politics and the suitemates who tell you their dads paid for you to autobiographical paper be there, and aspects sociolinguistics essays write, write about autobiographical race anything else. Los Angeles. The devil. Literary theory. Art. The East Village. White men. And more white men. Become known as a writer there, a writer who doesn’t write about that, in and married essay a time when everyone is talking identity.
No identity for you, you tell yourself, you tell them. Wear black and smoke cigarettes and big glasses, because you are a New York Young Writer and that can be anyone. When your favorite professor senior year fails your paper on research influences Modernism that you’ve worked on and married for weeks, when she tells you that she can tell English is your second language, when she tells you maybe writing is not for autobiographical research influences, you, that maybe you need to go into a field like those new Iranian Studies fields —you keep imagining these fields like those villages of school vs education, your homeland they label “third world”—go to your dorm and expect to cry but don’t. Chainsmoke a pack of cigarettes and never forget her words and commit yourself to writing more, writing more about anything else. Years later, attend another prestigious college for research paper analyzes race, grad school, and tutankhamun spend long hours with a famous writer as your professor and advisor who tells you to forget that other professor, that you are a writer, that you can do this. Hold on to her words and almost miss it when she says but why don’t you write what you know? Thank her as you always do and hope she doesn’t see your tears— writing what I know was never my thing, you whisper.
Keep turning in stories about anything else. Math. Chaos theory. Rape. (The time you were raped but in analyzes influences a sci-fi premise; the time you were raped in a fantasy premise; the of chinese sociolinguistics essays time you were raped in something they call metafiction.) Dogs. Suicidal people. Suicidal people with dogs.
9/11 , which gets a little too close to writing what you know, but keep reminding them it was because you were a New Yorker, not because you were a Middle Easterner, that you felt the trauma; keep reminding them the hijackers were not Iranian. When they tell you they don’t know what you are anyway, don’t say a word, just keep working harder than they ever will and tell yourself you will beat the ones who hurt you most for autobiographical, that fellowship for another year. Get the fellowship and avoid all their eyes. When your advisor suggests you work on sociolinguistics a novel—that you are, after all, a novelist—hear novel like a curse: an arranged marriage and a death sentence, all that unknown potential for devotion to writing anything else. Until suddenly you can’t write about anything else. Autobiographical Research Influences Race? Sit in tutankhamun essay your first apartment without a roommate and realize you have nothing else to write about for the span of a novel. Hate yourself and it and then go ahead and write it, your Iranian-America, because no one else will see it.
This is autobiographical research analyzes, your first real novel and what do you know. You are a fellow at tutankhamun essay the most famous university in Baltimore which doesn’t pay you enough to teach, so you add on being a hostess at a bistro where the parents of autobiographical influences race, your students go, sometimes with the tenured professors of your department who pretend they don’t see you as they kiss and hug the owner who sexually harasses you every day. Tutankhamun? Why would a word you write matter? Quit smoking, start smoking, quit again, start again. And watch it come out, more and more in every draft: anger with your parents, frustration with your blood, anxieties surrounding the somehow still-new land—all that is Iranian-America. Let your truth come out hard and fast and untranslatable because no one else will see it anyway. Until they do.
Four years later, after all sorts of autobiographical research paper influences, troubles, it is your first novel and it is published and life life you are Miss Literary Iranian-America , a friend jokes. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences? First Iranian-American novelist , a journalist mistakenly writes, while another calls your debut novel the first work that is entirely Iranian-American, all diaspora with no Iran setting, which gets closer to the truth but you want to eye beauty thesis think still not close enough. Autobiographical Research Analyzes Influences Race? Who can even tally who they ignored before you? When they ask you to represent the Iranian diaspora in Los Angeles, start by explaining you grew up a half hour and many realities away from Tehrangeles, that your family could never afford those areas, that you were raised in a tiny apartment in the low-income district of a small suburb, with no Iranian people. When they ask you to do it anyway, go through with it. Regret quitting smoking. Try to speak of other things. Selling Essay? But about analyzes influences race Iranian-Americans , they always go, and a friend who is tutankhamun essay, tired of your sighs tells you, Look, you did that to yourself, it’s all in your novel . Say fair enough and start smoking again.
Around Persian New Year, months after your first novel comes out, start to research analyzes influences race run out of money again. Old problem but maybe now a new solution, you think. Ask friends if they know someone at the most respected newspaper of the country—the venerable paper where they gave you a very good review of your debut novel. School Vs Education Essay? Pitch a piece on Iranians celebrating Persian New Year that 2008. Your angle: being Iranian in a bad time to be Iranian. Think to yourself when was there ever a good time to be Iranian here and pitch it anyway.
Hear nothing back and tell yourself you and your Iranian-America are not yet worthy of that newspaper. Be more shocked than gracious a few months later, when out of nowhere, an autobiographical research influences race, editor at another section of aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, that very paper writes you and mentions he is a fan of your work and would you like to contribute an essay to this author series on summer? You can’t believe it—this editor has acknowledged your novel and yet is not asking you to write a particular thing about Iranian-America. But when you sit down to write, surprise yourself: It’s about your mother and you and so it’s about Iranian-America. Feel slightly defeated— writing what I know was never my thing, you know you used to whisper—but a part of you anticipates they will want this and they do. Behold the awe of everyone around you, behold your own awe: You are in your dream paper, an autobiographical research paper race, essayist suddenly. Vs Education? Editors who never heard of autobiographical paper analyzes race, you or your novel start asking for your essays of selling essay, Iranian-America. Soon, you are back in that same paper with another essay about, of all things, Barbie’s fiftieth anniversary and autobiographical research paper analyzes race somehow you make it also about Iranian-America.
You’ve learned to interview your parents and school vs education dig up whatever they will give you from their past and add that to messy memories of your childhood and autobiographical paper analyzes influences race glue it all together: an essay on Iranian-America! Be amazed at how your formula sometimes helps you work out some things, be amazed at how it sometimes seems to help others. Remind yourself this can’t last. Iranian-Americans from essay, all over the country write you and thank you, and autobiographical research analyzes you tell everyone this was a nice run—you did your part—and now you will go back to what you were meant to write: anything else. Except you don’t. They ask and you keep writing it.
Tell yourself this is single life and married life, your new life every time an essay comes out in that venerable paper of yours—you start to call it yours , because three-figure checks must mean love if two-figure checks mean like, or so you tell yourself. Occasionally try to remind them you were a journalist before all this, a writer who wrote about autobiographical paper race music and art and fashion and books but no one remembers or cares anymore. Editors start asking for a collection of essays, but you think, I’ve just begun. Tell them in 2009 you’re just entering your thirties, what do you know? Know you’re an essayist and know you can’t back out bluest eye beauty thesis now. During an interview someone asks you why essays, and you remind them you write fiction and they ask again why essays, and you joke about autobiographical paper analyzes them finding you, and they ask again why essays, and you stumble on another answer: service . That somehow your people are not visible, these three decades of single life life essay, being in the US, and people have needed you and while you can’t speak for autobiographical paper analyzes influences race, everyone, you can speak some part of this truth. Service? Service. Afterwards, bum the few cigarettes the interviewer offers and smoke through a silence you did your best to create. Start to wish other Iranian-Americans would write essays; even try to introduce the few who seem interested to editors but the editors always ask for more essays from selling essay, you.
How many essays can you write, you wonder, but every time one comes out you start to see how they see it, and you see more. Step back from yourself and spin absolutely everything from the lens of Iranian-Americana. An Iranian-American sensibility, an Iranian-American outfit, an Iranian-American state of research analyzes influences race, mind, Iranian-American flora and fauna, an Iranian-American bowl of goddamn fruit. Watch yourself pitch the editor at the venerable publication an essay on the hit TV show Thirtysomething , a show you loved, and bluest thesis because in 2009 it’s a big deal that it’s out on DVD and it seems like something to watch it in paper analyzes race your thirties now. Sociolinguistics? Hear the editor in your head long before your real editor asks you if you can include your Iranian-American family in it, and catch yourself saying yes of course , and do it, and never imagine years later you will teach that own essay of yours as a mistake.
Consider later that maybe you knew and didn’t care, you knew the service and autobiographical paper analyzes influences race moreover you knew your function: You were not just writing Iranian-America, maybe you were helping them create it. Write the Persian New Year piece you once wanted though it’s no reported piece, but a personal essay—that’s what they want and that’s what you deliver. By this point your parents know why you are asking when you call, by selling essay, this point they have gotten used to the fact that you will write about them and anything else Iranian-America. When friends and research influences race family begin to marvel at all this, Miss Literary Iranian-America, don’t you deny it—smile and be grateful and lie that this is exactly what you dreamed of one day. When another section editor of that same paper emails you (a section that pays a lot more—if three is love, four figures must mean marriage), accept their request for a new essay, knowing that you can write an essay on absolutely anything for these people, provided it’s about Iranian-America—which it will be. Muslim reality TV the first time , Iranian reality TV the of chinese essays second time , but we’re big fans of your essays, so can you make it an essay not a review ? They want feelings, not facts, you know this by now. Write the first and write the second and duck all the autobiographical research paper love hurdling itself at you, a love you can’t feel, a love you might fear. Writing Iranian-America turns out to essay have some downsides, but you think you know how to paper analyzes handle it.
When Iranians write you and tutankhamun say you are not Iranian enough for them, thank them, and when others say you are too Iranian for them, thank them too. Too pro-IRI and too Royalist, too anti-Iranian and autobiographical influences too nationalistic, too relatable and and married life essay not relatable enough, maybe neo-con and maybe communist—and where is your name from? Are you really Iranian? Why are you not married? Are both your parents really Iranian? Why do you say Iranian and research paper analyzes influences not Persian? Why are you embarrassing us? Why are you not writing happy things?
Why are there so many jokes? What do you think of us? Are we good or bad? Are you good or bad? Why do you call us brown? Why are we not brown to them? Why do you not look more white?
Why do you look so white? What god is selling essay, your god? Why can’t you write in a way I can understand? Why do you write at all? Why don’t you stop writing? Why don’t you stop smoking? When you get those messages, learn to let them say what they need to autobiographical research race say. Occasionally engage, and often don’t. Service . Learn to live with hating yourself.
Learn to live with hating Iranian-America. Imagine the hell of dying in selling essay America while your parents envision the beauty of dying in Iran, and research paper race you wonder if there was ever anything in between for you. When your editors leave the section where they first published you and selling essay when the paper experiences horrible layoffs, think this is it, what you’ve been waiting for—your run is over. Research Paper Race? Tell everyone you know it’s been great, four years as an essayist of eye beauty thesis, Iranian-America! Imagine all the topics you were supposed to write about but you can’t quite remember what.
Try to research paper remember and bluest fail. Research Analyzes Influences Race? Hip hop? White girls? Bars? Wars? Try to remember and vs education fail. When a few years later, new editors are back in that old first section of that venerable paper that made you Young Essayist, pause at the first line of their email to you. A pitch in the greeting, a story you know of: An Iranian band in Brooklyn has been the research analyzes influences victim of a murder-suicide. For days you’ve considered reporting on this, thinking of the right venue, but now here is the op-ed section again wanting a personal essay. “ It seems to me like there might be something interesting to say, about the Iranian expat community, the American dream betrayed, or something along those lines.” Think about her take for selling essay, a moment and autobiographical research influences think about how you can’t: how this story has nothing to compare and married life do with assimilation but is influences race, about a deranged person from essay on cheating, your part of the autobiographical research influences race world who shot some people from essay, your part of the world but is much more about gun control and America and its dream not betrayed at all.
Ask her if you can face America here not just Iranian-America in the only piece you can write, pitch this to her and know the answer. Remind yourself that you have been chronically ill for autobiographical paper, many years and buying cigarettes is no longer an option. Write for other sections of vs education essay, that paper—the book review, where you sometimes wonder why they don’t give you topics relating to Iranian-America—until once again, in 2017, another editor from that section writes you, this time with a name that is research, definitely of Iranian-America. When she says she wants a Persian New Year piece, a sweet nostalgia piece, remind her that four years ago, many editors ago, you wrote one. Tell her you have nothing happy to write this year and you weren’t going to write this and tell her your idea of tutankhamun, New Year in the time of the Trump Administration’s Muslim Ban.
Remember your first Persian New Year pitch to this paper : being Iranian in a bad time to be Iranian, and research influences race now a decade later witness that same silence with awe. When she writes, “I know we’re not looking for something excessively political and angry for our token Nowruz piece,” know that you will take this piece elsewhere and it will live. Try to put away any disappointment you have for her, your fellow Iranian-American, because ultimately both you and her are microscopic cogs in the venerable paper’s unfathomable machinery. Both you and school vs education her have come this far, both you and her might never know exactly why. Observe others writing about Iranian-America. Encourage and amplify the many voices and viewpoints of paper analyzes influences, your people, now nearly four decades a minority in of chinese sociolinguistics essays this America, finally with their own stories surfacing too. Enjoy reading their accounts, until readers warn you against your own enthusiasm. I feel like they’re ripping you off, go messages from the concerned and you don’t know what to autobiographical research analyzes make of selling essay, it. Against your better judgment, read more closely.
Decide you will pretend not to notice. Pretend you are better than this competitive game they have set up for all of you to destroy yourselves in. Autobiographical Research? Pretend so hard that you wonder if you ever even knew how that game works to play anyway. Pretend to chainsmoke a couple packs of cigarettes, killing hours in bottomless depression—pretend you’re all smoke and ashes, let it burn right through you—and pretend Iranian-America is all theirs, whoever wants this wreckage. Tell yourself this is compare and married life essay, The Last Essay, but remind yourself of all the other Last Essays. Wonder how much more of this you can take. Count that out of seventy pieces of research analyzes influences, nonfiction you’ve written since your first book came out in 2007, forty-eight have had to do with Iranian-America. Ask yourself if it’s too much or too little given where America is at, still at. Essay? Watch the news and marvel at how your entire life they obsessed over your country of origin, and continue to.
Wonder if you and your family will end up in Muslim Camp after all. When people look at research analyzes influences you with the pity and sociolinguistics the regret again— refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner —let them have it, and autobiographical research analyzes race let yourself take it. What has changed but nothing at all? Write about it and make sure you keep writing about compare single life essay it. Plan out three more books and call it the end; each and every one is about Iranian-America. Autobiographical Research Paper Analyzes Race? Write all the secrets like every essay is on cheating, a suicide note: one that reveals your Zoroastrian name is a fraud and you are a Muslim and paper influences watch everyone applaud it, from all sorts of people online to your own father who gave you your name. Wonder if anyone is reading properly. Bluest? Put “Iranian American refugee” in your Twitter profile, the way all the autobiographical paper analyzes influences race other refugees are doing. Question if this is empowering. Imagine you’ve been throwing yourself off a cliff every time you’ve been writing, but it’s hard to essay know if you are killing yourself or trying to analyzes influences race fly.
Wonder if a cliche like that is all you’ve got. Wonder if the bluest eye beauty thesis death you’ve been imagining is just you becoming a bad writer. Watch yourself making posts on Facebook and Twitter more than ever in 2017. Watch Americans at first dive into it and then over time walk away from autobiographical paper influences race, it, until you start to essay find yourself asking white people to repost or echo the same sentiment, so your ideas can get heard. Watch white Americans listen to one another but suddenly they are not so sure about your words. Remind them that you know Iranian-America and research paper that they seemed to love reading you—quote your own pieces, send them the links, remind them they knew you—but watch them slowly back away. Watch other friends tell you you are reading into this, it’s not happening. Watch yourself worry about every word. Watch yourself apologize for things no one understands. Watch yourself think only in compare life Farsi, like this—America—never happened. Watch yourself burn out on the worry and remind yourself of where this essay started: Begin by writing about anything else.
End by influences race, thinking about anything yourself , you tell yourself, but look at essay how you’re all out of jokes about smoking. Be a little astonished that there is still one more section of The Last Essay which is not The Last Essay, you and autobiographical research analyzes race your editor and whoever is still here must know by selling essay, now. Notice you’ve learned a few things about autobiographical essays in bluest thesis this decade, like the ones you must write will write themselves for you. Remind yourself that when the performance is autobiographical paper race, honest two things happen: The essay will feel like it’s killing you and debating on cheating the ending will not be what you thought it might be. Learn to respect more than resent those parallel planes of living and analyzes influences race the rendering of living.
Note that you’re not thinking about this when you read and selling essay then reread an email you receive late one night a few weeks after this first Persian New Year of the Trump administration, from an Iranian-American aspiring writer who tells you your work has saved her life, a woman twenty years your junior who asks if you have any words of advice. You thank her and feel embarrassed for your discomfort in reading her praise, and you try to channel her joy and enthusiasm and you fail, and autobiographical influences race you draft an debating essay, email where you tell her to research paper influences race run but don’t say which way. On Cheating? One word: Run. Run with everything you got, dear reader. Delete the email and start over, and autobiographical paper analyzes influences race watch weeks and weeks go by.
One day open the draft and see the word love. Try to delete it but it won’t go away. Tell yourself your delete key is broken and get it fixed and still try. Love. Tell yourself it was sent to you for a reason—laugh at the audacity, the idiocy, the cliche—and one day, many years into a version of tutankhamun, a future you might get, go as far as to autobiographical research influences grow into it again. Thank you, the selling essay young woman writes. I think I know what to do. You wait for more, but that’s it. Porochista Khakpour is the author of the autobiographical research paper analyzes forthcoming memoir Sick (Harper Perennial, May 2018), and the novels The Last Illusion (Bloomsbury, 2014)—a 2014 Best Book of the Year according to NPR, Kirkus, Buzzfeed, Popmatters, Electric Literature, and more — and Sons and Other Flammable Objects (Grove, 2007)—the 2007 California Book Award winner in “First Fiction,” a Chicago Tribune’s “Fall’s Best,” and a New York Times “Editor’s Choice.” She is currently writer-in-residence at Bard College, adjunct faculty at tutankhamun Columbia University, and visiting faculty at VCFA's MFA program. Padgett Powell breathes life into research, that least promising of literary forms: the letter of recommendation. We stayed inside for days painting papier-mache objects.
Outside, Kashmir had come to selling essay a standstill. “Is it ever too late to paper race live some version of your dreams?” You have flagged this story. Essay? We'll look into your complaint and take it down if it violates our community guidelines.
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16 Things You Should Remove From Your Resume. Quit distracting recruiters with these unnecessary items today. An eye-tracking study by Ladders found that the average recruiter spends only six seconds reviewing a resume before deciding if it’s worth a closer inspection. When you only have six seconds to make the right impression, you have to autobiographical research make every word on school vs education, your resume count. Autobiographical Paper Analyzes? Before reading on, get an debating essay on cheating idea of where you stand by autobiographical research influences revieweing your resume with the Ladders#8217; Resume Reviewer. School? Below I’ve compiled a list of 16 items you can remove from your resume right away that will help your job application avoid the hiring manager’s trash pile. We’ve all seen those generic objective statements talk about #8220;[ ] professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my [ ] skills.” Avoid the run-of-the-mill objective statement and research paper analyzes influences race, replace it with your elevator pitch.
In a brief paragraph, explain what you’re great at, most interested in, and life life, how you can provide value to autobiographical paper analyzes influences a prospective employer. In other words, summarize your job goals and qualifications for the reader. Unless you’re creating a CV to apply to positions outside of the United States, or you’re in the entertainment world and a head shot is debating on cheating, part of the research influences race job, you should never include a picture of yourself with your resume. Your photo will likely clue the employer into your nationality, religion and age (among other factors) that could inadvertently lead to discrimination. Of Chinese? No need to paper give them any of aspects of chinese sociolinguistics, those details until they’ve considered your application based solely on your qualifications. Play it safe and leave the head shot off your resume.
Inappropriate email addresses. The email address firstname.lastname@example.org may have been cute when you were in college, but it’s not the best choice to autobiographical analyzes influences represent your professional brand today. School Vs Education Essay? The same goes for shared family accounts such as email@example.com and email addresses that are offensive or sexual in nature. Do yourself a favor and sign up for a free address with a provider like Gmail that’s reserved exclusively for your job-search and networking activities. If you#8217;d like to relocate for work, you probably already know it#8217;s best to leave your current address off your resume. However, it#8217;s becoming increasingly common for professionals to remove this information, regardless of their target location. If you#8217;re searching for a position in your current location and want employers to know you’re a local candidate, include your city and state. However, leave your street address off to protect yourself from potential identity theft. Do you remember the scene in the movie #8220;He’s Just Not That Into You” where Drew Barrymore’s character is complaining about playing phone (and email and Facebook and text…) tag with a potential suitor? The more phone numbers you introduce into the mix, the easier it is to autobiographical paper influences miss an important message from selling essay, a prospective employer.
Avoid this confusion by listing one phone number, preferably the number for influences race your mobile phone, where you control the voicemail, who picks up the phone, and when. There’s no need to include personal information such as your social security number, marital status, nationality or spiritual beliefs. In fact, it is illegal for an employer to ask for these personal details. I also recommend removing your hobbies from the resume. Of Chinese Essays? Unless you’re incredibly new to the workforce or your activities are directly related to your target job, you’re merely wasting resume real estate. Irrelevant social media accounts.
Not only is this information a waste of resume space, but including personal social media accounts that aren’t aligned with your professional brand can derail your job search. Remove these links from analyzes influences, your resume and take steps to safeguard your brand. Flesh out at least one professional profile on sites like LinkedIn, GitHub, or About.Me, depending upon your line of work, and include the essay on cheating link at the top of your resume. If you work in a creative field, consider creating a personal site that has a mobile-responsive design so you can share your portfolio from any device. Autobiographical Research Paper Influences? Remember, this contact information will be used by recruiters to contact you. Do you really want them calling you at work or using an email address that can be monitored by your current employer? Don’t inadvertently tip your boss off about selling essay, your job-search activities.
Always list your personal email address and phone number on your resume and job applications. The same goes for any social media accounts associated with your professional brand. Don’t include embedded tables or images in paper analyzes influences, your resume and avoid using the actual Header and Footer sections of the Word document, as these can confuse the employer’s online applicant tracking system, known as an vs education ATS system, and scramble your job application. When choosing your resume font, stick to autobiographical analyzes influences race ones that are considered easy to read and won’t confuse the selling essay ATS systems: Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Tahoma, Book Antiqua or Franklin Gothic. If you’re in a creative position, save the creative designs for your online portfolio. Employers still need a version of your resume that can be easily uploaded, parsed and stored in autobiographical analyzes race, their online tracking system. While it can be tempting to throw a few buzzwords such as #8220;proactive” and #8220;self-motivated” into a professional summary, recruiters know these terms are mere fluff and won’t be impressed when they see them. In fact, a survey by CareerBuilder found these words to be among hiring managers’ top 17 resume turn-offs. Instead of telling employers that you’re a #8220;value-add”, use strong action verbs explain how you were able to improve a process, increase revenue or cut costs.
While there is some debate among HR professionals these days about the school vs education essay need to add a more personal tone to resumes, the generally accepted practice is to refrain from research paper analyzes influences, referring to yourself in the first person with pronouns such as #8220;I” or #8220;me.” Similarly, don’t use pronouns or your name to compare single and married talk about yourself in the third person (i.e. #8220;John is an accomplished IT professional”; #8220;He is seeking opportunities to…”). There’s no need to include salary information or hourly pay rates for roles you previously held. Paper Analyzes Race? It’s not only unnecessary; it may send the wrong message to employers. Remember, your resume should showcase the value your professional experience and skills provide – not its cost to selling essay former employers. If a job application asks for salary requirements, address these questions in your cover letter. You may be proud to autobiographical analyzes coach your son’s baseball team or run the selling essay annual bake sale at your church, but this information doesn’t belong on your resume. If it’s not relevant to your target job goals, reconsider its place on your resume.
Would the autobiographical influences race hiring manager reading your resume find this information valuable or would they ask themselves, #8220;So what?” Employers are especially interested in your most recent experience and bluest eye beauty thesis, how that ties back to their open position’s requirements. If you’re an entry-level professional, it’s time to take out any references to your high school career. Instead, focus on paper analyzes, highlighting your education, relevant internships and the leadership skills you’ve developed during college. If you’re further along in your career, limit your resume to include the most recent 15 years of experience in reverse-chronological order and remove the dates from any degrees, certifications or awards that fall outside that 15-year window. Tutankhamun? Whether you’re new to research paper analyzes influences race the workforce or a seasoned professional, your resume real estate is school vs education essay, precious.
Don’t waste space by listing your references or including a note such as #8220;References available upon request” at the bottom of research paper influences, your resume. Employers don’t ask for compare single and married that information until you make it to autobiographical paper analyzes influences race a face-to-face interview, and bluest, they know you’ll provide it if they request it. Research Paper Analyzes Influences Race? Amanda Augustine Amanda Augustine is a well-recognized expert in all things related to career advancement: from identifying your dream job, to developing your professional brand, to on cheating acing your next interview. She is a job search and career consultant with a passion for helping people find the autobiographical paper analyzes find the right job, sooner. Learn more at tutankhamun essay JobSearchAmanda.com. New neuroscience reveals 4 rituals that will make you happy. You get all kinds of happiness advice on the internet from autobiographical analyzes influences, people who don’t know what they’re talking about.
Don’t trust them. Tutankhamun Essay? Trust neuroscience. How to answer the ‘Tell me about yourself’ interview question. Rather than dread this question, a candidate should welcome this inquiry. Properly answered, this question puts the paper analyzes influences race candidate in essay on cheating, the driver's seat. Job interview preparation: What to do before, during, and after an interview. Knowing what is expected of you before, during, and after an autobiographical paper analyzes race interview will put you in the best position to vs education essay prove you’re the best candidate for any job. The best bosses see employees as humans. Good bosses challenge their employees. Already have a resume. It's your resume. Paper Influences? #1 Site for $100K+ Jobs.
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English Language and Composition Deconstruction. Utilitarianism holds that the moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome, and autobiographical research race, is often described by the phrase “the greatest good for the greatest number of people. ” This passage focuses on what Mills perceives as Bentham’s lack of empathy, the ability to emotional identify with other people. Mills ascribes this lack of emotional depth to Bentham’s life which was without the hardships or challenges most people experience. [pic] 1. In the passage, the author’s overall attitude toward Bentham can best be described as A) grudgingly appreciative B) cleverly nonjudgmental C) bitterly disillusioned. We will write a custom essay sample. on English Language and on cheating, Composition Deconstruction or any similar.
topic specifically for you. This passage focuses on Bentham’s limited vision and is thus essentially negative (E), although it is neither vicious nor sarcastic (D). It is neither bitter nor disillusioned (C). Since it focuses on research paper analyzes race, Bentham’s limitations, it is judgmental (B). 2. Which of the following best describes the function of the second sentence (lines 3-9) in the first paragraph?
A) It qualifies and expands the opening sentence. B) It focuses on qualities Bentham’s language lacks. Essay? (C)It compares Bentham’s skills to those of other writers. (D)It provides an example of a brief digression. E)It signals a transition in thought from the autobiographical analyzes influences race, opening sentence. 2. Answer: A The function of the sentence is to qualify “the certain degree” of Bentham’s endowments and to expand on the idea of these endowments (A). Although it does refer to the qualities Bentham’s language lacked, that was not its primary function (B), nor is of chinese sociolinguistics essays its primary function to compare him with other writers (C). It is not a digression nor is it a transition of thought from the opening sentence since it does not lead to a new topic (D). 3. The author’s discussion of Bentham’s ability to use imagery (lines 1-9) is best described as one of. The author is not establishing his credentials as a historian, only that he is well read (A). He is not clarifying the research paper, previous sentence but providing examples to support it (B).
He is essay not writing about poets, but historians (D) nor is he differentiating historians from autobiographical research race poets, but focusing. Page 2 English Language and Composition Deconstruction Essay. on the debating, importance of the knowledge of human nature (E). 7. One purpose of the first paragraph is to (A)suggest that beauty is not an essential element of autobiographical research good art (B)discount the importance of imaginative thinking C) distinguish between two types of imagination D) suggest that artistic creativity is compromised by social responsibility E)reinforce popular views of creative imagination 7. Answer: C One of the purposes of the first paragraph, which deals with the importance of Imagination, which the author ties to essays empathy, is to distinguish between Imagination in the “popular sense,” which is the use of imagery and metaphor, and the author’s conception of Imagination as empathy (C). He is analyzes influences race not discussing either beauty nor art (A), and life and married life essay, does not discount the importance of autobiographical research race imaginative thinking, which he applies to empathy (B). He does not address the role of essay social responsibility (D) and is writing to discuss an alternative view of imagination, not reinforce the popular view. . Which of the following best describes the analyzes race, rela- tionship between the first paragraph and the second paragraph? (A)The second paragraph uses the claims made at the end of the first paragraph to examine an single and married life individual. Autobiographical Paper Influences Race? (B)The second paragraph continues to expand the definition of imagination begun in school vs education essay, the first paragraph. (C)The second paragraph supports the claim in the opening sentence of the first paragraph. (D)The second paragraph presents a more balanced view of Bentham than does the first paragraph. Research Paper Influences? (E)The second paragraph supports the theme of the first paragraph by references to school scholarly research. 8. Answer: A. The best description of the relationship between the autobiographical analyzes influences, first and second paragraph is that the second paragraph applies the sociolinguistics, general points made in the first paragraph to a specific individual, Bentham (A). It does not continue to expand the research, definition but to apply it to an individual (B), nor does it support, but contradicts the first sentence, focusing on eye beauty thesis, Bentham’s limitations (C).
The first paragraph is primarily about the concept of Imagination rather than Bentham (D). There is no reference to scholarly research, only allusions to respected authors (E). 9. The stylistic feature most evident in lines 32-62 (“By these … ay read”) is the use of A) series of prepositional phrases B) repeated syntactical patterns C) metaphor D) analogy (E)allusion 9. Answer B This question asks for the identification of a stylistic feature. The most evident is the autobiographical research paper analyzes, use of metaphors such as “He was a boy…. ” “never was awakened in him” “never been made alive” (B) There is essay no repetition of prepositional phrases (in time, at home) (A) nor repeated syntactical (sentence) patterns (C). There are neither direct analogies (comparisons) (D) nor allusions (references to books or other things outside the text) (E). 10. Which of the following rhetorical devices is analyzes influences race used n lines 35-38 (“He had neither … satiety”)? A) Antithesis B) Oxymoron C) Euphemism D) Personification (E)Apostrophe 10. Tutankhamun Essay? Answer A This question asks for analyzes the identification of a rhetorical device.
It is antithesis, the contrasting of ideas in debating essay, a balanced phrase, “internal experience nor external…” (A). It is not oxymoron, the combining of contradictory terms (deafening silence) (B). It is not Euphemism, an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is autobiographical considered offensive or too harsh (passed away for essay died) (C). Research Paper Influences? It is essay on cheating not Personification, a description of something nonhuman in human form (the sun smiled at us) (D). It is not Apostrophe, an address some absent person or thing (Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts…. ) (E). 11. In lines 35-48 (“He had neither … in him”), the author suggests that Bentham A) writes without a clear purpose B) has a fear of human aberration C) cannot understand strong human feelings D) does not value information based on observation (E)has little respect for autobiographical paper analyzes influences others’ opinions 11. Answer: C The author suggests that Bentham cannot understand strong human feeling, his major weakness (C). He is not referring to Bentham’s writing style (A) nor is thesis there any indication of a fear of research paper influences race human aberration or deviance (B).
Bentham does value information based on observation but had limited life experience which limited his observation to the empirical (factual/scientific) (D). There is no reference to other’s opinions (E). 12. In the context of lines 43-48, “Self-consciousness” means A) awkwardness B) caution C) shame D) idealism (E)introspection 12. Answer E In the context of lines 43-48, “Self-consciousness” means consciousness of oneself or introspection (E). There is no indication of awkwardness (A), caution (B), or shame (C). Bentham was not idealistic (D). 13.
The author most likely includes the clause “He aw accordingly in man little but what the vulgar- est eye can see” (lines 59-60) in order to (A)convey the limitation of Bentham’s perception (B)illustrate Bentham’s preoccupation with base and coarse actions (C)suggest that Bentham could see nothing good in others (D)imply that Bentham had no sympathy for selling essay others’ misfortunes (E)suggest that Bentham understood the common people best 13. Answer A The author includes the clause “He saw accordingly in many little but what the vulgarest eye can see” in order to paper analyzes influences elaborate on Bentham’s lack of emotional depth and understanding (A). Bentham is not preoccupied with common or crude actions (B). Of Chinese Sociolinguistics Essays? The author does not suggest that Bentham could see nothing good in others, just that his emotional understanding was limited (C). Paper Influences Race? Bentham is not unsympathetic, just lacked empathy (D) and essay, had no special understanding of paper influences anyone (E). Selling Essay? 14. The author’s attitude toward Bentham’s abilities as a writer might be best described as (A)dismissive because of the narrowness of Bentham’s experience and understanding (B)jealous because of Bentham’s undeserved success and happiness (C)undecided because of the paucity of information about Bentham’s life D)disapproving because of the uniformly serious tone of autobiographical research paper influences race Bentham’s prose (E)appreciative because of the selling essay, accuracy of Bentham’s observations 14. Answer A Overall, the author’s attitude toward Bentham’s ability as a writer is negative or dismissive because of Bentham’s limitations (A). There is autobiographical analyzes race no indication of jealously, only an element of pity (B). He clearly is not undecided, nor is there any indication of selling essay a lack of information (C). The author’s negativity does not come from Bentham’s tone, but Bentham’s limitations (D).
The author does not really address Bentham’s observations except that they are limited (E). Research Paper Influences? 5. The author characterizes Bentham primarily as an individual who A) has been wrongly ignored B) lacks poetic insight C) is too uncompromising D) has a childlike sense of fantasy (E)has a highly idiosyncratic style 15. Debating? Answer B The author’s primary characterization of Bentham is as someone who lacks poetic (emotional) insight (B). He does not say that Bentham has been ignored (A). There is no discussion of Bentham as uncompromising (C). While Bentham may be childlike in his lack of emotional depth, he is not characterized as childlike (D). The author’s primary concern is emotional depth, not style (E).
6. The area of experience of which Bentham is said to be most ignorant is the A) intellectual B) practical C) emotional D) analytical (E)moral 16. Research Paper Race? Answer C The area of experience of which Bentham is most ignorant is emotional, due to the lack of challenge in his personal life (C). His lack is not intellectual (A) or analytical (D) but emotional/empathetic. He is essays practical (B) and there is paper analyzes no indication that he is essay immoral (E). Paper Analyzes? 17. The passage as a whole is best characterized as A) a personal reminiscence B) a treatise on style C) a critical evaluation D) an ironic attack (E)a factual report 7. Answer C The passage as a whole is tutankhamun essay a critical evaluation of Bentham and his limitations (C).
It is not a personal reminiscence since there is no reference to a personal relationship (A). While it touches briefly on autobiographical research analyzes influences, style, it does so only in passing (B). It is not ironic, and eye beauty thesis, while critical of Bentham’s limitations, is not an attack (D). While it may contain factual information, that is not its purpose (E). Essay 2 This excerpt, written in 1940, from an autobiographical essay by W. Autobiographical Paper Analyzes Influences? E. D. B. Dubois (unidentified in the excerpt), portrays the emotional trauma of his experience of segregation. Dubois was an early civil rights activist who countered B. T. Washington’s philosophy of accommodation to segregation and elevation of the race by hard work, with calls for active protest.
In this essay, Dubois conveys the psychological impact of a system of bluest thesis segregation. He does this within the intellectual context of autobiographical research paper influences race history, his life experience, as well as his experience at Harvard University (where he was the first African American graduate) and lecturing in Germany. [pic] 18. The speaker’s primary purpose in the passage is to (A)justify the need for class structures in school essay, the modern world B)seek restitution for wrongs committed against him (C)establish the autobiographical research paper analyzes, major distinctions between race issues and class issues (D)convey the of chinese, psychological impact of a system of segregation (E)condemn physical force as a means of maintaining segregation 18. Answer D This question asks for the primary purpose of the autobiographical paper analyzes race, passage as a whole. Beginning with the scholarly and moving to bluest the personal, the author conveys the psychological impact of segregation (D).
He is clearly not justifying the need for autobiographical analyzes race class structures in the modern world but showing the damage they do to individuals (A). He does not seek restitution (payment to the victims to compensate for damages) (B). Compare And Married? He is autobiographical research paper analyzes influences showing the connection between race and class issues rather than making distinctions (C). While we can assume his condemnation of physical force, he is essay on cheating primarily presenting the effect of social and autobiographical research paper race, psychological forces (E). 19. Tutankhamun? Line 7 (“continually knocking his hands, head and heart”) provides an example of A) antithesis B) alliteration C) apostrophe D) analogy (E)anticlimax 19. Answer B Line 7 provides an example of alliteration, the repetition of paper influences initial consonant sounds “his hands, head, and heart” (B). There is no antithesis, the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases (“You’re easy on the eyes, hard on the heart”) (A), nor apostrophe, an address to a person or intagible (“Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art”) (C). There is no analogy, the comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship (“Memory is to love what the saucer is to the cup. “) (D). It is not an anticlimax, the usually sudden transition in selling essay, discourse from a significant idea to a trivial or ludicrous idea (“He has seen the ravages of war, he has known natural catastrophes, he has been to singles bars. “) (E).
20. The series of phrases in paper analyzes race, lines 12-14 (“in muscles … became divine”) suggests the vs education, (A)uncertainty that people felt about their own social class (B)internal conflicts rampant in a rigid class system (C)many ways that class structure was maintained (D)inability of government to rule without the research analyzes, support of religion (E)transition from a society ruled by school vs education essay force to one ruled by law 20. Answer C The series of phrases lists the many ways the research paper race, class system was maintained (C). It has nothing to do with any uncertainty that people felt (A), or the internal conflicts of the class system, even though it was brutally maintained (B). The reference to religion implies the use of compare single and married life essay religion by government, not its dependence upon it (D). The list moves from brute force to law and religion; these existed together and autobiographical analyzes race, the order does not imply a transition or movement (E). 21. In relation to the rest of the vs education essay, passage, the first paragraph provides (A)historical information that illuminates the speaker’s own circumstances (B)an analogy that puts the reader in the same situation as that in which the speaker exists (C)a comparison between the life of sixteenth- century artisans and twentieth-century artists (D)conflicting statements about the social position of artisans in Europe E)a personal reminiscence that alters the autobiographical research, speaker’s views 21. Answer A The first paragraph provides a parallel between the 16th century and the present oppression experienced by life essay the speaker (A). It is not an analogy, a comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship, since it is autobiographical research paper not putting the reader in the same situation as that in which the speaker exists (B). It is not a comparison of artists, but of oppressed peoples (C).
There are no conflicting statements about the artesians in Europe (D). Debating Essay On Cheating? Although there are personal reminiscences (stories from memory), they illustrate rather than alter the speaker’s views (E). 2. The second paragraph is significant in that the speaker (A)cites a counterexample to that in the opening paragraph (B)makes use of the autobiographical paper analyzes, power of personal experience (C)outlines his assumptions about the reader’s experiences (D)traces the history of life modern discrimination (E)utilizes eyewitness accounts to document claims 22. Answer B The second paragraph is significant in that the research paper analyzes race, speaker makes use of the power of essay on cheating personal experience (B). The examples are not counterexamples (examples that refute or disprove an idea) to the opening paragraph, but establish a contemporary parallel to it (A). It does not outline his assumptions of the reader’s experience but details the autobiographical paper influences race, author’s own experience (C). It traces the author’s experience of aspects discrimination rather than outlining a history of discrimination (D). The only eyewitness accounts of his claims are the author’s and these are limited to generalities rather than accounts of specific experiences (E).
23. The word “education” (line 24) refers to A) formal learning in school B) independent learning gained from personal reading C) learning acquired through recitation D) learning obtained through experience E)learning influenced by parents 23. Answer D The word education in line 24 refers to the education of first hand experience (D). It does not refer to formal learning in school (A), or to independent learning from reading (B), nor does it refer to research paper analyzes influences race recitation (C). There is no reference to debating essay parents (E). 24. In context, the phrase “sleepless vigilance” (line 27) suggests A) a nervous inability to sleep B) an obsessive concern for safety C) the relentless desire for autobiographical research freedom D) the disruptive ferment of new ideas (E)the determined enforcement of a system 24. Answer E. In context, the phrase “sleepless vigilance” in vs education essay, line 27 refers to the comprehensive system of constraints that maintain segregation (E).
Sleep is used metaphorically, not literally (A). Research Paper? Vigilance refers to oppression, not safety (B) or the desire for freedom (C). The vigilance is to maintain oppression, not to enforce it (D). 25. The speaker uses lines 30-40 (“I could not… largely excluded”) primarily to (A)emphasize the effects of racism by of chinese cataloging his experiences (B)criticize past social practices in research paper influences, discriminatory countries (C)signal a shift in focus that will be discussed subsequently (D)illustrate the fear that made it difficult for debating on cheating im to write (E)decry the analyzes influences race, injustices suffered by essay all peoples in subordinate stations 25. Answer A The speaker uses these lines to list the autobiographical paper analyzes, ways racism has impacted every aspect of his life (A). It is to detail his own experience in America rather than to criticize past social practices in other countries (B).
It does not signal a shift in focus but serves to strengthen his argument through personal experience (C). There is no indication that he had difficulty in writing, although he was limited in what he could publish (D). School Vs Education? While he implies a universality of his experience to all African Americans, he focuses on his own experience. 6. As used in line 55, “gainsay” is best interpreted to mean A) deny B) deplore C) articulate D) reiterate (E)emphasize 26. Answer A The word “gainsay” in research paper analyzes influences race, context is best interpreted as something that was impossible to deny (A). Impossible to deplore is the opposite of the way it is used here (B). It is not impossible to articulate, or express in detail, since that is exactly what the author is school vs education essay neither doing (C), nor it is impossible to reiterate, or state again (D).
Since the author is emphasizing the effects of racism it is not impossible to autobiographical emphasize it (E). 27. The speaker uses the word “impossible” twice at the beginning of the final paragraph (line 55) in school vs education, order to (A)contrast the ironic first use of the word with the straightforward second use (B)return to the writing style used in analyzes, the first paragraph of the essay (C)explore the development of a logical argument (D)imply that all impossibilities are created by aspects sociolinguistics humans (E)highlight the strong feelings that the subject engenders 27. Answer E The speaker’s use of autobiographical race “impossible” twice in tutankhamun essay, the beginning of the research paper race, final paragraph emphasizes his strong feelings of frustration (E). Both words are used in essay, a straightforward way (A). Paper Influences Race? The writing style in the final paragraph is more emotional then the first, so it is not a return (B). Tutankhamun Essay? While it may be true that all impossibilities are created by humans, the final paragraph focuses on the effect of segregation on autobiographical, the author’s emotional state (C). The final paragraph is emotional rather than logical (D). Essay On Cheating? 28.
The effectiveness of the final paragraph is primarily a result of its A) demand for immediate action B) reliance on extended metaphor C) use of specific example D) tone of defensiveness (E)investigation of a claim 28. Answer C. The effectiveness of the final paragraph is primarily a result of its use of the specific example of the African American friend on the train being mistaken for a service worker (C). It is not a demand for influences action (A). The example is not a metaphor (B). The tone is one of frustration and perhaps anger, not defensiveness (D). He is essay on cheating not investigating a claim, he is denouncing the reality that exists (E). 29. The final sentence of the passage (lines 58-64) moves from (A)conveying a private awareness of an injustice to covering up its public aftermath (B)relating an research analyzes influences race incident to decrying its implications C)citing universal truths to searching for exceptions (D)expressing an idea to demanding punishment for an action (E)showing forgiveness to taking personal responsibility for a mistake 29. Answer B The final sentence of the passage moves from relating the incident (friend on the train) to decrying its implications (inescapable sign of selling essay slavery) (B). There is no cover up (A).
It does not move from a universal truth but toward one (C). There is no demand for punishment (D). There is no show of forgiveness nor is there any indication that the autobiographical paper analyzes, lady on the train took personal responsibility for her mistake (D). 30. The speaker’s tone might best be described as A) callous and essay, reckless B) petulant and critical C) resigned and reconciled D) detached but hopeful (E)civil but angry 30. Answer E The speaker’s tone might best be described as civil (polite) but angry (E). It is not callous (emotionally hardened) nor reckless (A). It is not petulant (Cranky/easily irritated) although it is autobiographical research paper analyzes angry and is critical of American society (B). It is neither resigned (passively accepting) nor reconciled (accepting as inevitable) (C). It is neither detached (emotionally uninvolved) nor hopeful (D).
31. The primary imagery of the passage is that of. A) flight B) creation C) confinement D) darkness (E)punishment 31. Answer C The primary imagery of the passage is that of confinement, being limited (C). He cannot fly or run away from segregation (A) and nothing is being created (B).
While the mood may be dark, the single life and married life, imagery is not (D). While the author does feel unjustly punished by the effects of slavery and paper analyzes influences race, segregation, punishment is not a central image (E). Essay 3 This excerpt is from a recent work examining Benjamin Franklin from debating on cheating a contemporary perspective. The author feels that Franklin would be quite comfortable in research analyzes race, modern America. He examines those critical of Franklin and cautions us to not mistake the thesis, image of himself that Franklin developed in his autobiography with the deep values that motivated him. It contains an extensive footnote exploring the use of the word “meritocracy” as it is used in the essay and its origin and development as a term. [pic] 32. The device used in lines 8-17 (“We can … values”) to convey Franklin’s character is paper analyzes influences A) allusion B) hypothetical examples C) extended simile D) refutation of assumed traits (E)argument based on personal attack 32. Answer B. The device used in line 8-17 to convey Franklin’s character is a series of hypothetical examples, imagining Franklin in contemporary situations (B). There are no allusions (brief references to a person, place event, or to essay another literary work) (A).
There are no similes (comparisons using like or as) extended or not (C). Research Paper Analyzes Influences? He is tutankhamun not refuting (anticipating and countering opposing points of view) anything (D). There is no personal attack (E). 33. The rhetorical purpose of lines 14-17 (“And we … values”) is to (A)assert that the contemporary view of Franklin distorts his accomplishments (B)suggest that Franklin did not balance his ursuits particularly well (C)encourage the autobiographical influences, reader to vs education analyze present-day leaders in the light of Franklin (D)make Franklin seem more morally upright than he may actually have been (E)prompt the reader to feel kinship with Franklin on the basis of the challenges he faced 33. Research Influences Race? Answer E The rhetorical purpose (author’s purpose) of lines 14-17 is to prompt the tutankhamun essay, reader to influences see Franklin as someone we could relate to selling essay in a modern setting, based on his attempts to paper analyzes influences race balance reputation, wealth, earthly virtues, and single and married, spiritual values (E).
The author sees Frankin’s accomplishments as enhanced by a contemporary view (A). He praised Franklin for his attempts to balance his pursuits (B). Paper Analyzes? There is no comparison of compare Franklin to influences race contemporary leaders (C). Compare Life Life? There is no attempt to research analyzes influences make Franklin seem morally upright (D). Aspects? 34. This item was not scored. 35. The first paragraph characterizes people in the contemporary United States primarily as A) charitable yet exacting B) zealous yet deceitful C) self-effacing yet proud D) genial yet self-interested (E)mean-spirited yet honest 35. Answer D The first paragraph characterizes people in the contemporary US primarily as genial (sociable – networker, having a beer, sharing) and autobiographical analyzes race, yet self-interested (D). There is no reference to charitable (giving to the needy) or exacting (demanding perfection) (A). There is neither a reference to being zealous (filled with enthusiasm for a cause) or deceitful (dishonest) (B).
Contemporary people are described as neither self-effacing (humble) nor proud (C). They are not characterized as either mean-spirited or honest (E). 36. “They” in bluest thesis, line 21 of the passage refers to people who (A)disagree that Franklin’s life exemplifies commercial values (B)want to reevaluate the importance of Franklin’s writings (C)believe that Franklin’s legacy is not appreciated sufficiently D)have reservations about Franklin’s values (E)want others to be as inspired by Franklin as they have been 36. Answer D “They” in line 21 refers to people who have reservations (limited acceptance) about autobiographical, Franklin’s values. There is no reference to commercial values, other than practicality (A), and these are not people who want to reevaluate Franklin’s writing, but do have an opinion (B). These are not people who think Franklin is underappreciated (C), nor are they particularly inspired by selling essay Franklin or actively promoting him (E). 37. The misunderstanding discussed in lines 35-37 is that many who study Franklin A)ascribe greater geniality to Franklin than his actions support (B)confuse Franklin’s public statements with his private beliefs (C)believe that Franklin had a fundamental faith that in fact he lacked (D)do not study the research analyzes, public Franklin enough to understand him thoroughly (E)rely too much on government records in then- analysis of Franklin 37.
Answer B The misunderstanding discussed in lines 35-37 is selling essay that many who study Franklin confuse his public statements “moral maxims” for his private beliefs “fundamental faiths” (B). Autobiographical Paper Analyzes Race? Geniality here refers to the tone of his public statements, not Franklin himself (A). The sentence states that he was motivated by “fundamental faiths” (C). These “many who study Franklin” are people who do understand him (D). There is no reference to vs education government records (E). 38.
The final paragraph (lines 30-37) functions as (A)a repetition of the views previously established B) a diatribe against autobiographical research paper analyzes race those who devalue Franklin C) an authorial judgment about a preceding discussion (D)a critique of Franklin’s autobiography (E)a controversial conclusion to a contentious debate 38. Answer C The final paragraph functions as the authorial (from the author) judgment about the school vs education, preceding discussion (C). It introduces new ideas so it is not a repetition (A). It is not a diatribe (angry criticism) (B). It is not a critique (a critical review evaluating something) nor does it directly reference Franklin’s autobiography (D). The conclusion is not controversial nor is the debate contentious (quarrelsome) (E). 39. Which of the autobiographical, following sentences best represents the author’s main point in the passage? (A)”Franklin has a particular resonance in twenty-first-century America. ” (lines 1-2) (B)”We would admire both his earnestness and selling essay, his self-aware irony. ” (lines 13-14) (C)”Some who see the reflection of Franklin n the world today fret about a shallowness of soul and a spiritual complacency that seem to permeate a culture of materialism. ” (lines 18-21) (D)”They regard Franklin as an exemplar of the personal character and civic virtue that are too often missing in modern America. ” (lines 27-29) (E)”Both sides too often confuse him with the autobiographical influences race, striving pilgrim he portrayed in his autobiography. ” (lines 33-35) 39. Answer A The author’s main point in the passage is that Franklin is relevant for 21st century America (A). While we would admire both Franklin’s earnestness and his self-aware irony, self-aware irony is not the main point (B).
Though some see Franklin as a negative (C) and others as a positive (D) these are not the author’s focus. Similarly, when the author concludes that both sides confuse him with the “striving pilgrim” in his writing, this is not the compare life essay, point the author is making. 40. This passage is most probably excerpted from A) an article about Franklin in a business journal B) a work of cultural criticism attacking Franklin for the decay of autobiographical research paper influences traditional values C) a book about Franklin’s scientific research D) a biography of compare and married Franklin intended for a general audience (E)a newspaper account of influences historians’ onflicting views of Franklin 40. Answer D The article is most probably excerpted from a biography of Franklin intended for aspects sociolinguistics essays a general audience (D). Since the author does not focus on business (A) or science (C), specialized journals would be unlikely to publish this general article. The author does not blame Franklin for the decay of traditional values, although he states that some others might see him as a reflection of autobiographical paper influences this decline (B). While the passage does deal with conflicting views of Franklin, both the debating essay, style of writing and autobiographical research paper influences race, the extensive footnote would not be characteristic of compare single essay newspaper writing. In addition, the autobiographical research paper, author’s main purpose is not to contrast the two views, but to argue that Franklin “has a particular resonance” for school our times (E). 41. The main purpose of the footnote is to A) introduce readers to research paper analyzes race an ongoing discussion B) explore an alternative solution to a problem C) document the author’s credentials D) list all possible sources available on a topic (E)explain the author’s bias against another historian 41.
Answer A The main purpose of the selling essay, footnote is to introduce the readers to the ongoing discussion of the autobiographical paper analyzes race, word “meritocracy” (A). It does not explore a problem, but the use and tutankhamun, history of the word (B). While the scholarly footnote may help establish the author’s credibility, it does not document his credentials (C). It lists two uses of the term not all the possible sources (D). There is no indication of bias (E). 42. In the second line of the footnote, the number 31 most probably indicates the (A)page of the Weekly Standard on which the reference appears (B)edition of the Weekly Standard in which the article appears (C)volume number of the Weekly Standard in which the article appears (D)page in the author’s book where the citation ppears (E)number of times in the author’s book that the autobiographical paper influences race, citation appears 42. Answer A In the tutankhamun essay, second line of the footnote, the number 31 indicates the page number since it is at the end of the citation (A). Neither the autobiographical research analyzes race, edition (B) nor volume (C) numbers are listed and, if present, would be placed after the title of the periodical, Weekly Standard.
It is clearly from the article by Brooks since there is selling essay no reference to the passage’s author (other than Brooks) in the citation (D). If the citation appears in the author’s book multiple times, it would not be written in this form (E). 3. Answer E In the footnote, the author uses the phrase “somewhat ironically” primarily to comment on autobiographical paper analyzes, the irony that an author writing about social mobility based on essay, merit became a Lord, gaining a hereditary title and social position having nothing to do with merit (E). Research Race? He is not satirizing the author’s view (A) nor saying that the author is not the inventor of the phrase (B). Since he is simply providing information on the origin of the term rather than arguing a position, he is not eliciting support from readers (D).
43. In lines 7-8 of the footnote, the author uses the sociolinguistics essays, hrase “somewhat ironically” primarily to (A)satirize a rival author’s narrow view of what constitutes merit (B)disparage an author’s claim to being the autobiographical paper influences race, inventor of a phrase (C)engage the reader in bluest thesis, thinking about the autobiographical research paper analyzes, limits of the role of social thinkers (D)elicit support from readers who do not approve of the British monarchy (E)comment on the apparent disparity between an author’s views and his social rank 44. In the last sentence of the footnote, the word “it” refers to essay on cheating A) “Yuppie” (line 1 of the footnote) B) “meritocracy” (line 2 of the footnote) C) “vision” (line 4 of the footnote) D) “social mobility” (line 5 of the footnote) (E)”dismissive term” (line 10 of the footnote) 44. Answer B The “it” in the last sentence of the footnote refers to (is the antecedent to) to meritocracy (B). The word “Yuppie” refers to Franklin (A). Both “Vision” (C) and paper influences race, “social mobility” (D) are part of the eye beauty, definition, not the word itself (C). The “dismissive term” is meritocracy, not “yuppie” (E) 45. Which of the following is an autobiographical race accurate reading of the source for the quotation in the last sentence of the footnote: “social order [that] follows the principle of careers open to talents”? A)Brooks, David. “Our Founding Yuppie,” Weekly Standard, Oct. 23, 2000, 31. (B)Brooks, David.
A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 106. (C)Young, Michael. The Rise of the thesis, Meritocracy. New York: Viking Press, 1958. (D)Rawls, John. A Theory of autobiographical paper analyzes influences Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971, 106. (E)Rawls, John, and David Brooks. Selling Essay? Found in Weekly Standard and A Theory of Justice. Reprinted by permission. 45.
Answer D An accurate reading of the source for the quotation in the last sentence of the footnote is the citation that immediately precedes it (D). It is not from Brooks, from whom the information at the beginning of the footnote came (A) (B), nor is it from Young’s book, the originator of the phrase (C). It is research analyzes race not Rawls and debating essay on cheating, Brooks, since they are authors of separate works (E). Essay 4 This passage from an essay by contemporary American writer, Joyce Carol Oats, was published by Ontario Review Press, a journal and later a publishing company founded by autobiographical paper race Oates and a partner, two Americans working and teaching in Canada. It was intended to bridge the gap between the essays, literary communities of both countries.
It later moved to the US when Oates took a position at Princeton University. It has published many of Joyce Carol Oates’ works. In this essay, Oates discusses the autobiographical research analyzes influences, difference between Joyce Carol Oats, “I” and “JCO,” the writer, which Oats identifies not as a person but a process which operates through her but is distinct from her. She goes on to generalize this distinction between the individual and the artist, then returns to selling essay herself. [pic] 46. Research Paper Influences? In line 1, the phrase “to that other” primarily does which of the following? (A)It explains why the statement “nothing ever happens” (line 1) is eye beauty true. Research Influences? (B)It identifies the one to whom “nothing ever happens” (line 1). (C)It indicates uncertainty by inverting normal ord order. (D)It suggests that what appears to be a fact is not. Selling Essay? (E)It undermines a generally accepted view.
46. Answer B In line 1 the phrase “to that other” primarily identifies the race, one to whom “nothing ever happens”, “JCO”, the process (B). It does not explain the school, statement but identifies to whom it is that nothing ever happens (A). The word order is not inverted or reversed (subject/verb to verb/subject) (C). What Oates says is a fact, is that nothing ever happens to “JCO” the writing process. She believes this is true since “JCO” does not age etc. and is frozen in the piece of writing (D).
Although most readers would not make the research analyzes influences, distinction between “I” and ‘JCO,” the phrase does not undermine the tutankhamun essay, generally accepted view since its function is to identify (E). Autobiographical Research Paper Influences? 47. In relation to the first sentence (line 1), the second sentence (lines 2-6) serves to (A)introduce a persona that contrasts with the one introduced in school vs education, the first sentence (B)simplify the figurative language used in autobiographical influences, the first sentence (C)explain how the oxymoron found in the first sentence is not really true (D)use metaphorical language subtly to contradict the first sentence (E)undermine the compare life and married life essay, distinction between fact and fiction that was stated in the first sentence 7. Answer A A persona is the role that one assumes or displays in public or society as distinguished from the inner self. In relation to the first sentence, the second sentence introduces the persona of “JCO” that contrasts with the autobiographical paper, one, “I”, introduced in the first sentence (A) There is no figurative language such as simile or metaphor in the first sentence, although there is in the second (B). There is no oxymoron (combination of contradictory terms, as in a “deafening silence”) in the first sentence (C).
The use of metaphor serves to illustrate abstract concepts and vs education, relationships rather than to contrast with the first sentence (D). It further develops the distinction rather than undermines it (E). 48. In line 9, the author argues that the difference between “writing” and “writers” is primarily that the (A)person doing the writing can never really understand the truth expressed in autobiographical research analyzes, the writing (B)person doing the writing has more in common with other writers than with the writing that she or he produces (C)person doing the writing is perceived as less real than the writing that is produced (D)writing can be perfect but the aspects of chinese essays, person doing the writing can be flawed (E)writing itself is never as vital as the person doing the writing 48. Answer C. In line 9, the author argues that the difference between “writing” and “writer” is primarily that the person doing the writing is less real then the autobiographical analyzes influences, writing itself: ”Writing exists, Writers do not…. ” (C) She is not arguing that the person doing the selling essay, writing can never really understand the truth expressed in autobiographical research, the writing but that the writing is separate from the writer (A). While writers agree, they do not necessarily have more than that in common (B). She does not discuss the perfectibility of either (D), nor does she suggest that either is more or less vital (E). 49.
Which best describes the syntax of lines 17-18 (“JCO … texts”) ? A)A list of compare life and married life essay problems followed by a possible solution B) A pair of negations followed by an assertion C) A statement that balances known and unknown ideas (D)A complex sentence that makes use of autobiographical paper influences hyperbole (E)An unusual construction with no clear subject 49. Answer B The syntax (sentence structure) of lines 17-18 is best described as a pair of negations (“…not a person… nor even a personality…”) followed by an assertion (“…but a process…”) (B). The person and aspects of chinese sociolinguistics essays, personality are not problems, nor is there a solution (A). The ideas are not balanced: although the first half of the sentence states the negative, the second, the positive (C). It is not a complex sentence (A sentence that contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause) and research paper analyzes influences, does not make use of hyperbole (exaggeration for effect) (D). It has a clear subject, “JCO” (E). 50. Lines 18-21 (“Some … sun”) rely primarily on A) repetition B) analogy C) classical allusion D) ironic commentary (E)appeal to authority 50. Answer B Lines 18-21 rely primarily on analogy (a comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship) retained texts/bleached by memories to tutankhamun pages/bleached by sun (B). There is no repetition of either diction (words) or syntax (sentence structure) (A).
There are no classical allusions (references to Greek or Roman works, myths, etc. ) (C). The sentence is not ironic (language in which the intended meaning is the opposite of what is stated) (D). There is no appeal to authority (something that is research analyzes race claimed to be true based on the expertise of an authority rather than objective facts) (E). 51. It can be inferred from the passage that people ignore the “obvious truth” (line 36) for which of the following reasons? (A)They are too intimidated to disagree with famous writers like the author. (B)They do not want other people to school vs education essay tell them ow they should view art. Influences? (C)They conclude too quickly that there is a difference between good and bad art. (D)They are unwilling to accept that art is something that can be bought and school vs education, sold. (E)They misunderstand the analyzes race, relationship between an artistic creation and its creator. 51. Answer E It can be inferred (understood even though not directly stated) from the passage that people ignore the “obvious truth” because they misunderstand the relationship between an artistic creation and its creator, since they do not understand the distinction she makes between the “I” and “JCO” (E). There is tutankhamun essay no reference to people being intimidated, only that they fail to see that the individual artist/writer, “I”, is irrelevant (A). It suggests a lack of understanding not a resistance to a point of view (B).
It does not refer to good or bad art (C) or that art can be bought and analyzes, sold (D). 52. Lines 48-55 (“It. .. will”) have all of the eye beauty thesis, following EXCEPT A) a comparison B) a metaphor C) verbs in the imperative mood D) a subordinate clause (E)scientific diction 52. Answer C Lines 48-55 have all of the following EXCEPT verbs in the imperative mood (verbs used as direct commands or requests) (C).