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Automated Scoring of Writing Quality. The e-rater ® automated writing evaluation engine is ETS's patented capability for automated evaluation of expository, persuasive and summary essays. Multiple assessment programs use the engine. The engine is used in combination with human raters to score the writing sections of the TOEFL iBT ® and GRE ® tests. The e-rater engine is also used as the sole score in learning contexts, such as formative use in a classroom setting with ETS's Criterion ® online essay evaluation system. In the Criterion application, the california institute arts mfa creative engine is used to generate individualized feedback for students, addressing an increasingly important need for the term, automated essay evaluation that is reliable, valid, fast and california institute mfa creative writing, flexible. The Term Artist Summary! The e-rater engine features related to writing quality include: errors in institute arts writing, grammar (e.g., subject-verb agreement) usage (e.g., preposition selection) mechanics (e.g., capitalization) style (e.g., repetitious word use) discourse structure (e.g., presence of a thesis statement, main points) vocabulary usage (e.g., relative sophistication of vocabulary) sentence variety source use discourse coherence quality. The e-rater engine can also automatically detect responses that are off-topic or otherwise anomalous and, therefore, should not be scored.
ETS has an active research agenda that investigates new automated scoring features for genres of writing beyond traditional essay genres, and now includes source-based and argumentative writing tasks found on charivari essay, assessments, as well as lab reports or social science papers. Of The Arts Writing! Below are some recent or significant publications that our researchers have authored that highlight research in automated writing evaluation. J. Burstein, N. Elliott, H. Creative Activities Middle! Molloy. CALICO Journal Vol. 33, No. 1. To construct-relevant systems used for writing instruction and assessment, researchers conducted two investigations of post-secondary writing requirements and faculty perceptions of student writing proficiency.
Study results suggested ways that the role of automated writing evaluation might be expanded and aligned with instruction in higher education. Learn more about institute writing this publication B. Beigman-Klebanov, C. W. Leong, M. Flor. Paper in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Metaphor in charivari margaret atwood, NLP , pp. 1120. The authors discuss a supervised machine learning system that classifies all content words in a running text as either metaphorical or nonmetaphorical. Learn more about california institute of the mfa creative writing this publication S. Somasundaran, C.-M. Lee, M. Chodorow, X. Charivari Atwood Essay! Wang. Paper in california institute of the writing, Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Innovative Use of the term paper artist NLP for Building Educational Applications , pp. 4248. This paper describes an investigation of linguistically motivated features for automatically scoring a spoken picture-based narration task.
Learn more about this publication N. California Institute Of The Mfa Creative Writing! Farra, S. Somasundaran, J. Burstein. Paper in Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for the term, Building Educational Applications, pp . 6474. In this work, researchers investigate whether the analysis of opinion expressions can help in scoring persuasive essays. Experiments on test taker essays show that essay scores produced using opinion features are indeed correlated with human scores. Learn more about this publication M. Arts Mfa Creative! Shermis, J. Burstein, N. Elliot, S. Miel, P. Foltz.
In C. MacArthur, S. Vs Education Essay! Graham, J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research, 2nd Edition Guilford Press. California Institute Of The Arts Writing! The authors present automated writing evaluation in terms of the categories of evidence that are used to demonstrate that these systems are useful in teaching and assessing writing. Learn more about activities middle school this publication M. Heilman, F. J. Breyer, F. Williams, D. Klieger, M. Flor. ETS Research Report No. Arts Mfa Creative! RR-15-23. This report explores evaluation of sentiment in letters of recommendation. Researchers developed and evaluated an approach to analyzing recommendations that involves (a) identifying which sentences are actually about the student; (b) measuring specificity; (c) measuring sentiment; and (d) predicting recommender ratings. Learn more about school this publication M. Flor, Y. Futagi, M. Lopez, M. Mulholland. Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies , Vol. 6. This paper presents a study of misspellings, based on annotated data from ETS’s spelling corpus.
Researchers examined data from the TOEFL ® and GRE tests and found that the rate of misspellings decreased as writing proficiency (essay score) increased for test takers in both testing programs. Learn more about this publication B. Beigman Klebanov, N. Madnani, N., J. Burstein, S. Somasundaran. Paper in Proceedings of the california institute arts mfa creative 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Short Papers) , pp. 247252. This paper describes an school vs education, integrative summarization task used in an assessment of English proficiency for nonnative speakers applying to california institute arts higher education institutions in the United States. Researchers evaluate a variety of content importance models that help predict which parts of the source material the test taker would need to include in a successful response. Learn more about this publication ETS Research Report No.
RR-14-03. This report explores automated methods for charivari atwood, measuring features of student writing and determining its relationship to writing quality and other features of literacy, such as reading test scores. The e-rater automated essay-scoring system and institute arts writing, keystroke logging are a central focus. Learn more about of the essay titles this publication M. Heilman, A. Cahill, N. Madnani, M. Lopez, M. Mulholland, J. Tetreault. Paper in california institute arts, Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics , (Short Papers), pp. 174180. This paper describes a system for predicting the atwood essay grammaticality of sentences on an ordinal scale.
Such a system could be used in educational applications such as essay scoring. Learn more about this publication N. Madnani A. California Institute Arts Mfa Creative! Cahill. Creative Writing Activities Middle! Paper in Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications , pp. 7988. California Institute Arts Mfa Creative Writing! In this paper, the authors describe a novel tool they developed to debating on cheating provide automated explicit feedback to language learners based on data mined from Wikipedia revisions. They demonstrate how the tool works for the task of identifying preposition selection errors. Learn more about of the arts writing this publication B. Beigman Klebanov E. Beigman. Paper in Proceedings of the beowulf essay 52nd Annual Meeting of the california institute of the arts Association for Computational Linguistics, (Short Papers), pp. 390396.
This paper addresses cases in annotated datasets that are difficult to the term summary annotate reliably. Using a semantic annotation task, the authors provide empirical evidence that difficult cases can thwart supervised machine learning on the one hand and provide valuable insights into the characteristics of the data representation chosen for the task on the other. Learn more about this publication B. Beigman Klebanov, C. Leong, M. Heilman, M. Of The Writing! Flor (2014) Paper in Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Metaphor in NLP , pp. 1117. This paper describes the development of a supervised learning system to classify all content words in a running text as either being used metaphorically or not. Learn more about this publication S. Somasundaran, J. Burstein, M. Chodorow.
In The 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING), Dublin, Ireland, August 2329, 2014. Paper in Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers , pp. 950961. Researchers investigated a technique known as lexical chaining for measuring discourse coherence quality in debating essay on cheating, test-taker essays. In this paper, they describe the contexts in which they achieved the best system performance. Learn more about this publication Y. Song, M. Heilman, B. Beigman Klebanov, P. Deane. Paper in Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining , pp.
6978. In this paper, the authors develop an california institute of the arts writing, annotation approach based on the theory of argumentation schemes to analyze the structure of arguments and implement an NLP system for automatically predicting where critical questions are raised in essays. Learn more about this publication M. D. Shermis J. Burstein. This comprehensive, interdisciplinary handbook reviews the latest methods and technologies used in automated essay evaluation (AEE) methods and technologies. New York: Routledge. Learn more about writing activities middle school this publication B. Beigman Klebanov M. Flor. Paper in Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers). pp. 11481158. Arts! The authors describe a new representation of the content vocabulary in a text, which they refer to as word association profile.
The paper presents a study of the relationship between quality of writing and word association profiles. Learn more about this publication A. Beowulf Hero Essay! Cahill, N. Madnani, J. Tetreault, D. Napolitano. In Proceedings of the Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies , pp. 507517, Atlanta, Ga. This paper addresses the lack of generalizability in preposition error correction systems across different test sets.
The authors then present a large new annotated corpus to california institute of the arts writing be used in training such systems, and illustrate the use of the corpus in school, training systems across three separate test sets. Learn more about this publication A. Cahill, M. Chodorow, S. Wolff N. Madnani. In Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications , pp. 300305, Atlanta, Ga. This paper presents a method for california institute of the arts writing, automatically detecting missing hyphens in English text. Learn more about this publication J. Burstein, J. Tetreault, N. Madnani. In M. D. Shermis J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of Automated Essay Scoring: Current Applications and Future Directions. New York: Routledge. This handbook chapter includes a description of the e-rater automated essay scoring system and its NLP-centered approach, and a discussion of the system's applications and development efforts for the term summary, current and future educational settings. California Of The! Learn more about this publication Natural Language Engineering, FirstView online publication, pp.
133. This paper presents a versatile architecture that uses a novel architecture, features lossless compression, and optimizes both speed and memory use. Learn more about this publication R. Israel, J. Tetreault, M. Debating Essay On Cheating! Chodorow (2012) Proceedings of the 2012 Meeting of the institute of the arts mfa creative North American Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (NAACL-HLT) , pp. 284294. Association for Computational Linguistics. The authors present a system for detection and correction of the placement of commas in English-language sentences. The system likewise can restore commas in well-crafted sentences. Learn more about this publication M. Flor Y. Futagi. Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Innovative Use of Natural Language Processing for Building Educational Applications (BEA) pp. 105115. Beowulf! The authors discuss a new system for spell-checking that uses contextual information to perform automatic correction of non-word misspellings.
The article relates how the system has been evaluated against institute of the arts mfa creative a large body of TOEFL ® and GRE ® essays, which were written by both native and nonnative English speakers. Learn more about this publication J. Tetreault, J. Charivari Margaret! Foster, M. Chodorow. Proceedings of the 2010 Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2010) Association for Computational Linguistics. This paper evaluates the effect of adding features that aim to improve the detection of preposition errors in writing from speakers of English as a second language. Learn more about this publication J. California Institute Of The! Burstein M. Chodorow. The Oxford Handbook of of the screw essay titles Applied Linguistics, 2nd Edition , pp. 487497.
Oxford University Press. California Institute Of The Writing! This ETS-authored work is part of a 39-chapter volume that covers topics in applied linguistics with the goal of providing a survey of the field, showing the many connections among its subdisciplines, and exploring likely directions of its future development. Learn more about this publication J. Burstein, J. Tetreault, S. Andreyev. Human language technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the ACL , pp. 681684. Debating! Association for Computational Linguistics.
This paper describes a study in which researchers combined an algorithm for of the arts, observing what computational linguists refer to as entities nouns and pronouns with natural language processing features related to grammar errors and the term paper artist, word usage with the aim of creating applications that can evaluate evidence of coherence in essays. Learn more about this publication Y. Attali D. Powers. ETS Research Report No. RR-08-19. This report describes the development of grade norms for timed-writing performance in two modes of writing: persuasive and descriptive. Learn more about this publication Y. Attali J. Burstein. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , Vol.
4, No. 3. This article describes Version 2 of ETS's e-rater essay scoring engine. Institute Arts! The authors present evidence on vs education essay, the validity and reliability of the institute writing scores that the system generates. Learn more about this publication J. Burstein, D. Summary! Marcu, K. Knight. IEEE Intelligent Systems: Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing , Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3239. In this article, the authors discuss the use of automated essay-scoring applications in the elementary through university levels for institute of the, large-scale assessment and classroom instruction.
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Lower incidence of CMV infection and of the mfa creative acute rejections with valganciclovir prophylaxis in the term artist lung transplant recipients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection following lung transplantation. Institute Of The Writing? CMV replication in the lung allograft is school essay, described as accelerating the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Finding a strategy to prevent CMV infection is an important issue. We performed a retrospective, single-centre study of 114 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) who underwent lung transplantation from January 2001 to December 2006. In a smaller cohort of 88 CMV seropositive (R+) LTRs, three months of valganciclovir prophylaxis (2004-2006) was compared to three months of of the mfa creative writing oral ganciclovir (2001-2003) with respect to the incidence of CMV infection/disease, the debating essay on cheating, severity of CMV disease, acute rejection, BOS-free 4 year survival and 4 year survival. California Institute Arts Mfa Creative Writing? In the whole group of 114 LTRs the impact of CMV infection on long-term survival (BOS free 4 year survival and turn 6 year survival) was assessed. For the institute of the mfa creative, cohort of 88 CMV seropositive LTRs, the incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was lower in of the titles the valganciclovir group compared to the ganciclovir group (24% vs.
54%, p = 0.003). There was a tendency towards reduced CMV disease, from california institute arts mfa creative writing 33% to 20% and a significant lower incidence of asymptomatic CMV infection (22% vs. Screw Essay? 4%, p = 0.005). A lower incidence of california arts mfa creative acute rejection was observed in the valganciclovir group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BOS free 4 year survival and paper 4 year survival. For the entire group of of the mfa creative writing 114 LTRs, BOS-free 4 year survival for recipients with CMV disease was (32%, p = 0.005) and among those with asymptomatic CMV infection (36%, p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and margaret atwood essay acute rejections was observed with valganciclovir (3 months) when compared to california institute of the writing, oral ganciclovir (3 months).
The long-term impact of beowulf essay CMV infection/disease was significant for BOS-free survival and survival. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-582 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most clinically significant opportunistic infection that can occur following lung transplantation (LTx). California Institute? The reported incidence of CMV infection/disease ranges from 38% to 75% in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) in the absence of any prophylaxis [ 1 ]. In addition, CMV infections can have indirect effects; such as allograft rejection, diminished graft and patient survival as well as a predisposition for school, opportunistic infections and california institute of the arts mfa creative writing malignancies [ 2 , 3 ]. Finding strategies to prevent CMV infection/disease is a major challenge following lung transplantation. In a previous study of 187 LTRs we reported that oral ganciclovir (GCV) prophylaxis for 3 months delayed the onset and reduced the of the screw essay, severity of california institute writing CMV disease when compared to intravenous (IV) ganciclovir for 4 weeks [ 4 ]. School? Today, IV GCV followed by california institute of the VGCV or VGCV alone are the most common prophylaxis strategies [ 5 ]. However, there is no consensus on the optimal duration of paper prophylaxis for LTRs. Valganciclovir is of the mfa creative, a prodrug of creative ganciclovir with greater bioavailability (60%) than oral GCV (6%) and oral GCV 1000 mg t.i.d.is equivalent to VGCV 450 mg daily [ 6 ]. The main cause of long-term morbidity and mfa creative mortality in LTRs is bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) that is present in beowulf hero essay 49% of recipients 5 years after lung transplantation and at 10 years the rate reaches 75% [ 7 ]. Institute Writing? BOS is of the screw titles, a chronic allograft dysfunction/chronic rejection that is defined as a progressive airflow obstruction not explained by acute rejection, infection or other confounding complication [ 8 ]. CMV replication in lung allograft is described as accelerating the development of BOS [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. The aims of california arts mfa creative this study were to compare 3 months of CMV prophylaxis using oral ganciclovir with 3 months of valganciclovir with respect to incidence and essay severity of CMV disease and to study the california institute writing, impact of CMV infection/disease on long-term outcomes/survival. Patient population and paper study design. Medical records on patients transplanted between January 2001 and December 2006 were reviewed.
During the study period 128 lung transplantations were performed. Of these, 117 transplantations in 114 patients were selected for inclusion. Of The Mfa Creative? Six patients who died within 30 days of transplantation and five re-transplantations were excluded. CMV infection, acute cellular rejection (AR) and BOS related to the initial lung transplantation were evaluated. Clinical episodes of CMV infection and AR at 12 months were evaluated. BOS development was followed annually. Follow-up on all patients was complete on January 20, 2011. The primary goal of the study was to compare 3 months of prophylaxis with VGCV to GCV in of the screw essay both the short and long term. To exclude the influence of CMV serostatus, only the 88 patients with R + were included in this first cohort. All patients received VGCV or GCV; which was the standard care for CMV prophylaxis to R + . A secondary goal was to assess the impact of CMV infection/disease (regardless of prophylaxis) on the development of BOS and survival. In this part of the california institute writing, study, both R + and R- patients were included to get a larger group (i.e. the second cohort).
This research was approved by the local Ethical Committee at Gothenburg University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and it follows the applicable standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki; reference number O 393-01. To identify CMV episodes; clinical parameters such as fever, cough, dyspnoea, hypoxemia and other clinical signs or symptoms mentioned in vs education essay a clinical record were recorded as well as results from transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and institute mfa creative writing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to detect CMV infection, (ie.histopathology with CMV inclusion bodies and IHC analyses with monoclonal antibodies against CMV). Analyses of CMV replication by PCR were registered if it was performed, (i.e.in our study quantitative analysis of CMV DNA in serum). Results from TBB were collected to the term artist, exclude or verify acute rejections. Data from regular appointments was also collected to detect CMV infection (for details see the section on of the arts postoperative follow-up). Spirometry with FEV 1, to annually evaluate BOS development. Induction therapy used antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with an debating essay on cheating initial dose of 2.0 mg ? 1 followed by california of the 1.5 mg ? 1. The doses were based on margaret essay daily CD3-positive T lymphocyte cell counts and were given until the concentration of cyclosporine was 350 ng/ml, (in most cases 2-4 doses of ATG). California Institute Mfa Creative? Together with ATG, 500 mg of methylprednisolone was given twice the day of transplantation; following surgery 125 mg of methylprednisolone was administered every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses.
All patients received triple immunosuppressive therapy that used cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone. The dose of CsA was monitored so as to give an initial trough level of 350 ng/ml (0-3 months). This level was tapered to 300 ng/ml (3-6 months) and lastly tapered to 200-150 ng/ml at creative writing activities school 6 months. Arts? MMF was given in debating essay on cheating the dose of 1.5 g ? 2/day which was then reduced down to 1 g ? 2/day after 3 months. Oral prednisone was initially given at the rate of 0.3 mg/kg/day (0-3 months). It was then tapered to 0.2 mg/kg/day (3-6 months) and finally tapered to institute arts mfa creative, 0.1 mg/kg/day at 6 months. If MMF was not tolerated it was switched to azathioprine (Aza) at the rate of 2 mg/kg/day.
For patients with repeated rejection episodes, CsA was replaced by tacrolimus (TAC). The dose of TAC was monitored to maintain an beowulf hero essay initial trough level of 25-15 ng/ml (0-3 months). California Of The Arts? This was then tapered to 15-12 ng/ml (3-6 months) and further tapered to 12-10 ng/ml at 6 months. Charivari Atwood Essay? No or minimal changes were made in california institute arts mfa creative the immunosuppressive regimes during 2001-2003 when oral GCV was used as prophylaxis and from 2004 to 2006 when VGCV was used as prophylaxis. All R + patients were given oral GCV 1000 mg three times a day for the term paper artist, 3 months. California Arts? In December 2003 the prophylaxis protocol was switched to oral VGCV 900 mg once daily for the same period. All D+/R- patients were given oral GCV 1000 mg three times a day for three months together with CMVIG (Megalotect®) 50 E/kg/day on days 0, 7, 14, 35, 56 and 77 after transplantation. In December 2003 the the term artist, prophylaxis was switched to oral VGCV 900 mg once daily for 6 months; plus 6 doses of CMVIG over the same time frame as described in arts mfa creative writing the last sentence. The D-/R- patients received acyclovir for prevention of herpes infections.
IV GCV (except to R-) was used if a patient was not able to take oral medication. Doses of all drugs were adjusted for renal function. The treatment for creative school, CMV disease and asymptomatic CMV infection verified by institute writing a lung biopsy was IV GCV 5 mg/kg twice daily for 10 to 21 days (sometimes longer).Patients with hypoxia also received polyclonal immunoglobulin (Gammagard®) at a dose of 0.5 g/kg every other day until improvement (maximum 5 doses). Patients who did not respond to GCV or who had severe bone marrow suppression were treated with foscarnet. A control biopsy was performed 4 weeks after the start of treatment. If needed, at creative middle least 2 more weeks of IV GCV 5 mg/kg twice daily was added. If CMV pneumonitis was not diagnosed, no further prophylaxis was given. Postoperative follow-up and of the mfa creative monitoring. Regular appointments at the transplant unit, with clinical, radiological and pulmonary function evaluation and surveillance bronchoscopy using TBB/BAL were scheduled ?, 1, 2, 3, 4?, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after transplantation and hero then annually.
Pulmonary function tests consisted of california of the mfa creative spirometry (forced vital capacity - FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), measurements of writing school lung volume (total lung capacity - TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV), carbon monoxide - CO uptake (i.e. Of The? transfer factor/diffusing capacity) and the single breath N2 test. TBB and the term artist summary BAL were also used if infection or rejection was suspected.TBB and BAL were repeated 4 weeks after episodes of acute rejection. TBB samples were used for histopathologic examination including evaluation of institute of the acute or chronic rejection, the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci and CMV infection. Evaluation of CMV infection was performed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with monoclonal antibodies against CMV. BAL samples were cultured for fungi and bacteria, including Legionella and mycobacteria,
BAL samples were examined microscopically for CMV inclusion bodies, Pneumocystis jiroveci, other fungi and mycobacteria, throughout the charivari margaret essay, study period. From 2001 to 2006 all follow-ups were carried out california institute mfa creative writing using the same protocol. Detection of viral inclusion bodies (‘owl’s eye’) or a positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) in TBB and/or BAL together with parenchymal diffuse or perivascular inflammation or CMV DNA detected in essay serum, but with no clinical symptoms. In addition to CMV infection, at least 1 of the following signs and/or symptoms: subfebrility (? 37.5–37.9°C) ? 1 day, dyspnoea, cough or decreased FEV 1 and/or decreased CO diffusion. In addition to CMV infection, at least 2 of the following signs and/or symptoms: fever ? 38°C for ? 1 day, dyspnoea, cough or decreased FEV 1 and/or decreased CO diffusion or white blood cell count (WBC) 4 ? 10 9 /l or platelet count 100 ? 10 9 /l. In addition to california of the, CMV infection, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or ventilator was required, or had CMV-related mortality. CMV was found in TBB and/or BAL after 4 weeks or more. Clinical symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, together with an endoscopically proven ulcer having microscopic mucosal lesions.
If CMV is detected by creative writing middle school a positive IHC of the biopsy, we define it as a ‘proven’ gastrointestinal CMV disease. California Of The? If CMV DNA only was found in serum or the biopsy we call it ‘probable’ gastro-intestinal CMV disease. If a patient had severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract and pos CMV DNA in the term artist summary serum, but no endoscopy was performed, we call it ‘possible’ gastrointestinal CMV disease. Fever, leucopenia or thrombocytopenia together with CMV DNA in serum and no other cause of symptoms/signs identified. TBB was routinely evaluated morphologically together with immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibodies to of the mfa creative, identify early and late CMV antigens (Avidin-Biotin Complex Method for IHC Detection). The same IHC has been used during the study period.
CMV DNA in serum was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. These definitions are based on a modified version from a publication by Ljungman et al [ 14 ]. Turn Of The Screw? The following definitions; the severity of CMV pneumonitis, prolonged CMV pneumonitis and possible gastrointestinal CMV disease are not generally accepted. California Of The Writing? The authors have found the definitions useful when it’s necessary to describe the symptoms more clearly. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome ( BOS ) is beowulf hero essay, defined as a baseline of california of the arts mfa creative writing forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) calculated as a mean of the two best measurements obtained at school the 2, 3, 4.5, 6 and 9 month follow-up appointments at the transplant unit following transplantation. This baseline value is used for comparison with FEV 1 values measured later and to institute arts writing, calculate a patient’s BOS grade. BOS grade 1 has an FEV 1 of essay 65-80%, BOS grade 2 has an FEV 1 of 50%-65% and BOS grade 3 and FEV 1 less than 50% of the arts writing, baseline value. Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histological correlate of chronic allograft rejection; a peribronchiolar infiltration of paper lymphocytes, leading to fibrous scaring in the bronchioles. Acute cellular rejection (AR) was diagnosed using TBB according to the ISHLT pathological scoring system. (A1 = minimal AR, A2 = mild AR, A3 = moderate AR, A4 = severe AR). Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) was defined as the cumulative grading of AR ? 1 (e.g. A1 + A1 + A2 = CAR score of 4) [ 15 ]. CAR score /TBB are defined as an individual’s CAR score divided by their measurable TBB [ 11 ].
BOS-free survival in institute of the arts writing 107 lung transplant recipients related to beowulf hero essay, CMV disease. No CMV infection (n = 65), Asymptomatic CMV infection (n = 11), CMV disease (n = 31). BOS-free 4 year survival for mfa creative writing, patients with CMV disease was 32%, (p = 0.005), for essay, asymptomatic CMV infection 36%, (p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection (69%). Survival in 114 lung transplant recipients related to CMV disease. California Of The Arts Mfa Creative? No CMV infection (n = 70), Asymptomatic CMV infection (n = 11), CMV disease (n = 33). Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) than patients without CMV infection (84%). Demographics for the 114 lung transplant recipients in the study. Recipient Age years, mean (range) Donor Age years, mean (range)
CMV serostatus, n (%) R = recipient, D = donor, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CF = Cystic fibrosis, A1AT = alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with emphysema, IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PAH = pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH = pulmonary hypertension, GVHD = graft-versus-host disease. Oral GCV versus VGCV for vs education, 3 months in institute of the arts 88 R + recipients. Demographics of the debating essay, 88 CMV seropositive (R+) lung transplant recipients. Oral ganciclovir 3 months. Valganciclovir 3 months. Recipient age years, mean (range) Donor age years, mean (range)
None of the of the arts mfa creative, differences were statistically significant. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CF = Cystic fibrosis, A1AT = alpha-1antitrypsin deficiency with emphysema, IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, PAH = pulmonary arterial hypertension, GVHD = graft-versus-host disease. Episodes of titles CMV infection or disease during the first 12 months in california institute writing 88 CMV- seropositive (R+) lung transplant recipients. CMV infection or disease. Oral ganciclovir 3 months. Valganciclovir 3 months. CMV infection/disease, n (%) CMV disease -Total n (%) Asymptomatic CMV inf., n (%) Prolonged CMV episode, n (%)
Gastrointestinal CMV inf., n (%) Ganciclovir resistance, n (%) Onset of CMV inf/disease, days, a Onset of CMV infection was 62 days after transplantation for one patient who probably had a GCV resistant virus. Two patients had no or inadequate CMV prophylaxis owing to renal failure. Onset of CMV infection for essay, these two patients was 23 days and 32 days after transplantation. For the remaining individuals in the VGCV group the onset of california institute of the writing CMV infection/disease was on average 168 days after transplantation (range: 147 – 201 days). In our study, 6% (5/88) had CMV infection diagnosed by CMV-DNA in serum. The Term Paper? In the GCV group 2 patients were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum (one with CMV syndrome and the other with possible gastrointestinal CMV disease). In the california of the arts, VGCV group three patients were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum (one with an asymptomatic CMV infection and two with CMV syndrome).
From the medical records reviewed we found that 4 individuals in the R + cohort were diagnosed by a physician as having gastrointestinal CMV disease. Three had severe upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and pos CMV DNA in serum; the fourth had lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms plus verified CMV pneumonitis. With three exceptions, the onset of CMV infection in the VGCV group was between 147 and 201 days post-transplantation. Two of the of the, three had no or inadequate CMV prophylaxis owing to renal failure (onset of CMV infection was for these two 23 and 32 days post-transplantation) and for the patient with a probable GCV resistant, the california arts mfa creative writing, onset of CMV infection was at beowulf hero essay 62 days. California Of The Arts Writing? Data for the length of CMV prophylaxis was missing for debating, 2 of the persons in the GCV group and for california of the mfa creative, 3 from the VGCV group; the remainder received prophylaxis for a median of titles 89 (GCV) or 90 (VGCV) days. Incidence of acute rejection (AR) at 3 and 12 months. CAR score a , median (quartiles) CAR score/TBB b , median (quartiles) At least one episode of AR grade ? 1, % (n) At least one episode of AR grade ? 2, % (n) At least two episodes of AR grade ? 2, % (n)
Number of institute of the arts mfa creative TBB, median (quartiles) a Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) varied between 0 and 6 at 3 months and between 0 and 16 at essay 12 months. b Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR score) divided by the number of evaluable transbronchial biopsies (TBB). BOS-free survival and survival in R+ BOS-free 4 year survival in R + (both the GCV and VGCV groups) was 30% for patients with CMV disease and 67% for those without CMV infection (p = 0.018). There was no significant difference in long-term outcome (i.e.
4 year survival and california institute arts mfa creative BOS-free 4 year survival) between the vs education, GCV and institute mfa creative VGCV prophylaxis groups. In the GCV group 32% (12/37) were diagnosed with BOS (measured with FEV 1 ) or OB (diagnosed by biopsy). Six of these patients died and one was re-transplanted owing to BOS. In the VGCV group 24% (12/51) were diagnosed with BOS/OB. Hero? Two of these patients died and 2 were re-transplanted owing to institute arts mfa creative, BOS. In the beowulf hero essay, GCV group, a total of 27% (10/37) died within 4 years. Six of these individuals died of BOS. Two died of malignancies, one of infection (not CMV infection) and one of lung bleeding. In the california mfa creative, VGCV group 20%, (10/51) of the patients died within 4 years.
Two died of BOS, two of malignancies and six patients died of infections. (One of beowulf them died owing to CMV disease). Episodes of CMV infection or disease during the california of the mfa creative writing, first 12 months in 114 lung transplants recipient (R + and R-) Demographics are shown in Table 1 . Creative Writing Activities Middle? Follow-up for CMV infection was 12 months. The impact of CMV serostatus was essential for onset of institute of the arts mfa creative CMV infection. The incidence of CMV infection/disease was for screw titles, D+/R- 65%, for of the arts mfa creative, D+/R + 39% for D-/R + 27% and for D-/R- 11% (p = 0.03).
CMV disease was found in 29% (33/114) of the study participants. Among those with CMV disease, 4% (5/114) had severe disease, 18% (20/114) moderate disease, 7% (8/114) mild disease. Asymptomatic CMV infection was found in 10% (11/114) and turn screw titles no CMV infection was found in institute mfa creative 61% (70/114) of the study group. In this cohort only 5% (6/114) were diagnosed with CMV DNA in serum. Gastrointestinal (GI) CMV disease was seen in 8% (9/114) of the study group. Four patients from the debating on cheating, high risk group (D+/R-) had proven GI CMV disease. One individual from the california of the, low risk group (D-/R-) suffered from a primary infection and essay had a proven GI CMV disease (as well as CMV pneumonitis). Four individuals categorised as medium risk (R+) had possible GI CMV disease. All had one episode of CMV infection/disease except for one who had 2 episodes.
Prolonged CMV episodes were found in 9% (10/114) of the entire study group. In the high-risk group 35% (6/17) had a prolonged CMV episode. Long-term follow up in 114 lung transplant recipients (R + and R-) according to the development of institute of the arts mfa creative CMV infection. BOS-free survival in the total group (R + and R-) BOS-free 4 year survival (i.e. Charivari Margaret Atwood? patients living without BOS 4 years after lung transplantation) was for patients with CMV disease 32%, (p = 0.005), for asymptomatic CMV infection 36%, (p = 0.061) as compared with patients without CMV infection, 69%, see Figure 1 . BOS data was available for california institute of the mfa creative, 107 of the beowulf, 114 patients. All patients were followed with regular function testing (FEV 1 ) for the entire four years (or until death). California Arts Mfa Creative? BOS-free survival was on the average 2.9 (95% CI; 2.6-3.2) years for the total group. Patients without CMV infection were free from BOS for charivari essay, 8.4 months longer than those with a CMV disease/infection.
Patients with D+/R- had the shortest time until the california institute arts, detectable onset of BOS. Survival in debating essay the total group (R + and R-) Six year survival was lower among patients with CMV disease, (64%, p = 0.042) and asymptomatic CMV infection (55%, p = 0.018) as compared with patients without CMV infection (84%). Six year survival for the entire group of california institute arts 114 patients was 75% see Figure 2 . No patients were lost to vs education, follow-up tracking. California Institute Of The Arts Mfa Creative Writing? Four of the 11 patients with asymptomatic CMV infection died early - 2 of malignancy, 2 of infection (not CMV infection). The deaths of turn essay 4 out of 11 may at least partially explain the apparently poor responses among the arts, study participants with asymptomatic CMV infection. Two patients were treated with foscarnet. One had a proven GCV resistance (mutation in of the essay the CMV UL 97 gene).
The other had a rapid response after being switched from ganciclovir to institute of the, foscarnet but no resistance test was performed. CMV serostatus for these two were D+/R- and D+/R + . Oral prophylaxis with VGCV seemed to debating, be more effective than GCV among the LTRs studied. A lower incidence of CMV infection/disease at one year was observed, 24% versus 54% (p 0.003), mainly due to california institute of the arts mfa creative, a reduction of asymptomatic CMV infection from 22% to 4%. Montforte et al performed a similar study comparing 120 days of VGCV to GCV prophylaxis in turn of the screw essay titles LTRs and institute of the arts mfa creative they found a lower rate of CMV disease in creative writing the VGCV group, 16 versus 8%, but the california mfa creative, difference did not reach statistical significance [ 16 ]. There was no difference in essay the rate of california of the mfa creative writing asymptomatic CMV infection. In their study regular monitoring by essay shell vial or CMV antigenemia assay was performed while in our study we monitored frequently with surveillance TBBs including IHC diagnosis. Only a few patients were diagnosed with CMV infection/disease solely on the basis of positive CMV DNA in serum. Institute Of The Arts Mfa Creative? Monitoring of charivari blood, today mostly done by molecular assays, might lead to earlier detection of asymptomatic CMV infection which enables treatment and prevention of CMV disease. Our extensive use of surveillance TBBs could also be a contributing factor to our higher rate of tissue-invasive CMV disease. There was no difference between GCV and VGCV treatment regarding the time for onset of CMV infection/disease or the number of prolonged CMV episodes.
The rate of institute of the gastrointestinal disease, 4-5%, was also similar in the groups. Gastrointestinal CMV may be underreported in our study since patients with verified CMV pneumonitis treated with IV GCV who at the same time had gastro-intestinal symptoms were not regularly undergoing an creative writing activities school endoscopy. Our centre uses ATG as induction therapy, which is supposed to give a higher rate of california institute arts mfa creative writing CMV disease. However, the monitoring with CD3-positive T-cells has made it possible to reduce ATG by 50% as compared to our previous fixed dose of ATG, why it now should only have limited effect on the rate of CMV disease. We found that CMV disease was still 20% at 1 year with VGCV prophylaxis for essay, 3 months.
It may be possible to california of the arts mfa creative, further reduce this rate with a longer prophylaxis and frequent monitoring with quantitative CMV PCR after cessation of VGCV prophylaxis. The Term Summary? CMV prophylaxis after lung transplantation varies widely between centres; most follow a regimen that has 3-6 months of prophylaxis with IV GCV or VGCV with or without CMVIG [ 5 ]. Writing? Recent studies recommend extending prophylaxis for LTRs [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. Palmer et al had less CMV disease with VGCV administered for 12 months when compared with 3 months (4% vs. 32%, p 0.001) [ 21 ]. In our study the frequency of ganciclovir resistance based on writing activities school treatment failures when using IV ganciclovir was 2% (2/114). As we did not routinely use CMV DNA detected by PCR during the of the arts mfa creative, study period, GCV resistance may have been underreported. As only two patients needed treatment with foscarnet instead of ganciclovir it is vs education essay, also possible that regular monitoring with quantitative CMV PCR would not necessarily have meant that more recipients with GCV resistance would have been identified. The overall incidence of california of the mfa creative writing antiviral-resistant CMV in LTRs has been reported to be 6-9% and in on cheating high-risk groups (D+/R-) 10-27% [ 23 , 24 ]. We found a significant decrease in of the mfa creative writing the rate of acute rejection in the VGCV group; at 3 and creative writing middle 12 months.
Between 2001 and 2006 there were few if any changes in the immunosuppression protocol used by our centre and the significant reduction of acute rejections in the relatively small VGCV group is therefore an important observation. California Institute Of The Mfa Creative? One explanation as to why the AR rate decreased could be that the significantly lower incidence of CMV infection/disease during the first year post transplant among those receiving the VGCV prophylaxis represented less inflammatory response in the transplanted lung(s); which then triggered fewer episodes of AR. Paraskeva et al observed a significantly lower incidence of acute rejection within the activities school, first 12 months when VGCV for 5 months was compared with GCV for 3 months when there was no difference in the immunosuppression protocols between the two groups [ 13 ]. Jaksch et al found that there was a non-significant positive trend towards a lower acute rejection score when D+/R- LTRs received 12 months of of the writing VGCV when compared with 3 months [ 20 ]. Cumulative acute rejection score (CAR) score is not used universally but many authors have found that it is a useful tool for measuring and creative writing activities middle assessing combined severity and frequency of of the arts rejection over time. CAR score and school essay CAR score divided by the number of evaluable TBBs has been used elsewhere and reported in other studies [ 11 , 13 , 20 , 25 ]. We found a tendency towards lower BOS/OB with VGVV prophylaxis (24% vs. 32%). Since our sample size was small; we believe that it was hard to reach significance. Development of BOS is arts writing, believed to be an ongoing immunological process triggered by various factors as frequency and severity of vs education acute rejections, CMV infection, other infections, differences in institute of the arts HLA antigens between donor and recipient as well as other inflammatory processes [ 8 ]. CMV infections usually occur during the first year post transplantation, it’s therefore not surprising that when we compared BOS-free 4- year survival after transplantation in R+, we found no significant difference between the treatment regimens considering the artist, limited study population.
The effect on development of BOS associated with CMV infection/disease as such could be regarded as the negative impact from CMV infection/disease is stronger than the difference in impact between the two drugs, it’s therefore not surprising that greater BOS development is noted for CMV infection/ disease as such compared to the effect caused by the difference of the drugs. BOS-free 4 year survival for R + individuals was 30% for institute of the arts mfa creative, those with CMV disease and 67% for those without a CMV infection. To better evaluate the impact of CMV on BOS progression we included R- to give a larger study group. Charivari Margaret? We found that BOS-free 4 year survival for the total group was 55% and it was lower for those with CMV disease (32%) compared to institute of the writing, the 69% rate for turn screw essay, those without CMV infection (p = 0.005). Our results support the idea that CMV infection is a risk factor for onset of BOS. Of The Arts? Other studies have pointed out that CMV infection is one of the reasons for the term paper summary, development of BOS [ 9 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 19 , 26 ] yet other studies did not find that CMV infection had any impact of the onset of BOS [ 27 , 28 ]. The survival after 6 years (in R + and R-) was 64% for those diagnosed as having CMV disease (p = 0.042), 55% for california arts writing, those with an asymptomatic CMV infection (p = 0.018) when compared with patients without CMV infection (84% survival). The strength of our study is the charivari margaret atwood essay, long-term follow-up, verification of CMV diagnosis by using frequent consecutive surveillance TBBs (including IHC for CMV), and the uniform evaluation and california institute of the treatment process achieved because Sahlgrenska is a single centre. FEV 1 was followed for the entire four years. No or minimal changes were made in activities the immunosuppressive regimes during the period 2001-2006.
The definition of california CMV was identical throughout the study period. A limitation is margaret essay, that different CMV prophylaxis drugs were studied during different periods of institute of the arts mfa creative time. Another is beowulf hero, that quantitative CMV DNA in serum was not used regularly during the writing, study period. Debating Essay On Cheating? Monitoring was performed with TBB/BAL whereas frequent monitoring with molecular assays would have diagnosed CMV infections earlier. Confounding factors with the potential to reduce the CMV infection rate may have included more frequent use of tacrolimus towards the end of the study period - although we do not believe that this affected our findings. Another limitation is that data for immunosuppression was not collected for each patient. In the california arts mfa creative, VGCV group a few more double lung (DL) transplants were included – this may have brought about a lowered development of BOS and improved survival. We observed a lower incidence of CMV infection/disease and acute cellular rejection during VGCV prophylaxis when compared with oral GCV – both being administrated for margaret atwood essay, 3 months. CMV disease/infection was 24% in california of the arts the VGCG group and this rate needs to be reduced further. No significant differences were found in BOS-free survival or survival between the regimens after 4 years.
The impact of CMV infection/disease in the total group (regardless of CMV serostatus and turn titles prophylaxis) was significant for BOS-free 4 year survival and 6 year survival. This study was financially supported by Agreement Concerning Research and Education of Doctors, The Goteborg Medical Society and Inger and Per-Ake Svenssons Foundation. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. IJ participated in california institute arts writing the design of the study, reviewed the medical records, evaluated CMV infection, the severity of CMV disease and drafted the manuscript. GM reviewed the medical records, evaluated FEV 1 and BOS grade. SN is a statistician and was responsible for paper artist, the statistical analysis.
UN collected critical data, including donor CMV serostatus and date of death, and assisted in california institute of the arts collection of the other clinical data. Turn Of The Essay? RA and institute of the writing GM participated in the design of the study and reviewed the manuscript. All authors have read and artist approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the california, Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is turn of the screw essay titles, properly cited.
Inger Johansson 1 Email author Gunnar Martensson 2 Ulla Nystrom 3 Salmir Nasic 4 Rune Andersson 1 1. Institute Of The Mfa Creative? Department of charivari atwood essay Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy University of arts mfa creative writing Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden 2. Department of school essay Respiratory Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy University of california institute of the mfa creative writing Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden 3. Transplant Institute Sahlgrenska University Hospital Gothenburg Sweden 4. Research and Development Centre Skaraborg Hospital Skovde Sweden. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
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Free Essays on california of the arts mfa creative Existence Of Ghost. People’s Belief in Ghost Class: C111TA03 Subject: Writing 3 Lecturer: Bui Cat Vi Student’s name: Vu Tr?n Th? Ng?c Chau Have you ever walked down a dark alley at midnight? If so, maybe you started hearing strange sounds or voices without seeing someone there. Suddenly, a dog starts. English 1 research paper 29 March 2013 Why people believe in ghosts . Lying in bed in the middle of the night while sleep eludes me, a noise breaks through the silence. Oh my God! What was that!? Maybe it was just my imagination, or maybe it was just the house settling. Activities. There it is again! I must. Why do people believe in ghosts ? According to of the writing the Skeptics Dictionary, “a ghost is an alleged disembodied spirit of a dead person.
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At the beginning of the story Nora seems completely happy. She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence , in which she is pampered. As the story progresses Nora comes to realize she is not just a “silly girl,” as Torvald calls her. That she understands. income, but we must first scrutinize current spending before creating new revenue avenues.
For example, when you have a near 2 Billion paid out to ‘ ghost workers’, clearly there’s a problem- one that needs immediate redress before we start chasing after poker players. Granted that the theory of california of the arts mfa creative writing, taxation. Unfinished Business: Ghosts and Spirits The average person may think of ghosts and spirits as something disguised in a white sheet with holes for the term summary, eyes, a ragged figure dragging chains and moaning. In addition, something floating through the california institute of the mfa creative, air and that can enter and exit rooms without the need. beliefs are widespread, from animism until present. May it be about a myth, a legend and even ghosts . Some believe that ghosts are real yet others don't. For there is still no confirmation of their existence and there is no one who have said that there are no possibilities, various people try to find. Paranormal Beliefs: Ghost Grace Miranda Florida International University Paranormal Beliefs: Ghost As told in the book, The Psychology of beowulf, Mature Spirituality, “Intense enthusiasm for everything from institute of the mfa creative writing a credit card to a new baby, a foreign vacation to a museum membership has replaced what. Materialistic concepts of of the screw essay titles, soul are no more rational than religious concepts. Discuss. concept of having a soul is merely a categorical mistake; he references the soul being a “ ghost in the machine” and the body being the california of the arts mfa creative, machine.
For a religious believer, monism diminishes the purpose of human existence ; if we do not have a soul then we are purely machines. Why would God create humans as. Ghost Dance of 1890 The Ghost Dance of 1890 most often brings to mind Wounded Knee, the brutal attack on the Lakota Sioux at the Pine Ridge reservation which resulted in the slaughter of nearly 200 people including women and turn of the screw children. Institute Mfa Creative. Horrific photographs of the injured that had been left to. Ibsen's views on the concept of Ghosts and inheritance. Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen. generates a protagonistic view of Mrs. Alving for the audience; therefore the views of this character reflect the actual views of Ibsen. This concept of Ghosts is the theme that is at the core of the school, play, and is possibly one of the reasons why Ibsen generated this piece of work.
Mrs. Alving's character demonstrates. The Contrast Between Imaginary, Appearances and Reality That Leads to Confusion and Pain in Hamlet. Gramaticus` chronicle and it is a “Revenge`s Tragedy”, like Sir Thomas Kyd`s “Spanish Tragedy” (1585). Hamlet develops traditional motifs like the ghost and california institute of the arts writing has been firstly categorized as a “problem play”. In this play, Shakespeare shows the charivari atwood essay, reader/auditor how complicated love can be, but also aspects. What kind of actions will lead someone’s karma to california arts mfa creative have them reincarnated at the lower levels of essay, existence ? Buddha left 84,000 teachings, which can be studied for a lifetime without a precise definition of karma and what effect one’s karma has in california, determining a place in today’s life or the life after. with the debating on cheating, indulgence of royal life, he wandered into the world in search of understanding. He was soon convinced that suffering lay at the end of all existence . He became a monk and deprived himself of worldly possessions in the hope of california of the, comprehending the world around him. Through meditation, he finally understood.
to Sethe and breaks her down. Vs Education. But who exactly is Beloved; a ghost , a reincarnation or more simply a repressed memory? The character of Beloved can definitely be seen as an image of what Sethe had wished would be now. But is Beloved a ghost , a reincarnation of the baby’s spirit, or is she just a complex. A Ghost by california institute arts the Gates: A Look at the Role of the Ghost in the term paper artist summary, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark In the institute mfa creative, play Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, by William Shakespeare, the Ghost that appears performs an important role. Because the Ghost is a supernatural being, its utility is very flexible, and as such is a perfect. Justification of the charivari atwood essay, Ghost Writing. CONCLUSION……………………………………………….. California Institute Of The Mfa Creative Writing. 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………. 17 APPENDIX…………………………………………………… 19 INTRODUCTION What exactly is debating essay, ghost writing? The actual meaning of california arts mfa creative writing, ghost writing is essay, actually to hire somebody to do the mfa creative writing, writing job for us.
For example, if you have some ideas on your mind on starting a. Role Of The Ghost Of The Hamlet The ghost in the play Hamlet has great dramatic significance . The play opens and Hamlet , the prince of Denmark is shown in mourning. He is wearing black clothes and debating essay the sad look on his face bears an evidence of grief he. In Hamlet, a ghost appears throughout Act I in the semblance of the california institute mfa creative, recently deceased king (Hamlet’s Father). When Hamlet first sees the ghost in Act V he is told of how his uncle Claudius murdered his father and took the throne. In a cry for vs education, vengeance the ghost calls for Hamlet’s aid and thus it is. I would honestly not consider us muslim at institute of the, all. There are no religious doctrines that have great meaning to me. I do believe in essay, the existence of the soul, ghosts , and satan. I do not exactly believe in angels but I do believe what you said in class, that a few people were placed on earth to do angel-like. The world came to existence as a result of communication, therefore everything in it must definitely communication. hence a society can not exist without communication, in other words, communication must take place before a given geaographical area can grow to become a society.
Not wistanding we must. If you believe in ghosts , you're not alone: A 2005 Gallup poll found that 37 percent of Americans believe in mfa creative writing, haunted houses, and about one-third believe in ghosts . Tens of charivari margaret atwood, thousands of people around the world actively search for california institute, ghosts as a hobby. Researcher Sharon Hill of the Doubtful Newsblog counted. described to be a classification of Christianity that has a focal point on the use of the school vs education, gifts of the institute of the mfa creative, spirit or spiritual gifts, the operation of the Holy Ghost , signs and wonders, and miracles. Charismatic theology is not portrayed to recognize any exact doctrine, denominational makeups, or practice. This. Believe in Ghost a letter to a friends about your life. Belief in Ghosts Dear Kris: Have you ever seen a ghost in your life? Have you thought about debating on cheating, whether ghosts may be actually live with us every day? Do you think that the ghosts can be good characters or bad characters? The world we live in is filled with miserable and mysterious events which happen.
faultless existence of institute of the arts mfa creative, wealth. They are shown to use their money frivolously; to forget the past and the term artist take advantage of california institute of the writing, new found wealth and ease of life; Daisy’s voice was “full of creative writing activities middle, money”. In this new effortless way of life, image was fundamental. Tom and Daisy are an ideal example of this existence of california institute of the, keeping. words: genre, subgenre, horror, dread, short story, novel, film, writer, director, game, violence, blood, danger, mystical, supernatural phenomenon, ghost , monster, vampire, zombie, werewolf, murderer. 1. Essay Titles. Introduction The oldest and strongest human emotion is fear. It is embedded in people since time.
Book Review – The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde March 20th, 2012 | Author: Avil Beckford Book Review – The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde The Canterville Ghost is a short story by Oscar Wilde. Like many works of literature, the story first appeared in a magazine, The Court and Society Reviewin. greed that persisted for decades, ever since he was young. And then…something extraordinary happened, to change forever this state of things. A ghost called Jacob Marley came to visit him. Marley had been Scrooge’s partner in his firm when he was alive; he had been dead for seven years.
He was also. Speech 101 October 25,2013 Ghosts Stuff General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience about the existence of ghosts . Central Idea: People think of ghosts as scary spirits, but thats not always the case. There are also good spirits. Introduction: Attention Getter. Theory of california arts mfa creative writing, Knowledge - Belief Is the Certainty of What Cannot Be Seen. be seen is an school vs education essay, apt description for california arts writing, belief in many circumstances.
When a child believes in ghost stories, he has never actually witnessed a phantom as such but yet is scared of it and believes in the existence of one. When a person is school, superstitious, lets say in california institute arts, the example of black cats which are supposed. Does Ghost Exist in Real Life? (Argumentative Essays) Does ghost exist in real life? It has been a popular question been ask for few decades. Some people encounter the supernatural phenomena, some not.
So there are people who believe and people who disbelieves. The Term Paper Artist Summary. Therefore, here are some introduction of what ghost really is, where we can find their existence. IF I SEE A GHOST ARE MY SENSES TO BLAME? To complement the full apprehension of the terms which will be used throughout this argument, a number of meanings taken from The Lexicon Webster Dictionary is provided: GHOST The soul or spirit of a dead person. A disembodied spirit. California Institute Mfa Creative Writing. HALLUCINATION . that some sort of afterlife existence . So Gothic stories were quite popular at this time. This was a popular story for woman at this time. The Opening of the red room grabs the essay on cheating, reader effectively and california of the mfa creative writing strong, it starts with a confident line “it will take a very tangible ghost to frighten me “.This is.
Embracing Change: the Demon of Impermanence and the Wheel of debating essay, Life. to visitors. (thebuddhistsociety.org) The Six Realms: The heavenly realm where divine beings devas, enjoy a very long life of godlike blissful existence . The realm of fighting demons, the arts mfa creative, asuras, who, despite being semi-divine, are in a constant state of envy, declaring war on beowulf hero heaven and of the writing the devas. African American Literature Analysis. uses communities in artist summary, Beloved as part of the solution and problem to Sethe’s struggle with her traumatic past. The black community exorcises Beloved’s ghost from 124 but not before indirectly contributing to the death of Sethe’s third child. Morrison places the community in this binary good/evil position. the forest. California Of The Arts Mfa Creative. And there she stood, a majestic creature, but still, worn out, old, dilapidated.
She stood tall and mighty, staring out like a ghost in the pale moonlight, staring back with an school vs education, intimidating glare. California Institute Writing. To add to essay on cheating the effect of a perfectly real horror movie, the skies had turned dark, as. Ghost is something that some believe and some won't. But still most of them get frighten to some extend, when they watch terrific horror films. Perhaps it is california mfa creative writing, due to the terrific sounds or special effects that imposes ones mind. But there is a specific science that has the ability to explain the concepts. Ibsen's Ghosts and Its Cultural and Social History.
cultural documents. Explore the charivari margaret essay, ways in which your understanding of california institute of the arts mfa creative, social and/or cultural history informed your readings of Ibsen's Ghosts . Ibsen's drama, titled “ Ghosts ” can be seen as a 'window' into the world of late 19th century Norway. Ibsen does not depict a fantasised or 'romanticised' version. Do Ghosts Really Exist in Our World Today? “The nebulous form of a blonde-haired woman has appeared on the spiral staircase in this saloon so many times that patron named her ‘Lena.’ Lena ghost has also appeared in front of the charivari essay, wall across from the bar. Institute Of The Arts. Also, the apparition of an old prospector has.
broken.There was a ghost that screamed and ran away. Nancy decides to follow the ghost . Nancy finds herself in the ghosts room. The first thing she spots is an article about heros that won a war. The ghost comes and beowulf hero thinks nancy is the enemies so he decides to end her life. But the ghost room is california mfa creative writing, a big magnet. make perpetual; to debating preserve from extinction or oblivion; save, maintain, sustain; to cause to california mfa creative continue indefinitely; make perpetual; to prolong the existence of; cause to turn of the essay be remembered. Ostentatious- characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others; (of actions. Ghost is something that some believe and some won't. But still most of california arts mfa creative writing, them get frighten to some extend, when they watch terrific horror films.
Perhaps it is due to turn screw essay the terrific sounds or special effects that imposes ones mind. But there is a specific science that has the ability to explain the concepts. Small but Significant Journey Down the Road. After sixteen full years of california arts mfa creative, largely satisfactory existence on this planet, I turn around and turn screw essay look back longingly at some moments, the memories of which have accompanied me throughout this small but significant journey down the road. It is with this feeling that I sit before the blessed machine(which. these repressed desires is the Oedipus Complex.
In William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the Oedipus Complex remains repressed, and we only institute of the learn of its existence through the effects which proceed from it. With the untimely death of Hamlet’s father and his mother’s rushed remarriage, Hamlet’s unacceptable, yet.
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Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of institute Trees Around the turn of the screw titles World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. In Her Own Words, Photographing the of the arts mfa creative writing Vietnam War.
In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. Credit Dotation Catherine Leroy. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. The Evolution of school Fashion Photography. The Evolution of california institute of the Fashion Photography. Credit Tim Walker. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Gianni Berengo Gardin/Courtesy of Prahlad Bubbar Gallery, London. Credit David Hume Kennerly/Getty Images. Update | Monday, Sept. 21, 3:00 p.m.
Mr. Kennerly’s post inspired one of the longest comment threads we’ve seen on creative activities middle, Lens. He wrote to us on Monday to california institute arts writing, address both the criticism and the support that he received: I’d like to charivari margaret essay, thank everyone who responded to my Sept. 17 article about Newsweek’s misuse of one of institute of the arts my photos. The dialogue was robust and of the essay titles, the volume of responses make it clear that the california writing topic of fair and unbiased reporting is still one about which Americans have passionate feelings. The most telling statement came from Newsweek’s own spokesperson Frank De Maria, who said: ‘Did we use the image to turn screw, make an editorial point-in this case, about the former vice president’s red-blooded, steak-eating, full-throated defense of his views and values? Yes, we did.’ I agree with Frank A. California Of The Mfa Creative Writing. Binder, who commented that Newsweek’s spokesman ‘confirms the photographer’s protest. A photo was cropped to support a bias in reporting.’ The issue, of course, is not just about cropping. It is about the erosion of credibility in the news business in general.
The great journalist Edward R. Murrow said, ‘In seeking the truth, you get both sides of the screw titles story.’ In this instance, and by its spokesman’s own admission, Newsweek never intended to seek the truth — but instead, and unapologetically, skewed imagery to institute mfa creative writing, advance its editorial agenda. I’m grateful to school vs education, my professional colleagues for their thoughtful responses, and their deep concern about the institute arts mfa creative writing trend away from Murrow’s truth-seeking journalistic model. Original post | David Hume Kennerly is a former contributing editor of Newsweek. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1972 for his photographs of the Vietnam War. A response from Newsweek follows immediately below.
The Sept. 14th Newsweek cover line — “Is Your Baby Racist?” — should have included a sub-head, “Is Dick Cheney a Butcher?” Featured inside the magazine was a full-page, stand-alone picture of former Vice President Dick Cheney, knife in hand, leaning over a bloody carving board. Newsweek used it to illustrate a quote that he made about C.I.A. interrogators. By linking that photo with Mr.
Cheney’s comment and giving it such prominence, they implied something sinister, macabre, or even evil was going on there. I took that photograph at his daughter Liz’s home during a two-day assignment, and was shocked by its usage. The meat on the cutting board wasn’t the atwood essay only thing butchered. In fact, Newsweek chose to arts mfa creative, crop out two-thirds of the original photograph, which showed Mrs. Cheney, both of their daughters, and creative school, one of their grandchildren, who were also in arts mfa creative, the kitchen, getting ready for a simple family dinner. However, Newsweek’s objective in running the cropped version was to illustrate its editorial point of view, which could only have been done by shifting the content of the image so that readers just saw what the editors wanted them to see. This radical alteration is photo fakery. Newsweek’s choice to run my picture as a political cartoon not only beowulf hero essay embarrassed and california institute arts mfa creative, humiliated me and ridiculed the school vs education essay subject of the picture, but it ultimately denigrated my profession. Photojournalists fight the credibility battle every day, from combating digitally faked photos to being lumped in institute, with the paparazzi, a group of camera-carrying cretins who have no respect for anything, particularly the people they hound. In the case of my Cheney photo, Newsweek is guilty not just of blurring but of blowing up that line between tabloid-style sensationalism and honest photojournalism. This incident is another example of why many people don’t believe what they see or read.
And America clearly notices these shifts in journalism. Writing School. This week, the respected Pew Research Center for the People and the Press released a poll stating that nearly two-thirds of Americans surveyed believe that news stories are inaccurate and california of the arts mfa creative, biased — 25 years ago, the number was half that. We photojournalists have a long and storied tradition of striving for objectivity. Many of my colleagues have died flying that banner. I consider myself as much historian as photographer, having spent a 40-year career endeavoring to make photographs that inform, not misinform. Essay. My heroes are the likes of Joe Rosenthal, who photographed the Marines raising the california institute of the writing flag over Iwo Jima; Eddie Adams, whose photo of a South Vietnamese police officer shooting a Viet Cong suspect changed the course of essay a war; and countless others who have hung their lives out to capture the facts through the lens of a camera. Their photos have provided a raw and california writing, unflinching view of the world and have contributed to a free society’s understanding of sometimes harsh reality. The advent of digital photography and the proliferation of instant images have dulled the power of historical photos against the steady and relentless 24-hour drumbeat of the “breaking story” syndrome, which holds publications and networks hostage to the relentless demands of feeding the News Monster. It doesn’t help to artist, have the photos misrepresented on california of the mfa creative, top of that.
However, I still believe in of the essay titles, the power of the california institute arts writing image to debating essay on cheating, empower, embolden and inspire. Photojournalists, editors and writers must continue the struggle to turn their trained minds and eyes to telling and showing the truth, and holding that quivering line of credibility against what is beginning to feel like insurmountable odds. Frank J. Of The Arts Writing. De Maria, the vice president of corporate communications at beowulf hero essay Newsweek, issued this statement Wednesday in response: We doubt any reasonable reader would, in David’s phrase, think something “sinister, macabre, or even evil” was going on in that image as presented. California Of The Arts Mfa Creative. Yes, the picture has been cropped, an accepted practice of photographers, editors and designers since the invention of the writing middle medium. We cropped the photograph using editorial judgment to show the most interesting part of it. Is it a picture of the former vice president cutting meat? Yes, it is. Institute Mfa Creative Writing. Has it been altered? No. Did we use the image to make an creative writing activities editorial point — in this case, about the former vice president’s red-blooded, steak-eating, full-throated defense of his views and values?
Yes, we did. [ Readers are reminded that we do not permit crude or vulgar words — or their surrogates — in comments. If we find them, we have to reject the entire comment, since we do not undertake internal editing, except in consultation with the california of the arts mfa creative writing writer. At least two dozen otherwise thoughtful remarks about this post have been withheld because of their language. The Term Artist. ] Comments are no longer being accepted. I agree with David Kennerly, that to take his photograph and crop it to the extent that the editorial board did is of the writing, seriously wrong.
Let me first say that Dick Cheney is not my favorite American but I believe the original shot is so completely different than what the scene is depicting as to charivari margaret atwood essay, render it a true distortion. And as such, it discredits David, the former VP and california institute, his family and more than anyone else Newsweek Magazine. Journalism requires ethics and to undermine ethics undermines all that we hold to be true. Paper Artist Summary. So pay attention Frank Maria and give David a sincere apology and writing, create a published list of debating on cheating ethical editing guidelines that is peer reviewed to firmly set a photo journalist standard for california institute the magazine. It’s not fakery, but it’s a different photograph, making a different point. I think when a person’s creation is repurposed it always stings, but it should hardly be surprising. Nicely put defense of photojournalism. Well done. I missed any butcher reference or evil intent that Mr.
Kennerly sees but I can see why Mr. Kennerly feels so offended about the crop. Plain and simple, the Newsweek crop was horrible. Charivari Atwood. Strike one! And choosing that photo for a reference to an interrogation story?
Strike two! I think Newsweek photo editors should go back to editorial judgment school. I feel for the photographer, since he feels his work has been misused. I appreciate the essay, and being able to see the original. That said, it does seem like it is the same as quoting someone out of context… which also happens frequently in media. And, as far as photo manipulation goes, fairly small compared to the other photo manipulations. California Institute Of The. In the cropped image, you can tell he is at the term a home in a kitchen and that other people are there.
It doesn’t take a huge jump of imagination to figure out what is going on. Poor taste? Yes. But, far from unreasonable. What’s the big deal?
Could anyone really think that the photo shows something “evil” going on california arts, in the Cheneys’ kitchen? Lighten up! Is the issue the cropping of the photo or the use of it for editorial purposes. Essay. If the photo was cropped the same way and used in an article about politicians who are comfortable in the kitchen would there still be an objection. The response by Newsweek–claiming the of the arts editorial point they were making was about Cheney’s “red-blooded, steak-eating, full-throated defense of his views and values”–is stunningly revealing in its duplicity. Has any major magazine ever been so willing to lie so transparently, to treat the reading public so contemptuously? The cropping changes the meaning of the picture; I used to do freelance photography for Newsweek and creative activities middle, Time, and it bothered me when pictures were cropped in california institute mfa creative, this way. On the other hand, photo fakery was common even before Photoshop made it easier. This happened to essay on cheating, a picture of mfa creative mine in the late 1960s — I had taken a picture of creative activities middle Coretta King after a speech she gave at Harvard. In the original photo, she was talking to Martin Peretz (then an instructor at Harvard) and John Glenn. The Newsweek editorial people managed to remove Martin Peretz by airbrushing him out, leaving a picture just showing Mrs.
King talking to Mr. California Mfa Creative. Glenn. “Yes, the picture has been cropped, an accepted practice of photographers, editors and designers since the invention of the the term medium.” -Frank J. Institute Arts. De Maria, Vice President of corporate. communications at Newsweek. Absolutely false. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Historically, cropping has been considered a cardinal sin by the vast majority of professional photographers. I went to art school where I majored in photography, and where students were encouraged to use “artistic license” to vs education, express their ideas. Even there we were forbidden by our professors to crop our negatives. It was done very rarely, was always obvious, and considered cheap and lazy. The students themselves respected the history of the medium, and if they couldn’t express their ideas within the california institute mfa creative writing format they were working, they were told to try harder.
It was an issue of integrity and creative competence. If you cropped your negatives (this was in the late 90’s by essay the way, not 40-50 years ago), it was “weak” and “square”. Many of the photographers we studied are/were Magnum legends. I wonder if Mr. De Maria would care to ask the folks over at Magnum what they think of cropping and journalistic integrity. It reminds me of the famous case of the Mountain of the Holy Cross, photographed in 1873 by William Henry Jackson on an expedition in Colorado to document the American west. A natural feature of the mountain is a craggy cross-shape defined by the contours of the mountain on one side. It is only visible, and only when the conditions are just right, in winter when a thin layer of snow settles into the contours of the mountainside. Not many people know that Jackson altered his glass plate negative afterwards to california of the, exaggerate the visible cross-shape. His images were shown in Washington and the cities of the east, where Congress and beowulf hero essay, devout Christians interpreted his “photograph” of the cross as a message from God, justifying westward expansion and the U.S. Arts Mfa Creative. policy of Manifest Destiny. Photography is a powerful medium, and has the unparalleled ability to touch passions and inflame public opinion.
It should be respected. Put down the turn of the screw essay pitchfork, Mr. Kennerley. Cheney looks like he’s getting ready for dinner. Even in institute of the, the cropped photo. He looks like my dad. Relax. This sounds like a photographer expressing “sour grapes” that he did not maintain control of his photograph. Kennerly needs to grow up.
Ethics? Yawn. Did they pay the agreed fee? They did? Case closed. What the hey! Cheney and family are eating nearly raw meat. School. Don’t get me started on Toxoplasmosis and what it does to your brain. The two women to the left could have been cropped and used to institute arts writing, illustrate a story ‘Mom and Daughter: They don’t talk any more’. Artist. A crop of just Dick Cheney’s hands and fish could have been used to illustrate a cooking story. In short I am in complete agreement with Frank J. De Maria of writing Newsweek.
p.s. Charivari Essay. Your attempts to link the california arts writing above photo (‘a raw and unflinching view’ of the Cheney’s at home?) to the raising of the flag at essay Iwo jima and california of the mfa creative writing, the shooting in South Vietnam does you no favors. I would not have expected Newsweek’s response to David Kennerly’s eloquent defense of his profession to be quite so arrogant and self-righteous. All Newsweek is saying is It’s right because we decided it’s right. I will study the hero essay magazine’s photographs and stories, whenever I chance to see them, with far greater skepticism from now on, thanks to Kennerly’s tip-off. California Of The Arts Mfa Creative Writing. Another victory for the whistle-blowers. Cleveland Moffett, Brussels, Belgium. As a photographer, I understand your contempt for cropping. But given its widely used nature, I don’t understand why this particular case is so disturbing.
To me, the more disturbing part is not the cropping of the photo, but the atwood clear, admitted intent of Newsweek to vilify the subject matter. How does that have any place in journalism? “Did we use the image to make an editorial point — in of the arts mfa creative, this case, about the former vice president’s red-blooded, steak-eating, full-throated defense of turn of the essay titles his views and values? Yes, we did.” quick…call the waaaaaaambulance. But did you go to institute of the mfa creative writing, magazine publishing school? compare the beowulf hero essay aspect ratios of the original image and the front page of the magazine, and you’ll see that the main subject of california of the mfa creative both the article and turn of the screw essay, the photo would have been rendered considerably smaller if reproduced as shot – to the point of looking inappropriate for a front cover of a weekly newsmagazine. While I admire the Kennerley’s work, in institute, this case, I think he’s overreacting.
As to your art school profs: setting rules in hero essay, order to teach technique is one thing – getting the job done in the real world is quite another. Photographs get cropped all the time. I too don’t like too much freedom being taken by news editors with pictures, and I understand this is not about the merits of the picture itself although the california institute writing photographer himself is discussing it, but I’m afraid this very example is not the best case in point. This is not exactly a newsworthy picture and could otherwise at best be published in an essay on the private moments of high profile people. Charivari Margaret. Still the photographer did release it through Getty for all to use. As published you don’t get the full wide angle family kitchen reunion thing and unfortunately for the photographer the published picture looks more like an very average corporate hotel buffet ad. You still get he’s in a kitchen, could be a buffet, in a private sphere, not looking anything”bad” and obviously not chopping a BBQd Iraqian terrorist. Actually, Newsweek caption would have even hit stronger on the original picture.
If photographers retain control of of the mfa creative their work, then surely cropping must meet their approval. I imagine Kenneryl took Newsweek’s money for his work and then signed off. Photojournalists who think their photos are beyond cropping think too much of their work, to say nothing of themselves. It’s interesting to use the Iwo Jima photo as an example as it is widely known to have been staged. When I was a college journalism student photographers were taught to shoot both horizontal and vertical images, several of vs education each, because at the time the photo was shot there was no way to know the layout requirements. California Institute Of The Mfa Creative Writing. Cropping from horizontal to vertical, as was done here, drastically reduces the technical quality of the image. However, even with the crop it is evident that other people are in what is clearly a kitchen. The problem with this usage is that the photo, vertical or horizontal, is generally irrelevant to the point of the story. Mark Helprin, in an econtalk interview (Helprin on Copyright, June 29,2009), makes the point that copyright can be used to retain control over how a work is used. This is a powerful example of why that is artist summary, important. No different than the photo lies of Stalin, Hitler and Mao who cut people out of pictures and otherwise adjusted them to suit their ideological positions and changes.
There are many ways to lie, distort and misdirect, and Newsweek is using them – proving how untrustworthy they are. Mr. Kennerly is right to feel insulted and denigrated. Of The. He should refuse any more Newsweek money. Pictures of the Day: Wednesday, Sept. 16.
Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Canada and of the essay, The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the institute World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World.
Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich.