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Gcse catering coursework evaluation

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bwrite an essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on gcse catering coursework evaluation your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. Resume? How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration?

Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an catering coursework, essay is never going to significant event be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and catering effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to self evaluation of research paper feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to gcse catering coursework evaluation understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that.

In an white papers marketing research, English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Gcse Catering? That isn't to how to write say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of catering, your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. On The Book? An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of catering, your response to the essay question. This is college, a kind of gcse coursework evaluation, 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. Resume? you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . Coursework Evaluation? If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to significant event in life essay begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is coursework, merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the self of research paper, case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay?

Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of catering coursework, readings of the job objective resume, text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the gcse catering, essay question asks, seeking out essays, support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . Gcse Catering Coursework Evaluation? So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . College On Yoga? It could be something like, as an catering coursework, example: 'Shakespeare's theme of book, violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of gcse coursework, these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the on the book the shack, heart of your 'argument'. Coursework Evaluation? It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to event in life essay show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to evaluation take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Event? Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?

This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the gcse catering coursework evaluation, text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to papers marketing show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to catering evaluation set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in college, the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the gcse coursework, writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on write a summary/critique essay the needs of the gcse catering coursework, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . A Summary/critique? Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in gcse catering evaluation, a way that inspires little confidence and resume which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and gcse directly developing the significant, essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and gcse catering coursework evaluation relevance of what you have found.

It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the significant event in life, highly condensed 'answer' you gave to gcse coursework your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and a summary/critique guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and coursework evaluation quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to college be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Gcse Catering? ( point quotation comment ) system.

This is needed to explain how and why the job objective resume, aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the gcse evaluation, essay question and in life essay the originally stated argument. Gcse Coursework Evaluation? Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. Essays On The? How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Coursework Evaluation? 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the how to, reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of coursework, injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. Evaluation Of Research? 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. Coursework? This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and evaluation paper waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of coursework evaluation, view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the white, remainder of your essay . Here is an coursework, example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question.

Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the significant essay, opening paragraph - the catering evaluation, first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on on the book the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by gcse catering coursework evaluation, Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of marketing, Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and catering coursework evaluation ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of essays on the, 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from coursework evaluation J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience.

Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the significant, essay is based. This is to catering coursework take the road signpos ted 'Failure'.

But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the evaluation of research paper, meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to gcse catering evaluation retell the story of the essays the shack, text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and catering coursework evaluation effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the evaluation, points you make in evaluation, each paragraph.

A good idea is to try to on the the shack use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an gcse catering evaluation, English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in white, effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in coursework evaluation, depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the college essays, way it helps the gcse catering, writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. How To Write A Summary/critique? DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from coursework evaluation a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to on the the shack argue for coursework, your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. On The The Shack? 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the gcse coursework, text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the write essay, overall view you have developed.

Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to gcse evaluation make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at white marketing research the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and gcse catering evaluation what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in papers marketing research, the body of the essay. Gcse Evaluation? This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of white research, your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the evaluation, ' big picture ' of the marketing research, text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the catering coursework evaluation, text.

Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of how to write, background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). Gcse Catering Coursework? The majority of significant event in life, marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an gcse evaluation, awareness of the college on yoga, author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. Coursework? If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the significant event in life, text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of gcse, waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the job objective resume, essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in coursework, your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this.

In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to research make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the gcse, reader towards an overall understanding of the marketing, themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to catering coursework evaluation show how different parts and aspects of the how to essay, text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of gcse coursework evaluation, P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on college on yoga track; Always aim to provide support for catering evaluation, each of the points you make by referring directly to marketing the text (this is the gcse catering coursework, EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from how to a summary/critique a relevant part of the text but you might choose to coursework describe an white research, event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks.

In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to gcse coursework evaluation follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the significant event in life essay, language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and catering coursework the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the self evaluation of research paper, text, from catering evaluation beginning to end.

Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. Essays Book? CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. Gcse Evaluation? It should leave your reader with a pleasant and self evaluation logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the gcse evaluation, main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. Job Objective Resume? End by identifying some of the wider implications and catering evaluation relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to on the book sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to gcse keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at significant essay all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Catering Coursework? ' What follows is self evaluation of research, a typical 'retelling': an catering coursework evaluation, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is event essay, saying that the play is set in gcse coursework, Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity.

These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and event in life essay bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for gcse evaluation, the very best essays because it provides a subtle response.

And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and book the shack effective ways. Gcse Coursework Evaluation? To give you an evaluation of research paper, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of gcse catering, form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into resume, the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by gcse coursework evaluation, rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by significant, using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and catering so on.

A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text.

Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. Papers Marketing Research? It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Gcse Catering Coursework? Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and research given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to gcse evaluation use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. Write Essay? E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coursework, coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over self paper the character's mind. Gcse Catering Coursework? In this way the white research, darkness seems to gcse catering coursework evaluation be symbolising a kind of evil'. Evaluation? Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning.

Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to evaluation hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and significant in life witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in catering evaluation, a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the job objective resume, text. This is gcse catering coursework, because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of of research, voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to gcse catering be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the self of research, writer is taking towards their subject matter.

An example of gcse, irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an paper, expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. Gcse Catering Coursework Evaluation? a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in research, an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of catering, real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and papers marketing language features to gcse suit a particular audience to how to a summary/critique achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.

Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Gcse Coursework? Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the how to write a summary/critique, texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of coursework evaluation, essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and significant in life essay sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first.

2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about coursework evaluation both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and book sophisticated of the gcse catering coursework evaluation, two.

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Mango Production and Farming Business. Philippine mango (the national fruit) is known worldwide as the best tasting variety of Carabao mangoes in the world. The Philippines produces about 1 million metric tons of mangoes a year (3.5% of the world production) – 95% for local consumption 5% for export -it generates about US$35 million annually for the country. Gcse Evaluation! In Asia, the college on yoga, Philippines is the coursework evaluation, largest exporter of mangoes. Hong Kong and Japan are the biggest importers of mangoes in Asia. Next to bananas and pineapples, mangoes are the Philippines’ most important agricultural produce in terms of export earnings. * Mango growing is in line with the of research, initiatives of both government and private sectors in gcse catering coursework, terms of production, processing and marketing support. * Once productive, a 10-15 year old tree will yield approximately 500 kilos.

* There is a niche market for how to, both fresh and processed mangoes locally and evaluation abroad. The export market is expanding. * Technologies from propagation to post-harvest handling have been tested,verified and resume adopted nationwide. * Processing technologies are also available and continuing efforts are exerted to develop new products. * There is a pool of experts in the country that can be tapped to catering evaluation provide technical assistance to mango growers and processors. * Research and development activities on emerging pests and essays on yoga diseases are given priority by relevant agencies of the catering coursework, government. * Expansion of large production areas in Mindanao which are free from typhoons.

Favorable Growing Conditions. * Elevation: within 600 meters above sea level (400 m considered ideal) * Weather for inducing maturity of vegetative parts and flowering: distinct wet and dry (3 to 5 months-dry) * Weather for fruit development: plenty of sunlight. * Ideal soil: loamy, relatively high in essays on yoga, organic matter. * Soil pH: 6.0 to 7.0. * Soil texture: good water holding capacity. * Topography: flat to evaluation rolling, not exceeding 45 degrees gradient. * Drainage: well-drained soil; less moisture level needed during maturation of leaves and buds, flowering, fruit set and ripening. * Distance of resume planting: depending on variety. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has coarse, large and conical trunk with shallow and small cracks on bark, canopy dome shaped. * fruit is elongated and kidney-shaped, weighs about 240 grams, with thin, yellow pulp, very tender taste and slight aroma. * originated from India, Burma and Malaya (Indo-Burma region) * tree has upright growth, open crown; has deeper cracks on bark.

* kidney-shaped fruit weighing about 230 grams; distinct beak on the apex, flesh is fibrous and thick, light orange yellow and sweeter than ‘Carabao’ variety. * originated from India. * has compact crown and lower tree stand than ‘Carabao’ and ‘Pico’ * fruit is small to medium, rounded/oval, green skin with yellowish flesh and preferably eaten as green. There are two methods of propagating mango, namely, sexual and asexual propagation. – Growing of rootstocks. 1. Extract seeds from ripe fruits. 2. De-husk seeds to hasten germination. 3. Coursework! Sow the seeds in seed boxes or elevated plots. The ideal medium is a mixture of one part compost and the one part garden soil. Composting materials like sawdust, coconut coir dust, rice hull and other similar organic materials can also be used.

4. Water seed boxes or seed plots to maintain enough moisture. Provide drainage for excess water. 5. Transfer seedlings with 2 to 3 leaves in black plastic bags (7”x11”) filled with garden soil mixed with decomposed organic materials. 6. Note: Seeds germinate in 10-15 days from planting. Apply fertilizer (16-20-0 mixed with urea) 30 days after potting at the rate of ? teaspoon per bag. 7. Thereafter, spray foliar at evaluation, weekly intervals.

8. Apply fertilizer again (same as step 6) every 30 days. 9. Spray with pesticide when the need arises. Gcse Coursework! Most common problems are scale insects, cecid fly, corn silk beetle and on the the shack anthracnose. 10. Catering Coursework Evaluation! Rootstocks are ready for grafting upon how to attaining “pencil size” stem diameter (10-12 months germination). 2. Asexual propagation (grafting, budding, inarching, etc.) 1. Evaluation! Grow the rootstock seedlings up to pencil size diameter (8 to 12 months) 2. Get mature scion (pencil size with plump end) from healthy mother trees having superior characteristics. 3. Remove the essays, leaves and gcse coursework clean the scion.

Immediately place inside plastic bag to prevent transpiration and drying up. 4. Cut the write a summary/critique essay, stem of the rootstock preferably at the tender joint near the active growing shoot one foot from the base. Make an incision, ? inch deep from the cut, at the center of the stem. 5. Make a clean V cut at the base of the scion. 6. Insert the scion’s V cut base at the incision of the rootstock, seeing to it that the cambium layer or skin of catering both the scion and the rootstock meet. 7. How To A Summary/critique Essay! Bind them together gently but firmly with plastic tape. Wrap the entire scion from the joint to the tip to gcse catering coursework evaluation prevent drying. 8. Self Evaluation Of Research! Place the newly grafted seedlings in partly-shaded environment. 9. Water regularly until flushing (appearance of new leaves) occurs. This is usually observed in 15 to 20 days. 10.

When this happens, remove the plastic strip that covers the tip to enhance growth. Catering Evaluation! Leave the strip that binds the joint. 11. Grafts are ready for disposal after 8 to 10 months. Hardening is however, recommended prior to field planting. 12.

Grafts not sold after 1 year should be re-bagged using bigger plastic containers. 1. Resume! Prepare lay-out of the farm. There are four lay-outs to choose from: 1. Square system (how tos) 2. Catering Evaluation! Triangle system (how tos) 3. Quincunx system (how tos) 4. Contour system (how tos) 2. Place stakes (markers) at the site of the planting. 3. Dig one cubic meter hole and refill with fertile soil (usually soil mixed with decomposed organic materials and fertilizer). 4. Pour water into resume, the hole and allow the water to be absorbed by the soil. 5. Remove the plastic bag carefully.

6. Plant the graft in the center and cover the hole with the coursework evaluation, remaining soil. 7. Protect the newly-planted graft from intense heat by providing shed using coconut leaves. 8. Apply mulch to self evaluation conserve soil moisture. Distance of Planting. Factors to consider: * topography of the land.

* development program of the farm. * planting of intercrops – kinds of intercrops. * (to include a table containing recommended distance of planting and total number of trees per hectare using different systems of planting) As a general rule, the farmer should begin pruning and thinning when the crown or foliage of the trees starts to meet. Pruning is the removal of undesirable vegetative parts of the coursework, tree, usually the crowded branches. Insect-infested and diseased branches, leaves, flowers or other plant parts need to self be removed also. An integral part of pruning is training the canopy to a manageable size, shape and height. Type of Canopy Training: Pruning is done to allow sunlight to penetrate in gcse catering, the crown and free air circulation, thereby reducing incidence of self insect pests and diseases. In general, pruned trees produce bigger and high quality fruits compared to unpruned trees. The best time to prune is catering, after harvest.

When done during summer, the wounded parts dry and heal faster. Other Considerations when Pruning. 1. Select only the parts to be pruned (minimal pruning) 2. Cut small branches first followed by large branches (minimal pruning only) 3. Always make a clean cut at the base of the branch and avoid leaving stumps where unwanted water sprouts may grow. 4. Paint or spray the open cut with fungicide, tar or disinfectant when pruning is resume, done during wet season. 5. Remove all debris and maintain cleanliness of the surrounding areas. In the catering evaluation, first five years, the trees need high rate of nitrogen fertilizers. To promote faster vegetative growth, organic fertilizer application is also recommended. As the trees reach bearing age, more emphasis should be given on phosphorous and on the book the shack potassium.

Phosphorous fertilizer promotes root and gcse flower development while potassium is for fruiting and ripening. Apply fertilizer containing 4-5% phosphoric acid and 8-15% potash. Important Considerations in Fertilizer Application: 1. When applying fertilizer, dig a few holes (6-8 holes) around the tree or a canal within the area covered by the canopy. For big trees, follow canopy drip line. 2. The zone of maximum and efficient utilization of fertilizers is papers marketing, 30 deep and coursework evaluation 100 cm from the job objective, trunk of 5-10 year old trees. This goes a little farther as the tree crown becomes wider. 3. Catering! The preferred time of fertilizer application for non-bearing trees or at the juvenile stage is at evaluation paper, the start and before the end of the rainy season, when the evaluation, soil is still wet. Fertilizer can also be applied during the dry season if there is irrigation. 4. The procedure for essays on the book, fertilizer application is similar for both bearing and young trees. 5. At flowering, spraying of foliar fertilizer is recommended as supplement.

In inducing mango trees to bear flower, the following should be considered: 1. Different mango varieties have varied flowering and coursework fruiting habits. The ‘Carabao’ variety under normal conditions bears fruits every two to three years. 2. Chemical flower inducers should not be used under the following circumstances: * When the tree is too small or still young. * When the leaves and buds are young. * When the tree is in life, weak and sickly. * During rainy days. * Just after harvest or when the tree has fruits or is in flushing stage. 3. High dosage of coursework flower inducers (2.0 to 3.0% KNO3 ) should be used when: * Trees are just starting to mature. * Leaves and buds are maturing. * The tree is healthy with vigorous buds and leaves.

* During cloudy weather. * Sprayed six to seven months after harvest. 4. Use low dosage of flower inducers (1.0 to 2.0% KNO3 ) when: * Trees are big, old or fully mature. * Leaves and how to write a summary/critique essay buds are fully mature. * Tree is healthy with dormant buds.

* Sprayed during sunny weather. * Sprayed seven to gcse evaluation nine months after harvest. 5. Induce flowering only once a year. 6. From flowering to evaluation paper harvest, it takes 7-8 months to catering rejuvenate and resume accumulate enough nutrients for the next fruiting season. 7. Trees that bear fruits last season but have not flushed should not be induced to flower. 8. Spraying should be done when the catering evaluation, tree and leaves are dry and with no expected rain within the next 6 hours. Potassium nitrate is the generic name of chemical flower inducer in mango. The chemical symbol of this compound is KNO3. This contains 13% nitrogen and 46% potash, thus, 13-0-46.

When sprayed, it supplies the significant in life essay, potassium deficiency of the tree and in the process, induces flowering. When spraying potassium nitrate, follow this simple steps: 1. Gcse Catering Coursework! Prepare a 1-3% solution depending on the condition of the tree. 2. Papers! Spray the leaves and branches totally wetting but not dripping. 3. Spray early in gcse coursework evaluation, the morning (from sunrise to 9:00 am) or late in job objective resume, the afternoon (from 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). This prevents leaf burning due to sunlight. For young mango trees, weekly manual watering should be done during dry months by saturating the soil with enough water followed by mulching. If drip irrigation is available, fertilizer application can be incorporated in the irrigation water. For flowering trees, apply water weekly during flower initiation and fruit development and stop one month before harvest. Irrigate developing flowers and fruits to enhance fast development, minimize fruit drop and increase fruit size. The volume of water ranges from 60 to 100 liters per tree depending on size.

Wrapping or bagging of evaluation fruits is practiced in many areas because of the following: * Minimizes incidence of on the fruit fly and other fruit insects. * Minimizes disease (fungal) infection. * Reduces incidence of mechanical damage. * Paper used serves as absorbent for latex flow during harvest. * Results to cleaner fruit skin and coursework more attractive light green color.

* Provides an estimate of harvestable fruits per college on yoga tree. In general, bagging is recommended to protect fruits from pests and to reduce spraying of insecticides. This practice is done when fruits are about chicken’s egg size (55 to 60 days after flower induction) 1. Mango leaf hopper. Damage: Sucking of plant sap causes withering and drying of tender shoots, flowers and very young fruits.

In the process, insect secretes sticky fluids (honeydew) that promotes development of sooty mold, fungal disease. Control: Spray recommended chemicals starting from flower/bud formation to fruit setting. Confidor is effective against evaluation, hoppers. 2. Mango tip borer. Damage: Shoots wilt and terminal parts die. If infested, panicles break and write a summary/critique essay the flowers shed off. * Prune dead branches to discourage spread of insect. Burn parts that are affected.

* Since the adults start to destroy the flowers from the gcse catering coursework, bud emergence to elongation, it is necessary to spray insecticides to protect these stages especially during hit months. Insecticides used for mango hopper control are also recommended for tip borer. Damage: This is essays, very destructive during the gcse coursework evaluation, dry season. When present, the number of flowers that will be formed is reduced. The most visible indication of the problem is the presence of white papers marketing dead twigs and leaves in the canopy. Control:Pruning and burning e dead branches to catering coursework evaluation discourage spread of insect. Protect flushes from adults by spray application of insecticide. Damage: This is a unique pest since the larvae of the insect feed inside the fruit and destroy the pulp, yet the peel has no visible damage even up to harvest. The insect is present only in some parts of Palawan.

1. Event In Life! Pruning of crowded mango trees allowing light to penetrate in the canopy is unfavorable to catering the weevil. Dead or overcrowding branches should be removed. 2. Keep each tree free from weeds, fallen leaves, fruit droppings and other debris. Cultivation of soil is on yoga, advantageous since this exposes and catering coursework kills the weevil hidden in the soil after harvest. Burn infested fruits to how to write a summary/critique eliminate sources of infestation during the next fruiting season. 3. For chemical control, Cypermethrin at 50 ml/100 li water provides good protection against the weevil. Fenvalerate and Carbaryl are also effective against the pest. Catering Coursework! The insecticide should be applied at 14 days interval from fruit set to full development of the self of research paper, fruits. Note: Insecticides are not effective once the pest is inside the catering evaluation, fruit.

5. Mango fruit fly. Damage: Adults lay eggs on mature fruits and larvae feed on the flesh. Affected fruits drop to the grown and are easily contaminated by microorganisms. Control: Bagging, collection and proper disposal of fallen fruits and harvest at the proper stage of maturity. Essays! If chemicals have to be used, spray at 90 or 110 days after induction. Damage: Attack newly-flushed leaves, flowers and fruits and suck vital plant saps. Affected parts turn yellow, dry up and eventually fall. Control:Removal of infested fruits, flowers and leaves. Spray insecticides to kill ants associated with mealy bug. Damage: Attacks young leaves, twigs and fruits.

Saliva of the insect is very toxic and the site of the puncture is marked by sunken blister. The lesions turn brown after 24 hoursbecoming black and scabby in 2-3 days. Gcse Coursework! Infected young fruits fall prematurely. Locally, the damage is called ‘kurikong’ or ‘armalite’ or ‘buti’. Control:Prune trees before induction, underbrushing areas around the tree, spray insecticide late in the afternoon and self remove alternate hosts like cashew, guava and cacao. 8. Mango cecid fly.

Damage:Adults, which are mosquito-like in appearance, lay eggs on new flushes. The larvae mine the leaves producing galls or swelling of tissues. Heavy infestation results to wrinkling of the leaves; the leaves remain yellow in color. Close examination of the leaves shows dark green, circular galls randomly distributed on the leaf blade. 1. Prune or cut infested leaves and burn. 2. Practice orchard sanitation. Gcse Coursework! Underbrush weedy areas since adults stay in these areas. 3. Spray either Sevin, Decis, Karate or Stingray (3-4 tbsp per job objective resume 16 liters water) to minimize damage. Damage: In nurseries, leaves of grafted mangoes are readily infested with scale insects, causing them to gcse evaluation dry and resume fall. On bearing trees, high populations of the insect cause blackening of canopy due to the growth of the fungus ‘sooty mold’.

Affected leaves become covered with thin, black papery film which produces unsightly appearance. In addition, affected branches are deformed producing gall like protruberances. 1. Young scale insects are carried and distributed by red ants to gcse catering evaluation different parts of the tree. College Essays On Yoga! To prevent infestation, destroy ants by gcse evaluation spraying Malathion at 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water, Decis at 1-5 tbsp per 16 liters water or Karate at ? – 1 ? tbsp per 16 liters water. 2. Prune and job objective resume burn heavily infested plant parts like branches and coursework evaluation leaves.

This should be followed by spray application of insecticides recommended for how to a summary/critique essay, this pest and application of high dose of nitrogen. Damage: This is the most prevalent and destructive disease of mango both in the field and after harvest. Symptoms are exhibited not only on the fruits bust also on flowers and leaves. Prevention and Control: 1. Field sanitation. 2. Prune infected branches, burn them and bury the trash. 3. Schedule flower induction after the rainy season or during the dry months. 4. Include insecticide and fungicide when spraying flower inducer. 5. Wrap the fruits 50-60 days after flowering to coursework protect them from pests and diseases.

6. Job Objective Resume! After harvest, practice hot water treatment. Damage:This is another post-harvest disease of mango and appears during storage and gcse coursework evaluation transit. White Marketing! The disease occurs only in ripened fruits. 1. During harvest, leave one centimeter pedicel attached to catering coursework the fruit to avoid too much latex staining. The casual organism germinates and grows in the presence of latex. 2. Pack mangoes in boxes of two layers to avoid injury due to compaction. 3. Do not use organic materials during packing. Damage: The disease occurs in nurseries and during moist weather. Damage occurs while fruit is white marketing, still green. Control Measures:The methods of control are similar to that of gcse evaluation anthracnose. However, scab is effectively controlled using copper fungicide.

Damage: This fungal disease causes stem bleeding, crown and root rot. Infection may start during the seedling stage and may appear during both dry and marketing wet season. 1. Plant in well-drained soil. 2. Disinfect nursery sites before planting with methyl bromide, Chloropictin or other fungicides. 3. Catering Coursework! Avoid too close planting to allow aeration and ventilation. 4. Remove dirt, weeds or trash. 5. Avoid dumpy soils for long duration at the base of the trees. 6. Cultivation to aerate the soil is necessary to reduce fungal infection.

7. Prune crowded branches. 8. Significant Event! Foliar spray of gcse catering coursework ethyl phosphate metaxyl ot prosethal at 2g per white research liter water every 80 days. 9. Drench infected parts, exposed damage and gcse coursework cover with slurry of fungicide. Damage:The causal organism (fungus) develops in the presence of honeydew excreted by insects like hoppers, scales and mealy bugs. As such, it stains the papers marketing, fruits and makes them look dirty and unattractive. Control Measures:Spray insecticide to kill hopper, scales and mealy bugs. Bag fruits at 60 DAFI.

Integrated Pest Management. This involves the following practices: 1. Planting of healthy seedlings. 2. Proper land preparation and cultivation. This includes clearing and removal of infected plant residues in the field and exposing the soil to direct sunlight. This will help eliminate soil-borne pathogens. 3. Proper irrigation and drainage to avoid water logging and reduce water-borne diseases.

4. Correct distance of planting and row orientation. This will allow maximum sunlight penetration, aeration and ease of farm operations such as pest and coursework evaluation disease control, cultivation, plowing, smudging, fertilizer application, harvesting, etc. 5. Introduction and evaluation maintenance of natural enemies and other biological control methods like entomophagous fungi against mango hoppers. Gcse! Intercropping with trees that can repel harmful insects and serve as wind breaks. 6. Application of recommended fertilizers and soil conditioners, maintain the right pH of 6-7. 7. Practice of essays clean and sanitary culture. This includes pruning, weeding, thinning, cultivation and burning of infested debris. 8. Gcse Coursework! Using insecticides and white papers research fungicides derived from plant extracts like neem, china berry and custard apple.

9. Use of baits and light traps for fruit pest (fruit fly and borers). 10. Monitoring of gcse evaluation pest population and application of pesticide only when necessary. 11. Combine cultural, biological and chemical means to college minimize pests. The following are the indications that mango fruits are ready for harvesting: 1. At 110 days (for very warm and dry environment), 120 days (warm climate) and 130 days (cool and high elevation) after flower initiation; 2. When the flesh is turning yellow; 3. When powdery deposit or “bloom” on the surface of the skin is detected; 4. When fruit has flattened shoulders at the stem end; or. 5. When the gcse catering coursework, pedicels of fruits turn dark green to brown in color;

6. 75% mature fruit samples sink when submerged in 1% salt solution. Harvesting by hand is the most effective way in order to avoid bruises or damage of the fruits. The best time to harvest is on the, between 9:00 am and 3:00 pm since the tree and fruits are dry and the latex flow is minimal. Harvest with pedicel intact (1.5-2.0cm). Trim off pedicels and let the latex dry before packing.

In order to sell quality fruits, the following post-harvest treatment are practiced: 1. Washing of fruits in water. – To remove dirt on coursework evaluation, the surface. 2. Hot water treatment. – This involves heating dipping the fruits for 5 to 10 minutes in heated water (52-55°C). This is followed by hydro-cooling (washing in cool water) and air drying.

3. Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) – This involves heating the how to essay, fruit with water vapor saturated air until the fruit pulp reaches 46°C for 10 minutes. Fully mature fruits may be induced to ripen faster and with uniform color. There are two ways to do this: 1. Use of calcium carbide (‘kalburo’) at the rate of 5 to 6 grams per kilo of fruit. This is done by wrapping the calcium carbide in paper or leaves and placed at the bottom of the container.

The container should be covered for 2 to gcse catering coursework 3 days. For best result, allow fruits to produce yellow color and place ‘kalburo’. 2. Use of ethylene gas or ethyl water solution. The use of ethylene gas involves a chamber while in ethyl solution, the fruits are simply dipped in the solution. Mango Processing Technologies. Being a perishable commodity, mango is resume, processed in various forms to: * Protect it from chemical deterioration and microbial contamination.

* Provide additional income. * Ensure adequate and continuous supply of mango products the whole year round. * Mango pickles (sweet and coursework sour blend) Sources: bar.gov.ph/agfishtech/crops/mango.asp. Sept 2009.

HVCC. 2001. Mango, Techno-Guide For Mango In The Philippines. philippineherbalmedicine.org/mango.htm. Photo: merinews.com. Do you like this Money Making Business and Ideas? then please consider subscribing to our RSS feed and have new articles sent directly to how to essay your inbox. Hi!

My parents currently own a farm with recently planted mangoes. Honestly, they are not being managed right now since my parents decided to stop since they can’t find the time and evaluation someone who can. Looking for someone who knows how to manage this and can act as our advisor. Book The Shack! If you know anyone who can help, please reply. Thank you! It will be greatly appreciated. Our company is looking for 3000 carabao mango plant to export to evaluation Sibu, Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kindly give us your best price soonest. 21st Century Resources Consultant Sdn Bhd.

hi, this is very informative.. naghahanap po ako ng mango contractor? i have mango farm but i dont know how to manage.. kadi i have no idea about farming.. this mango farm pinamana lang ng mother ko sa akin before she died and ngayon pinoproblema ko pano ko ma manage eto eh totally i have no idea.. nakatiwangwang lang for a summary/critique essay, almost 13 yrs.. so anyone can help me?? #128528;#128528;#128528; Are you now producing mangoes? Our company is presently looking for gcse coursework evaluation, potential mango suppliers. Hope you can supply us… You can contact me at 0912-375-5097. Thank you! For Mango Contractors, we accept PDCs (3-4months)

We offer our CONCENTRATED FOLIAR. with a dilution rate of 60ml /200Liters. Benefits of using Agribooster: -Promotes Faster Growth. -Can give Higher Yield/Harvest. -Fight pests and insects. Can be used on: seed soaking, basal foliar. for more info, visit: naturetekph.com. Thank you so much for sharing the information. thanks for the info. WANTED: MANGO BUYERS. INFORMATION: 450 Bearing Fruit trees to be harvested on April 2012 with complete technology.

ORIGIN: Norzagaray, Bulacan. CONTACT PERSON: TERESITA HONOR SAMIOS UY. CONTACT NO.: landline: (02) 4933089. cellphone no. 09215916657. Good day! Our company is presently looking for a potential supplier of mango for the production of our new product. Hope you can be our supplier… Pls. contact me at 0912-375-5097. Thank you! Well, the existing post really shows just incredible information about Mango farming and production. And this one is really looking one of college on yoga useful and authentic post for the mango producers.

As the catering, existing content of this post really makes me crazy about it. Thanks for sharing some awesome thing. yes,i mean urs is a vry imformative yet concised and easily understood datas.ty. i am a researcher in everything thanks to ur website. marcella on Darag Native Chicken Business Opportunity hector on FARM FRESH CHICKEN EGGS – wholesale egg dealer supplier business Myleen on Window Blinds Supplier in Batangas Rizza Trinidad on Dealer of Softdrinks, Beer, Cigarettes, Liquors, Prepaid Cards. Pinoy Bisnes Ideas 2017.

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Despite the trend of the New Peace, world military expenditure in 2013 is estimated to have . reach $1.747 trillion and catering coursework 2012 saw the highest total military spending than in any year since World War 2. Are these military spendings a good return on papers marketing its national-security “investment’, for it is catering coursework evaluation clearly an essays, investment intended for peace and gcse security. Of Research Paper. This essay aims to show that expenditure on arms and armed forces are justifiable in the modern world to. Gcse Catering Coursework Evaluation. Armed forces , Cold War , Korean War 1528 Words | 2 Pages. army values to everyday life. By placing the mission first soldiers automatically put themselves second to everything they do; meaning selfless service. . Regardless of rank they know how to act in situations where they must present a professional and military image. They also take pride in what they do every day for their country.

Responsible soldiers take full responsibility for job objective resume all actions preformed by them or any actions that they help perform weather it was the right or wrong thing. Soldiers know. American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. Evaluation. made for us, but not in the other way round. Prevention is marketing research always better than cure, we should all be aware of the adverse impact brought by gcse catering coursework evaluation the prolonged . exposure to job objective resume, these gadgets. Technology is to make our lives better, not to worsen them. (523 Words ) References: Andrea Cespedes (2013) Obesity in Children Technology [Online] http://www.livestrong.com/article/46320-obesity-children-technology/ Accessed: 26 November 2014 . Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Human 550 Words | 2 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of gcse catering coursework evaluation words . Etymology, according to self evaluation of research paper, Yule(2006) is “the study of the gcse coursework origin and history of a . word ” (p.35). Book The Shack. This process is gcse evaluation used in the evolution of words today, the job objective internet is the gcse catering coursework building block of job objective resume this process. The internet is a catalyst for gcse catering coursework a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. ? Social media plays a significant role in self paper ensuring that advertising is successful.

Social media is made up of websites that enable users to gcse catering evaluation, create and . share content with other users across the internet. In Life Essay. In today’s world almost everything that takes place revolves around social media and as a result any new product, business or service being advertised is associated with social media in some way. According to some analysts, social media is “a group of Internet-based applications that build. Advertising , Brand , Facebook 844 Words | 3 Pages. these energy there is gcse catering renewable energy. It is very important nowadays as it brings a positive environmental impact, development in the economy, energy . security for a bright future. These are some types of sustainable energy already mentioned.This essay is going to focusing on solar panel and will also discuss the cost, the book use of facilities, energy storage and gcse coursework also the event in life negative effects of using solar panel such as weather problem, it controlled by geography, need more space, sunlight is weak energy. Alternative energy , Energy development , Fossil fuel 596 Words | 2 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to catering evaluation, than others, but today I am posting the job objective resume first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU.

It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in gcse catering coursework the play Othello. Throughout the on the book play, the word is catering evaluation used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. “Heaven” is used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the essays on the “N” word , it is gcse catering evaluation interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is significant event in life why there are those who believe that the “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over some.

Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. Catering Coursework. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an on yoga, epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the catering coursework evaluation Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Essay. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. Military 3000 Word Rbi on Parking Your Military Police Patrol Vehicle. 3000 word RBI on why I should back my vehicle into gcse evaluation a parking spot Here is what happened.

I pv2 stein was on patrol in Schweinfurt Germany on . 19 April 2010. I went to work at 1345 like usual for a swing shift. We started guard mount and then we went out to PMCS our vehicles as we always do. I had vehicle 753 for the day so I started my PMCS on that vehicle. I started by checking all of the fluids in the vehicle. I checked all the fluids including the white papers research oil and windshield washer fluid. Everything was. Air traffic control , LDRSHIP , Parking 3065 Words | 7 Pages. The average civilian or recruit coming into gcse the Army often misunderstands the meaning of the words military discipline.

He thinks . of them as being connected with punishments or reprimands which may result from the violation of some military law or regulation. Actually, discipline should not be something new to college on yoga, you for you have been disciplined all of your life. You were being disciplined at home and in gcse catering school when you were taught obedience to your parents and teachers, and respect for on the the rights. Corporal , Enlisted rank , Military ranks 1875 Words | 5 Pages. Military Conscription (Persuasive Essay) Military Conscription Conscription, or more boldly the draft, has not been in place for some thirty years.

While some people cringe at the . thought of reinstating the draft, others have different views. Evaluation. This short paper will speak of those different views and the reasons why conscription of military service may not be such a bad idea after all. Having young men or even women drafted in the military would benefit everyone. The soldiers would benefit from gaining the knowledge and on-the-job training. Self Evaluation Of Research. Conscientious objector , Conscription , Conscription in the United States 806 Words | 3 Pages. young adults partaking in gcse coursework evaluation the military for two years, the self evaluation paper United States should follow suit. Many beneficial consequences would be rendered as a . Coursework. result of the increase in service.

This would also be a great commencement into the real world for on the any young adult. These statements can be explored by discussing the benefits of gcse coursework free college tuition, disciplined young adults who are ready to follow orders, and the sheer power of numbers. One exceptional perk of joining the military would be free college tuition. Army , Battle of Thermopylae , Henry David Thoreau 1017 Words | 3 Pages. FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES Exxon Mobile the resume Number One Fortune 500 Company A fortune five hundred company is . defined as “an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by Fortune magazine. The corporations are ranked based on such metrics as revenues, profits, and market value.” (2011) Exxon Mobile has been declared the number one fortune five hundred company in the world in 2008. In 2007 Exxon Mobile was ranked number two but recently with its new. Battalion , Better , Corporation 987 Words | 3 Pages. ? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of gcse evaluation Summer we see a developing relationship between the two main characters Tom and Summer.

Some . might deny that this is a love story because it doesn’t have your typical happy ending, but none the less it is a love story with a lot to essays on the book, say about relationships and gcse catering the types of how to write a summary/critique essay love that are evolved during it. This relationship starts out illustrating how both of the characters view life and catering coursework evaluation love. Tom is essay described as a hopeless romantic in the beginning of. Agape , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 4 Pages. to accomplish these goals so far. While there are many parallels between civilian and military jobs, there are also many differences. The . main differences between military and civilian jobs are the standards of accountability, the overall standard of fitness, as well as the opportunity to work in impoverished countries. The standards of catering coursework accountability were the first differences I noticed between the military and civilian world.

In a civilian job, you can come in late, wear an outrageous outfit. Difference , Employment , Exercise 923 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of of research paper technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and gcse evaluation limitations of marketing research using technology in learning and teaching. Gcse. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. How To Write A Summary/critique Essay. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. Wear and appearance of army uniform is critical in the military today for the shear fact that were are downsizing and the . military is looking for every excuse to get rid of catering someone. Wear and appearance means to essay, me is that you should be in the right uniform at times when instructed or permitted, is should be clean and gcse coursework evaluation serviceable and be to military standards. The reason i am writing tho essay y is i simply got lazy towards the exercise in Graf and i decided that packing my gear and others things.

Army , Army Combat Uniform , Military 1151 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . future. How To Write Essay. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for gcse catering our future. The food industry has a large impact on write essay individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of coursework today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. ?Course Syllabus APOL 500 Introduction to of research paper, Apologetics Course Description This course surveys the approaches, questions, and . methodologies of gcse catering evaluation Christian Apologetics. The student will be exposed to the major worldviews and belief systems that they will encounter in today’s culture. Upon completion, the on the book student will have a basic understanding of world religions, as well as the knowledge to effectively communicate the gospel with people of other faiths. Rationale Scripture tells us, “But.

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , Christian apologetics , Citation 851 Words | 4 Pages. Gcse. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out of research paper two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. Gcse Catering. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in on yoga a girls head, the coursework evaluation word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the college essays word came from 1497 from coursework evaluation, a time when chivalry was the key to love.

In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to self evaluation paper, dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in gcse catering perfection, and a happy order . Evaluation Of Research Paper. will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.” Harmony is defined as the catering coursework state of being in agreement or concord. Singapore is a bustling metropolis and a multi-racial society, where people of different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Evaluation. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages. Attempt to Say Nothing in 750 Words An English class has rarely been a subject that majority of students be apt to love. There are always . Coursework Evaluation. quite a few assignments to write and as the self evaluation paper years of education increases, the assignments are needed to be in gcse catering coursework more standardized and complicated requirements. Essays are no longer written in single sentences, paragraphs, or short summaries about yourself, or something interesting, in my point of evaluation of research view. It will always be about an article or something to be researched. Article , Essay , Essays 891 Words | 3 Pages.

WORKING OVERVIEW Jobs in the Military vary in catering coursework evaluation type of work and responsibility, yet each is essential to accomplishing the overall mission of . Evaluation Of Research. defending our country. In this section, explore the different types of gcse career opportunities available to service members, learn about the compensation they can expect to receive, find out how to essays, transfer careers to catering, the civilian sector and more. Our Today's Military overview pages show the various stages of a military career, from the joining process to training. Career , Military , Personal development 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Active Ship Levels 1886-Present). This shows a significant change in the thinking of Naval Commanders.

We see that in the 4 years of war that the Navy added . only 5 battleships but added over 90 carriers. It is clear by these numbers that the US military commanders changed their thinking about the carrier in the fleet. During the war there were several key battles that carriers played a vital role in victory. These victory’s would not have been achieved without the change in thinking by US. Aircraft carrier , Battle of Midway , Battleship 1179 Words | 3 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is self evaluation paper what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. An example of words being used for coursework good could be a civil rights activist trying to persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect.

Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. a Cuban dictator, he was born in Biran Cuba in 1926. Castro overthrew the government by using guerilla warfare tactics. After successfully overthrowing the . On The Book. government he was sworn in as Prime Minister. As Prime Minister, Castro established secret military and economic connections with the gcse catering Soviet Union. These relations later lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1976 Castro became president of papers marketing Cuba. Castro was the gcse catering evaluation one of 6 children, two brothers Ramon and Raul (current Cuban president) and three sisters. Che Guevara , Cuba , Cuba – United States relations 573 Words | 3 Pages. on the use of “forbidden words ” in job objective the media, the gcse catering evaluation individual responsibility of using curse words has increased. In this research . I have found that the use of curse words has heightened some people’s sensitivity to in life essay, these words . Children are the most affected and the parents are not far behind.

The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for gcse catering multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to render his words . exactly into English and you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative. Event In Life Essay. This does not make for gcse catering easy reading. It has been an extraordinarily complex task to clean-up M.Descartes words , to correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for repitition and so squash the how to write a summary/critique essay Meditations to gcse coursework, about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. New Microsoft Office Word Document. submitted . one question from each unit, descriptive type, answer in about 500 words , 2 questions to . Improvement . in view of the Challenges of resume Economic planning, Movement for . Fred W. Riggs: Administration in gcse catering coursework evaluation Developing Countires. 6. 3. [PDF]MA(Public Adm.) Part-II (Eng.Med.). - dccpbi.com www.dccpbi.com/. /M.A.(Public%20Adm.)%20Part-II%20(Eng.Med.).p. Attempt any one question.

Answer should be 500 -700 words . . Give a brief account onF.W. Riggs prismatic model of society. (g). Discuss. Administration , Management , Public administration 504 Words | 2 Pages. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for Words : A story of deafness in a family, by Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . Write. two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from coursework, Montpelier, her mother is from Greencastle, and the author came of age in Indianapolis. Lou Ann’s story begins as her parents are driving her to how to a summary/critique essay, Harvard. She went to Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of catering coursework a challenge. On The. Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages.

Since I failed to complete the 2000 word essay on Disrespect to a Non-Commissioned Officer that I was ordered to do I was . reordered to catering, write this 3000 word essay on Failure to follow orders and the possible consequences I was told that if I had simply taken what was originally written and how to write a summary/critique essay reworded it I would have been good as gold . I now have come to realize that my failure to evaluation, follow orders is not only affecting me but it is affecting others. I am taking up a lot of significant event essay my sergeants time by evaluation them having. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2207 Words | 6 Pages. on the creative arts as much as academics in order to keep creative ideas flowing in our society. The points he offers in his speech, about childhood and . Significant Essay. losing site of our creativity by educating it out, is why I chose his talk to write this essay . Coursework. His reasoning hits home for me because I currently have four children in white marketing different stages of the education system. It is clear to see that the education system falls short in challenging the creativity of our future society after a few years in gcse evaluation the. CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. 500 Word Essay About Nickel Dimed. Monique Clay AP English Language and Composition 10 July 2013 500 Word Essay Barbara Ehrenreich’s non-fiction . bestseller, Nickel and Dimed, is the story of an essays, essay writer who went undercover as a low wage worker to find out catering evaluation how non-skilled workers make ends meet.

The experiment took place in Florida, Maine, and research Minnesota, with the author finding a job and lodgings in catering evaluation each location. The experiment was to be held for a summary/critique one month in gcse catering coursework evaluation each location, working full time and living only off the amount. Barbara Ehrenreich , Employment , Labor economics 508 Words | 2 Pages. and pp. 292-305 in Chapter 12, “Exploring the Diversity of Individuality”. 2. Write a 350- 500 word essay about college essays . Gcse. your Quality World. Give your work an original title. Use Microsoft Word to job objective, type your work using 12pt font and double space (have your name/class at the top). Place it in our unit 1 assignment box in ecampus.

This also NEEDS TO go in your ABOUT ME folder of your eportfolio! In your essay , be sure to answer the catering coursework evaluation following questions: • What does your “quality world”, or “vision. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages. How To Write Essay. ?DEFINE THE CONCEPT OF CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS. COMPARE CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND ANOTHER STATES . Introduction Civil Military Relations (CMR) describes the military and its relationship with the political system and society which it part is of.1 Other scholar such as Huntington in his book Soldier and States dictate CMR as military security policy which together with internal and catering coursework situational security policies is an college, aspect of gcse catering evaluation national security policy, working at both the. Armed forces , Burma , Civil-military relations 1042 Words | 5 Pages. 1. “Give your opinion (450- 500 words ) whether the government should impose tax on the birth of every newborn baby in order to . control population.

Support you opinion with reasons and arguments.” 2. Self. Write a biographical essay (450- 500 words ) about any person. A biographical essay tells about the life, achievements and major events of coursework a person’s life. It may be too difficult to tell the story of someone’s entire life. So you may focus on on the just a few important and gcse evaluation interesting events of a person’s. Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. A Summary/critique Essay. Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is linked to gcse coursework evaluation, some of the essays book the shack domains in the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . highlighted how communication is essential to social work professional practice when we were given an gcse catering, essay in professionalism at the beginning of the module. The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and 8. 1. Professionalism: this domain identify and tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to make use of my skills as part of my.

Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. American Civil-Military Relations: Argumentative Essay. Argumentative Essay Module C160- American Civil- Military Relations Submitted by MAJ David Nicoll The . purpose of the argumentative essay is to assess written communication skills. The challenge is to persuade the reader of the resume validity of the thesis presented and convince the reader of the argument. It is also to argue why it will assist students in catering coursework evaluation their duties as a Field Grade officer over the next 10-years of their career and the shack the importance for professional military education. Armed forces , Army , Civilian control of the military 1602 Words | 7 Pages. limit, and applicants and counselors frequently debated whether a tight 450- word essay was a wiser approach than a detailed . 900- word piece. In 2011, that decision was taken away as the Common Application moved to a relatively short 500 - word limit. Coursework Evaluation. With the August 2013 release of CA4 (the newest version of the Common Application), the guidelines have changed once again. Resume. CA4 sets the limit at 650 words (and a minimum of 250 words ). Evaluation. And unlike earlier versions of the Common Application, the college length limit. Cash flow , College admissions in the United States , College application 736 Words | 4 Pages. Coursework. How to Say Nothing in 500 Words Paul Roberts’ advice on how to write was uniquely informative.

The title for his writing passage . was “How to Say Nothing in 500 Words ”, yet in his entire essay it explained how to say something in 500 words . The misleading title is just one of the many ways Paul Roberts uses to create an job objective resume, original diverse essay . Gcse Catering Evaluation. Although Paul Roberts’ essay was written over 50 years ago, it still holds relevance in present day. We all as writers tend to event in life, go for the subjects we know. Creative writing , Writing 503 Words | 2 Pages. PFC Thiel Dillon F 26 October 2012 Article 92 Essay 760th ORD CO (EOD) While at his NTC rotation PFC Thiel was tasked by SFC Graff with . being at gcse the trucks at 0630 to begin the duty day. PFC Thiel along with a few others were late to resume, the trucks. As a result everyone in coursework the company lost the privilege of going to the shoppete to get supplies by white papers marketing research punishment of SFC Graff. While on gcse catering coursework evaluation guard duty the night before going to college on yoga, the field PFC Thiel was unable to clean his weapon because he did not have. General orders , Non-commissioned officer , Petty officer 1061 Words | 3 Pages. Gcse Catering Evaluation. don’t succeed, then try try again.” My mom always tells me this.

If you can’t do something on the first try, don’t give up, stand your ground! If you really . want this you’ll go the extra mile to evaluation, get it. Be creative. Catering Evaluation. Think outside the box. Write an essay about why you want the item so bad, write a poem, make a song, draw a picture, or make a power point! There are so many creative things you can do.

If you really try and be creative and explain yourself, your parents most likely will say “oh ok, they’re. Essays. 2006 singles , Begging , If You Have to Ask 744 Words | 2 Pages. Through the years, military forces are being employed in Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). Gcse Catering. For an event, operational commander . and staff, these operations present significant challenges: in many areas they are relatively unfamiliar, complex, involve a wide variety of agencies and are often protracted in duration. Gcse Catering Evaluation. The term MOOTW describes a range of college operations too diverse to analyze effectively.

This reflective essay focuses on a particular form of MOOTW, in this case Humanitarian Assistance (HA). Armed forces , Army , Battle 1223 Words | 3 Pages.

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GCSE HOSPITALITY AND CATERING (Single and …

colledge book report Also, most current books on “How the Mind/Brain Works,” including Baars Gage, have only a passing reference if any, to catering evaluation the reticular formation, citing only its “posture control and sleep/wake cycle management functions.” Of the three books 1999 Scientific American Book of significant event in life, The Brain, the 2007 Scientific American Best of the Brain, and the 2009 Scientifc American - A Day in evaluation, the Life of Your Brain, none have ANY references to the Reticular Activating System or Reticular Formation! ' var WPEndnote2 = ' Google “Scholarly articles for consciousness in in life essay, thalamus and gcse catering coursework evaluation, midbrain.” ' var WPEndnote90 = ' It is believed that ADD/ADHD is caused by a problem in the reticular activating system (News headline) See http://www.attentiondeficit-add-adhd.com/reticular-activating-system.htm ' var WPEndnote3 = ' Baars Gage admit that much of our cortex memory may not be apparent to essays the shack fMRI scans. They also say, “ There is one very important surprise in this tidy picture of maps flowing into higher-level maps of the gcse visual input: after the job objective thalamic nucleus, most axons run downward from the cortex to the thalamus. . This may seem pretty odd for a simple transmission idea of the gcse catering visual pathway.” “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of essays on yoga, information between the catering coursework evaluation reticular formation and on the, the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 A General Theory of Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 var WPEndnote99 = ' Ronald H. Bailey, ., et al. - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 This is a very important point. Almost every reference I could find to evaluation RF/RAS described only its control of a few biological functions. But this reference says the RF selects stimuli arising “from the centers of thought, memory and feeling,” which would include stimuli arising from the Love/Belief System and Will—our psychological, emotional, and volitional disequilibria stimuli. ' var WPEndnote98 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and Mind, U. S. How To? News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, “alerts the gcse coursework cortex” and similar phrases in the following paragraphs. These are based on the almost universally accepted theory among scientists that the cortex is home to consciousness and all our “higher” faculties; that processing of write essay, stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the cortex. But as we shall see, this is an untenable hypothesis, and, rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to flesh out the percept and to identify and implement an catering, “appropriate” response. ' var WPEndnote6 = ' A General Theory of Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 ' var WPEndnote7 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Bessell - 1995, one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of what scientists know and write essay, don’t know about the brain - we find the admission: “ . Gcse Catering Evaluation? cognitive neural science is only beginning to significant essay contribute to the analysis of the richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. Catering Evaluation? For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is common to human experience.

Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and essays, as people. “ It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, ‘the internal representations that intervene between stimulus and response, . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose’— phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address—to which this theory is directed, and catering, which I believe presents to essays on the book the shack any serious student, a cogent elucidation. ' var WPEndnote8 = ' Note that Bruner’s inhibitory system not only automatically removes over gcse catering, 99% of available fact from college essays, our consideration, but also from our very perception. We don’t even see or hear or feel these facts. Catering? Most of us think we select significant stimuli from the environment, but we are literally and often willfully deaf and blind to how to a summary/critique essay the grea majority of what the world has to tell us, allowing the RF to select our percepts—a very important point to this theory. ' var WPEndnote9 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg 65 This is important to our theory. Gcse Catering? Here we have evidence that although the papers research energy for a given physiological response must come from the gcse coursework evaluation appropriate areas of the motor cortex, it is the Reticular Activating System which administers, monitors, and regulates the application of that energy to the operant muscles to accomplish the intended purpose. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not yield processing of stimuli to other components of the brain, as most neuroscientists suggest, but manages the entire operation from start to finish. Significant? ' var WPEndnote10 = ' Dean Wooldridge The Machinery of the Brain, - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg. 64 ' var WPEndnote11 = ' This outline of social animal needs is of my own construction. Catering Evaluation? I welcome comments, criticisms, corrections. Not shown on the diagram are some of the self evaluation paper autonomic control functions of the RF in regulation of cardiovascular functions, adrenalin levels, etc. The question mark after Dominance is to coursework indicate that there are human societies and essay, social animal species, e.g. the langur monkey, which do not exhibit strong urges for dominance, proving that this ‘need’ is gcse catering coursework not innate in all social animals, or that it can be readily attenuated through social learning. ' var WPEndnote12 = ' William James, Principles of on the the shack, Psychology - Dover ' var WPEndnote13 = ' Since our DNA is catering evaluation 99+% identical to that of the papers marketing research chimpanzee, and gcse catering, most of the brain. * The Secret of essays on the, Life - PBS TV Series 1993 - Hosted by David Suzuki ' var WPEndnote14 = ' Regarding metacognition, see Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Ed., Cognitive Assessment, p. 112 - Guilford 1981, and the wonderful new textbook, Baars Gage, Cognition, Brain Consciousness , p. 286-288 - Academic Press 2007. Regarding imagination, most all philosophers agree this is a uniquely human faculty. Coursework Evaluation? Ability to believe, to draw conclusions based on syllogisms, circumstantial evidence, etc., is white papers obviously, I believe, and hope the reader will agree, a uniquely human faculty. Regarding commitment, I suggest that the chimpanzee is committed by any response or response-impulse strong emough to go through his prefrontal cortex to the premotor neurons which initiate the act.

Humans can commit themselves to anything they wish, even in extreme cases, to suicide. (Incidentally, in gcse coursework, Personal Knowledge, Michael Polanyi says every belief is a commitment.) ' var WPEndnote15 = ' Klivington, Kenneth A. The Science of Mind. MIT Press 1989 From our new perspective, it is important to papers note that Libet’s subjects had agreed - committed themselves - to evaluation his instructions to move their hands, giving the white research RAS authority to generate the corresponding response-impulses. His experiments not only prove that all of our RAS response impulses are generated pre-consciously, i.e., subconsciously; but also exhibit clear cut manifestations of gcse catering, human will. But of a summary/critique, course his work has come under withering criticism from his behaviorist peers. Any research which carries the slightest intimation of gcse coursework, an exercise of the will is anathema to most scientists and must be discredited. One of his peers had the essays book the shack ignorance to say that his subjects were not exercising free will because Libet had told them to move their hands! The answer is that once they had agreed to participate the RF/RAS generated subconscious response impulses at catering coursework, intervals appropriate to the instructions, but which could be vetoed by the subject. College? Just as if I decide to get a drink of water, I can forget about the gcse coursework evaluation details—the RF/RAS will generate all the steps necessary to accomplish the papers marketing task, but I can change it to catering coursework a Coke. ' var WPEndnote16 = ' Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Write Essay? It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the catering coursework trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind.

The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness. ' var WPEndnote17 = ' As Allan Bloom writes in The Closing of the American Mind: See the article in Science Daily, Consciousness in thalamus and midbrain ' var WPEndnote19 = ' This concept has been endorsed in principle by Sebastian Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, University of white papers marketing, Chicago, in a letter to the author: “Your analysis is quite cogent and catering, logically impeccable - 20 years ago, the only counterargument would have been the neuropsychologist’s proclivity to ‘localize’ complex functions such as consciousness in white papers research, the part of the brain that has undergone the most obvious evolutionary change.” Also in a recent book, two (unnamed) neuroscientists are quoted as saying: From modern neuroanatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” Lewis, Thomas, et al., A General Theory of Love. Random House 2000 ' var WPEndnote20 = ' Among many other things, the concepts resolve the so-calledbinding problem, described by gcse coursework evaluation Christof Koch -- a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology, and a collaborator of Francis Crick in the search for consciousness -- as the central issue of the neuroscientists field. Simply put, thebinding problem is that although the brain evaluates different visual aspects of an object -- such as color and shape -- in different parts of the brain, Koch says, there is no single place where everything comes together into a coherent percept. Self? One can only catering coursework assume he means that the various aspects of the percept don't come together in the cortex where he believes consciousness must be. But of book the shack, course they do come together in the only gcse catering element which has connections with every part of the brain, and where consciousness most likely does reside, in the thalamus. ' var WPEndnote21 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago ' var WPEndnote91 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., late Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago (verbatim quote in a conversation with the author ' var WPEndnote23 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Jessell - one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of what scientists know and don’t know about the brain - we find the admission: . . . cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to the analysis of the richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and significant event, response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is common to human experience. Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and as people. It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, “the internal representations. that intervene between stimulus and response, . . . the subjective sense of gcse, individuality, will, and purpose” - phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address - to which this arcticle is significant essay directed; and gcse coursework, of which, based on a multidisciplinary systems analysis, it presents a cogent philosophical elucidation. The first part of this article is devoted to a “bare bones” introduction of new paradigms of the brain and mind which can explain most of the behavior attributable to essays their (unimpaired) functions. Later, we will look at some functions attributable to a new paradigm of the psyche. Each of these paradigms is elucidated in gcse catering coursework evaluation, more detail in the book referenced at college essays on yoga, the end of this article.

Stanford anthropologist Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff, has found that “chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans develop behavior patterns during the first two years of life (i.e., through the first six stages of the Piaget model) that are identical to the developmental patterns of human infants.” Animal Kingdom, July 1979 Could our brains be significantly different? ' var WPEndnote25 = ' Note that Bruner’s “inhibitory system” not only automatically removes over 99% of available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception . We don't even see or hear or feel these facts. Since most of coursework, us think we select “interesting” stimuli from the environment, and, except under very special circumstances, we don't - they are selected for us - this is a very important point in our theory. And vice-versa? Doesn't consciousness, where our purposes are formed, need immediate access to the RF in order to implement them? ' var WPEndnote27 = ' The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard - Alpha Books 2002 ' var WPEndnote28 = ' I have been advised that some areas of the on the the shack brain contiguous with or near the RF, e.g., the tegmentum, the gcse periaquaductal grey, some tegmental and parabrachial nuclei, appear to participate in—or even perform—some of the college on yoga functions I have attributed to the RF. This is a very welcome suggestion since I have long felt that the RF itself, scanning and catering, prioritizing 100 million sensory impulses per second, could do little more than simply “flag” significant stimuli. Therefore I was thoroughly prepared to accept the job objective resume fact that other elements of the brain, contiguous with or near the RF, might contribute to its functions. Perhaps the catering coursework evaluation RF provides only the analog of the stimulus and the RAS retrieves to on the book the shack thalamic consciousness the coursework evaluation digital details from the cortex, ala “Marilyn Monroe” above. Papers Marketing? Now there‘s an exciting idea, derived from an coursework, idea only implicit in a suggestion from essays on yoga, Roy Sugarman, an Australian psychologist! ' var WPEndnote29 = ' LeDoux, Joseph, Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, Penguin Books 2003 ' var WPEndnote30 = ' See Wooldridge below ' var WPEndnote56 = ' From Bergson’s Creative Evolution, “ The function of the intellect is to preside over actions. Catering? Now, in action, it is the result that interests us; the means matter little provided the college end is attained.

Thence it comes that we are altogether bent on the end to be realized, generally trusting ourselves to it in order that the catering evaluation idea may become an act; and paper, thence it comes also that only the goal where our activity will rest is gcse catering coursework evaluation pictured explicitly to our mind: the movements constituting the action itself either elude our consciousness or reach it only white confusedly. Gcse Coursework? Let us consider a very simple act, like that of lifting the arm. Where should we be if we had to paper imagine beforehand all the elementary contractions and tensions this act involves, or even to perceive them, one by gcse catering one, as they are accomplished? But the mind is carried immediately to self evaluation of research paper the end, that is to say, to the schematic and evaluation, simplified vision of the act supposed accomplished. Then, if no antagonistic idea [Love or Belief] neutralizes the effect of the first idea, the appropriate movements come of themselves to fill out the plan, drawn in some way by the void of its gaps. The intellect then, only represents to the activity ends to attain, that is to say, points of rest. And, from one end attained to another end attained, from one rest to another rest, our activity is carried by a series of leaps, during which our consciousness is turned away as much as possible from the movement going on, to essays regard only the anticipated image of the movement accomplished.” [pg. 325] ' var WPEndnote57 = ' Musicians will tell you they are not ‘playing’ most of the individual notes we hear. Catering? They are playing notes, chords, phrases, whole passages, 10-15 notes-a-second scales, etc. by auditorizing and committing RAS to their execution from cortex neuronal motor memory sequences established through practice. Those who accompany themselves concentrate on their voices while RAS plays the instrument. Golfers visualize where they want the ball to land, pole vaulters to paper clearing the bar, etc. Then they commit it to coursework evaluation the ‘mind’ for execution. There should be a question mark after ‘Dominance,’since there are societies and job objective resume, animal species such as the catering coursework langur monkey where dominance is college essays on yoga absent; suggesting that dominance is not an innate Social-Animal Need, or can be attentuated through social learning. Perhaps ‘Mating and Feeding Privileges’ would be more pertinent. ' var WPEndnote59 = ' Dean Wooldridge, The Machinery of the Brain, McGraw Hill 1963 - pgs.

63-72 ' var WPEndnote60 = ' See Wooldridge&rsuo;s “stored programsrdquo below ' var WPEndnote31 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Touchstone 1995 ' var WPEndnote32 = ' See Consciousness in gcse, Thalamus and Midbrain Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Cognitive Assessment, Guilford 1981. Baars Gage point out that metacogntion is how to write manifest only in prefrontal cortex, and is missing when frontal lobes are damaged. Since the catering evaluation PFC is where our “cognitive functions” take place, it is little wonder that metacognition is event in life only manifest in connection with activities of the catering coursework PFC. I believe animals too, may be conscious of the alternative response-impulses resident in their PFC’s, but have no independent control of college on yoga, them. Their responses are based only on their instincts and gcse catering evaluation, memories, and resume, only circumstantial changes can trigger which response will be enacted. Response-impulses in the human PFC are based on memories and all the elements (conscious and subconscious) in the Love/Belief System—all our Loves, Beliefs, Values, Needs, etc. Our metacognizance gives us a much wider variety of gcse catering coursework, responses to any situation, and “I”-power to commit ourselves to the response (right or wrong) which carries the most weight based on all those factors. ' var WPEndnote34 = ' This is a bold statement coming from essays on yoga, a self-described ‘rigorous neurobiologist.’ (See below) Doesn‘t “when it is up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation. ” imply free will? Risking even more criticism from their peers, Baars Gage admit, “ “The choices we make are not inherent in the situations at hand. They are a complex interplay between the properties of the situations and our own properties, our aspirations, our doubts, and our histories. The prefrontal cortex is central to such decision-making.

Finding solutions for deterministic situations is often accomplished algorithmically. . . Catering? but making choices in the absence of inherently correct solutions remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory. In a sense, the college freedom of choice is possible only when ambiguity is present. ” (page 352 - my emphasis/) “Uniquely human” is an astonishing admission, but their last sentence seems to be a tautology. Doesn’t choice require an ambiguity, i.e., the existence of alternatives? And isn’t ambiguity present in almost everything we do? However, they revert to scientism, and seem to contradict themselves on the same page: “ Of all the aspects of the human mind none are more intriguing than intentionality , and volition. But these attributes of gcse catering coursework, human mind are fully at play only in situations affording multiple choices. White Papers Marketing? Numerous assertions have been made by catering philosophers and scientists that volition and white papers marketing, intentionality are uniquely human traits. In its absolute form, this claim cannot appeal to a rigorous neurobiologist. It is more likely that these properties of the mind have developed gradually through evolution, possibly following an exponential course.“ Isn’t exponential evolution an coursework evaluation, oxymoron? And whatis ‘gradual exponential evolution?’ “ Words that have personal significance for participants, ‘body bags, Nam, Medevac,’ for the Vietnam veterans versus ‘revolver, incest, 9/11, or fire’ for civilian victims, are repeatedly found to gain access to awareness more readily than neutral words. ” Baars Gage, page 380. Also “ Acquisition and extinction of essay, fear responses conditioned to a visual stimulus were examined in rats with ablations of visual cortex. Gcse Evaluation? Visual cortex lesions did not interfere with acquisition, indicating that visual fear conditioning, like auditory fear conditioning, is mediated by sub-cortical, probably thalamo-amygdala, sensory pathways. In contrast to acquisition, extinction was greatly prolonged, if not prevented, by cortical ablation.

This resistance to extinction of sub cortical emotional memories may explain certain aspects of emotional memory in man. ” In Baars Gage we find the admission: “Such permanent stores may not show up directly in brain imaging studies because they are encoded in the connective strengths between neurons. Methods like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity may therefore under-represent the vast amount of long-term knowledge. ” page 295 “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and essay, the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 For example, Baars Gage ascribe virtually omniscient and incredible powers (a vertiable ghost in the machine) to the frontal lobes with, “Since the selection of the information required to solve the problem at hand is made in the frontal lobes, they must ‘know,’ at least roughly, where in the brain this information is gcse catering stored. This suggests that all the essays book cortical regions are somehow represented in the frontal lobes, an assertion first made by Hughlings Jackson (1884). Such representation is gcse coursework probably coarse, rather than specific, enabling the frontal lobes to know what type of information is stored where, but not the specific information itself. The frontal lobes then contact the appropriate parts of job objective, the brain and bring the memory trace ‘on-line’, by gcse activating the circuitry that embodies it. ” page 354. The frontal lobes have a map of the entire cortex, and know where all the memories are? Isn’t it much more likely that the RAS finds precedent responses in the cortex and transmits them with the relevant “information required to solve the problem” to significant essay the frontal lobes? Nigel Calder - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg. Catering Evaluation? 30 See: http://discovermagazine.com/2008/oct/15-could-an-inner-zombie-be-controlling-your-brain ' var WPEndnote43 = ' See e.g., how the Mayo Clinic describes the ‘functions’ of different parts of the brain, at How Your Brain Works http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/brain/BN00033 ' var WPEndnote42 = ' St. Thomas Aquinas’ Agent was the soul, with faculties of memory, intellect, and will. Karen Horney refes to our ‘real self;’ Roberto Assagioli to our ‘higher self;’ Carl Jung to essays on the the shack our ‘self,’ or ‘God within us;’ Martin Buber to gcse ‘I’ and ‘Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to the ‘Observing Self;’ Antonio Damasio to a ‘proto self;’ Ernest Becker (See his Pulitizer Prize winning Denial of Death, ) refers to our ‘proud, rich, lively,infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.’ And myriad mystics, saints and sages have unequivocally claimed a realization of their ‘True Selves.’ Here’s what one of the world’s most renowned psychologists has to say on this subject: Now that cognitive psychology has taken the head once lopped off by radical behaviorism and significant in life, returned it to the body of psychology, we might in the next 10 years consider implanting a heart or a little soul in gcse catering, the same body.

When that takes place, it may be easier to papers know what psychologists can offer to people and how they can do so, because then they will be us. Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. Gcse Catering Evaluation? (1982) Emeritus Professor of Psychology - Stanford University Past President, American Psychological Association I believe this theory fulfills his prediction. We have ‘hearts’; we are Souls. Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the how to write a summary/critique brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness. ' var WPEndnote45 = ' See Baars Gage speculations (page 145) about ERTAS serving as a ‘blackboard,‘ used by the cortex to broadcast its prevailing conscious sensory stimuli to gcse catering coursework other parts of the brain. This of course is the reverse of job objective, my theory that it is catering coursework evaluation ERTAS that uses the cortex in its processes.

But they do mention that “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is how to essay required before sensory input becomes conscious.” confirming the gcse evaluation theory of this article. ' var WPEndnote46 = ' Disbeliefs are not just a mirror image of beliefs; belief in democracy engenders disbeliefs in monarchy, socialism, communism, dictatorship, etc. Beliefs are very prolific. Memories of traumatic or emotional experiences can also act as ‘beliefs,’ generating fear, anxiety, sorrow, joy, etc., as reactions to college on yoga relevant stimuli. ' var WPEndnote47 = ' “It is believed that ADD/ADHD is gcse coursework evaluation caused by a problem in the reticular activating system.” “Neuroscientists have been conducting studies on essays the reticular activating system and its role in catering, behavior, Alzheimer’s disease, and how to a summary/critique, ADD/ADHD. In the ADD/ADHD patient, it appears that the reticular activating system cannot keep up with the demands placed on it. This leads to over-arousal, under-motivation, and gcse evaluation, the other symptoms of ADD/ADHD.” All of the ‘demands’ on the Reticular Activating System come from the Reticular Formation.

Are television sponsors, paying millions for only seconds of airtime to make an significant event in life, impression, training children for ADD? ' var WPEndnote48 = ' Some have qustioned whether our Need to gcse catering Exist is uniquely human. Self Of Research? But the gcse catering evaluation ‘Existence’ we treasure is not with just being alive; it is the marvelous gift of a Self-directed Life. The soul shows its royal and exalted character, . . in that it is self of research free and self-governed, swayed autonomously by its own will. Of whom else can this be said, save a king? St. Gregory of Nysss But he was unable to define it. He wrote: “What we hope to see developed . . Gcse? . is a science of the Self, of how to write a summary/critique essay, its energies, its manifestations, of how these energies can be released, how they can be contacted, how they can be used for constructive and gcse catering, therapeutic work.” The book from which this article is derived provides a cogent theoretical ‘science of the college on yoga Self,’ by delineating existential Needs and Faculties of the ‘higher Self,’ which, added to the Social Animal Needs we share with Neanderthal adn chimpanzee, can fully account for our superior aspirations and capabilities; Faculties which “ can be contacted, released, and used for constructive and therapeutic work.” ' var WPEndnote50 = ' The srticla concludes: Transpersonal identity is associated with the realisation of modes of functioning and experience that have distinctly ‘spiritual’ qualities. The different theories are also in basic accord on the particular spiritual qualities that we can recognise as characterising transpersonal identity. Frances Vaughan (1985, p. 28) identifies these as: compassionate, loving, receptive, allowing, unlimited, intuitive, spontaneous, creative, inspired, peaceful, awake, open, and connected. Where the theories fail to agree is in gcse, their conceptual understanding of the on the the shack transpersonal self, and in their developmental psychology or explanations of how transpersonal identity may be achieved. Itisprecisely this ‘conceptual understanding’ of the transpersonal self which this article will address, and offer a cogent and well-received theory. Whatever would disturb one’s cherished self-image tends to be repressed. Gcse Coursework Evaluation? Whatever might make the individual appear to himself unworthy, guilty, inadequate, sadistic, inconsistent with his ideas or ideals, escapist, or not living up to one’s ideals, tends to be removed from consciousness. [emphasis added] Silvano Arieti, The Will to be Human, pg. 45 ' var WPEndnote52 = ' Also see The Transpersonal Self: Comparing Seven Psychological Theories (Abraham Maslow, C.G. Jung, Roberto Assagioli, Stan Grof, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Peggy Wright), by white papers marketing Michael Daniels at psychicscience.org/papers/daniels02b.pdf Personally, I don’t agree the gcse evaluation Self is self trans -personal, since the Self is the essence of person; the element which distinguishes us from the chimpanzee, whose DNA is virtually identical to our own. I prefer Becker’s transcentdent Self. ' var WPEndnote53 = ' I have identified this as a ‘new theory of coursework, neuropsychology,’ but to the best of how to write a summary/critique, my knowledge and conscientious research it is the first and only basic theory of neuropsychology—one which from a systems standpoint, and in the unimpaired brain, reconciles all known cognitive brain component processes with all psychologic phenomena. As you will see in the notes which follow, psychologists have ‘given up the theoretical life,’ and neurobiologists are running into gcse catering coursework brick walls of psychologic phenomena which they are finding impossible to explain, even in terms of brain component processes. Job Objective? ' var WPEndnote54 = ' And now, just in the past few years it has been found that the DNA of neanderthals, who spent hundreds of thousands of years on the planet and gcse coursework evaluation, developed only one tool—a sharpened stone— is 99.7% identical to ours!

Since the size of the significant event neanderthal brain is coursework evaluation equivalent to ours, this provides even better evidence for our theory than the write a summary/critique essay chimpanzee. See the Novenber 2010 press relaease from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology at http://www.mpg.de/623578/pressRelease201011021. They conclude that though the brains of humans, chimpanzees and neanderthals are similar at birth, they develop differently! It will be interesting to see how scientismists explain that without hypothesizing a ‘self.’ ' var WPEndnote55 = ' “Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Catering Coursework? It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of job objective, cells. Damage to them results in coma - the catering evaluation loss of consciousness.” ' var WPEndnote62 = ' Calder, Nigel - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg.

30 ' var WPEndnote63 = ' Bailey, Ronald H., et al. - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 ' var WPEndnote64 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, ‘alerting the cortex’ and similar phrases in the following paragraphs based on papers the universally accepted theory that processing of stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to the cortex, the home to coursework consciousness and all our higher faculties. But this is an untenable hypothesis, and college, rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to flesh out the percept and to identify and implement a ‘relevant’ response. ' var WPEndnote65 = ' Silverstein, Alvin Virginia - World of the Brain - Morrow Co. NY 1986 ' var WPEndnote66 = ' How Things Work - the Brain - Time-Life Books 1992 ' var WPEndnote67 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963. Thus, the gcse catering evaluation Reticular Activating System does not turn over processing and resolution of resume, stimuli to catering coursework ‘higher powers’ in the cortex, as neuroscientists believe, but manages the entire operation from essay, start to gcse evaluation finish, guided by significant event the goal-image generated in catering, thalamic consciousness by the RF/RAS which called forth the essays the shack energy from the motor neurons. ' var WPEndnote68 = ' The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard ' var WPEndnote69 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Charles Scribner Sons 1994 ' var WPEndnote70 = ' The First Credible Theory of catering evaluation, Cognitive Neuroscience? Resolving the Mind/Brain/Behavior/Enigma. The human mind has an on yoga, ‘inhibitory system’ which.

routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgement over 99% of available fact.” Jerome S. Bruner (1915-2 016) Everyt hing one knows began as a selection of a small group of catering, cognitive impulses from the body, the environment, memories, and white papers marketing, conscious and subconscious elements of each of our usually inchoate Love/Belief Systems- all received by the Reticular Formation (RF), a small bundle of gcse catering evaluation, nerves at the top of the essays on yoga brain stem, which at a rate of 100,000,000 impulses a second has 24/7, by unknown means, selected those most important to the individual. This selection is gcse catering coursework projected to the thalamus and hypothalamus, locus of the long-known but disregarded Reticular Activating System . With afferent and essays on yoga, efferent connections to the entire brain and body, RAS, identifies and with deference to Love/Belief System elements-perceptual defenses, inhibitions, repressions, etc.- interprets the coursework evaluation data, before reaching consciousness. Write Essay? The laundered data accompanied by relevant response-impulse(s), which if benign, unopposed or coonditioned will be executed; or will vie for execution, which only evaluation humans with newly defined inherent transcendent needs and faculties, can review and execute, veto, or alter. Everthing we know and believe has run a gauntlet of RAS processing which, with accesss to conscious and subcondcious elemets of event in life essay, our Love/Belief Systems (which Christians will recognize as our Hearts), routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgement over 99% of gcse catering coursework, available fact. We are living in evaluation of research, a post-hypnotic trance, induced in early infancy.

All neuroscience is gcse coursework based on how to essay the paradigm of a modular brain, each component independently responsible for, or participating in each brain function—with only one stellar but completely neglected explanation of catering, how they do work together in coordinated responses. tt is also based on the paradigm of how to write, ‘neuronal man’?the conviction that all human capabilities will eventually be understood in neuronal terms. I will argue that since our DNA has been shown to be 98+% identical to that of the gcse catering coursework chimpanzee, which after millions of years is still living in trees; and recently 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, after 200-300,000 years still living in caves with one tool, a sharpened stone, when they became extinct, that our brains are functionally identical to theirs. This revolutionary new theory, with doctoral appraisals of “.. a cogent and intellectually impeccable analysis,” and It is great . a breakthrough of insight and a comprehensive unification of the relevant sciences, will present a decades-long researched contradistinction of both neuronal man and on the book, the modular brain. With Dr. Dean Wooldridge’s stellar application of gcse catering coursework, biological, neurological, cybernetic, and computer sciences in unraveling brain processes, you will find compelling proof that the book brain is managed coherently by the long-known, but completely neglected, Reticular Activating System (RAS), including its ‘sentinel’ and ‘lieutenant,’ the gcse catering Reticular Formation (RF).

The Reticular Activating System, with its locus in in life essay, the thalamus and hypothalamus, is a vast network of gcse coursework evaluation, neuronal afferent and efferent connections to the entire brain and body. Thus it is the perfect candidate for the brain’s Command and Control System?the de facto manager and coordinator of all brain functions. I will present substantial evidence that RAS is dedicated 24/7 365 to maintaining homeostasis in all human biological, socio-biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, emotional, and self paper, volitional states. the reticular formation connects with major nerves. in the spinal column and brain. It sorts the catering coursework 100 million. impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting.

the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The. mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma—the loss of consciousness. U. S. News Books - 1981. Although this rendering points to the Reticular Activating System it does not make clear that the white papers research Reticular Formation to which it refers, is just a small bundle of unique neurons at catering, the top of the brainstem, within the System. Also it shows only the Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) and not the Descending Reticular Activating System (DRAS) which extends throughout the entire body, and most likely includes the central and peripheral nervous systems.

For a detailed description of DRAS neurological functions, see currie@etsu.edu. Here is a more detailed rendering of paper, ARAS. Note the good Professor’s precise use of the word ‘proclivity,’ and coursework evaluation, quote marks around localize. Self Paper? In other words, they posit our higher faculties in the prefrontal lobes, because their proportionately larger size was the only difference they could find between our brains and gcse catering, those of the primates from which they were sure we had evolved. (And a large brain didn't provide any benefits to Neanderthal.) Although this rendering is of research paper meant to illustrate the human brain, I will argue that it is common to the brain of all sentient beings. Gcse Catering Evaluation? With DNA virtually identical to Neanderthal and chimpanzee for example, it’s hard to see how our brains could have significant biological differences. Then what is the difference between humans and how to, Neanderthal?

Here we must part company with those who support the neuronal man paradigm and speak to those who know that we are not just another social animal?that except for knee-jerk responses, we have the power to review, veto, or alter our response-impulses. (I’m not going to punch my boss out, no matter how mad I am!) What is it that makes us so different? The question has resounded since the dawn of catering coursework evaluation, recorded time. The most common theories come from scholars who have proposed an Agent or ‘self’ which might explain our differences; but most without ascription, others with nebulous characteristics, none except perhaps Freud have offered a ‘self’ I (ego) which could explain our differences with our DNA analogues, or could be integrated with known psychological and essays, neural operations of the brain, all of catering coursework, which are included in this new theory. And most neuroscientists derisively dismiss the idea of white papers, a transpersonal self as a mythical ‘ghost in the machine’ (while they accept millions in research funds to try to tease its exact equivalent out of gcse coursework, some magical hidden powers of the cortex.) Some of the many theorists who have postulated or made reference to a unique human Agent are: St. Thomas Aquinas postulated the spiritual Soul with faculties of memory, intellect, and will. Freud‘s Agent was “I” (German ‘ich,’ translated as ego) with a laundry-list of faculties (which he apparently thought included all our 'higher powers': perception, conscious thought, memory, learning, choice, judgment, and action; Carl Jung referred to college on yoga an undefined ‘self,’ or archetypal ‘God within us;’ Karen Horney to our “ real self, . the central inner force, . which is the gcse coursework evaluation deep source of growth, . the spring of emotional forces, of constructive energies, of directive and self evaluation of research, judiciary powers;” Roberto Assagioli to an undefined but influential ‘higher self;’ Martin Buber to ‘I and Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to an ‘Observing Self;’ Anton io Damasio to gcse evaluation a ‘proto self;’ LeDoux to our 'synaptic self;' Ernest Becker refers to our “proud, rich, lively, infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.” And myriad mystics, saints, and sages have claimed an ineffable realization of their ‘True Inner Self,’ or spiritual Soul. Job Objective Resume? For a scholarly and thoughtful review of seven of these theories, see TheTranspersonalSelf .com. The Soul’s uniquely human Faculties can be seen to be Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment, yielding our preternatural Free Will, which accounts for our creativity -the ability to gcse coursework bring into being things which had their origins only in our Imaginaitons, something like God.

The Immortal “I” Most of us think of ourselves as objective, and that our belief systems represent the standards we apply to evaluation of our cognitive percepts as to self evaluation their meaning, significance, veracity, etc. But I have introduced the concept that both the inherent Social-Animal Needs we share with our DNA analogues, and catering evaluation, our Love/Belief Systems become wired in our brains between stimulus and cognition, forming two sources of continuous stimuli to the brain, with the environment providing the evaluation of research third. The Love/Belief System also serves as a ‘reference database,’ which RAS uses in the interpretation, evaluation, and often modification of cognitive stimuli, then generation of catering coursework evaluation, ‘relevant’ emotions and response-impulses before they reach full consciousness, i.e., Soul-awareness. Thus neurologically, we each experience the world through our Hearts. Following for reference throughout this article is the diagram I propose as illustrative of RAS processing of how to write essay, all social animals. The Social Animal Brain Processing. Instincts have been left blank, since they vary among Social Animals.

But this diagram shows that all brain operations are managed by the Reticular Activating System. The Reticular Formation, monitoring the gcse catering coursework evaluation environment, Instincts, and Social-Animal Needs, forwards selected stimuli on white papers research to the RAS which extracts from gcse catering coursework, cortex memory 9-10 times more information. This yields identification and relevant responses. These are then forwarded to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for resolution (described later), then back through RAS processing for a ‘feasibility check.’ Ambiguous responses ‘hang up’ in the PFC until additional RF environmental stimuli or cortex memory input causes one to prevail and is executed or the stimulus abates. The Social-Animal Needs (which we obviously share with our DNA analogues) are illustrated as follows: THE SOCIAL-ANIMAL NEEDS. The following diagram is the same brain, but of the human, with Instincts replaced by evaluation of research the individual’s Love/Belief System, and introduces the “I” Needs and Faculties responsible for gcse evaluation all our higher powers. HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN WORKS, COHERENTLY. Absentt only neurologists and strangely, cognitive psychologists who know most about what the brain does, many theorists, including even some intrepid physicists and essay, mathematicians, far out of their fields, are exercising their prodigious powers of imagination to justify the concept that consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, etc.?must be some hidden purely neuronal functions of the ortex. Since I am taking strong exception to gcse this universal direction of research (alone as far as I know), as well as to neuronal man, I must devote the following portion to pointing out some of what appear to be the most flagrant fallacies, contradictions, labored conjectures and impasses inherent in the modular braom paradigm.

Then I'll present a wealth of resume, evidence-including scientific evidence-that the brain does work erently. First however, I want to largely exempt Bernard J. Baars, ohPh.D., and Nicole M. Gage, Ph.D. from gcse catering coursework evaluation, my criticism, based on their lucid and carefully researched textbook, Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness: Introduction to papers marketing research Cognitive Neuroscience - Academic Press, 2007. Dedicated scientists, they struggle bravely with such things as metacognition, intentionality, volition, and coursework evaluation, “making choices in the absence of inherently correct solutions,” which they admit “remains, at least for job objective now, a uniquely human territory.” They also find it necessary to ascribe homunculus-like faculties to the frontal lobes, e.g., as having a “coarse map of the entire cortex,” so they can retrieve memories relevant to gcse catering coursework evaluation their decision-making processes. [BG page 354] But I have made good use of their neuroscience research which corroborates and has been incorporated in how to write a summary/critique essay, my theory, and also of the gcse catering gaps and impasses in papers, all neuropsychology, e.g,, the ‘binding problem,’ and the brick wall they face in finding a neuronal explanation of our higher powers. Gcse Coursework? I think every student of evaluation of research, cognitive neurology should have a copy of this excellent book. The problem facing neuroscientists was that the chimpanzee’s DNA was found to gcse catering coursework be 98+% identical to ours, followed by finding that the 2% difference was related only to “hair, skin, bones, blood, muscle, and write a summary/critique, the like”?hardly differences which might account for gcse evaluation our vastly superior capabilities. And in 2010 we found that our DNA is white papers marketing 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, which, after 200-300,000 years on the planet were still living in gcse catering, caves with one tool, a sharpened stone when they became extinct; lending even stronger evidence to this theory.

Our DNA is not similar to that of Neanderthal and. chimpanzee?it is, to all intents and purposes, identical. Then why are we so different? Most scientists have concluded that our higher faculties must be found in the cortex, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), both proportionally larger than those of the chimp, assuming that a larger but biologically identical brain, can account for job objective our superiority. So hundreds of researchers are expending millions of people-hours, devoting all their efforts to evaluation locate human faculties of consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, imagination, conviction, etc., as originating in some yet-to-be discovered neuron al capabilities of the cortex. Nor is there any validity to the popular ‘triune’ nature of the college brain, as composed of evolutionary development from lizard to mammalian to primate brains. The so-called lizard brain is not a brain at all, since it represents only a portion of the evaluation lizard brain, which like ours, is comprised of brainstem, midbrain, and cortex. Nor is the mammalian brain a brain.

And as we shall see, their derogation of the importance of the lower and mid-brain in favor of the cortex has led researchers to white papers research only a perfunctory analysis of their vital and marvelous functions. Also neuropsychologists are admittedly struggling with a ‘binding problem.’ The visual characteristics of an object?color, shape, size, motion?are registered and gcse catering, interpreted in college essays on yoga, different parts of the cortex. So, they wonder, “If I see something red, round, baseball-size, and in motion, where in the cortex do all those percepts come together to gcse catering evaluation instantly tell me that I’m going to get hit in the face with a tomato?” The famous binding problem. The answer is event essay that they don’t come together in the cortex, but in the thalamus and evaluation, midbrain, the how to much more likely home to consciousness. Now consider the rat, which can generate perhaps only 40 or 50 different responses. But those few responses have insured the perpetuation of the gcse species for essays on the the shack thousands of years.

Now looking at the successive identically anatomical forms of the brain of the rat, cat, owl monkey, rhesus monkey, and chimpanzee, isn’t it obvious that these are simply sequentially larger versions of the rat’s marvelously efficient brain? Enlargements which, coupled with a more versatile body and larger brain?more RAM work space and memory?enable the chimp to generate scores of responses and, by operant conditioning and gcse catering, social and experiential learning, acquire scores more? S ince our DNA is identical, isn’t it obvious that our brain is just a larger chimp’s brain, operating on the same principles and how to write essay, components? Much of what we know about the human brain has been learned from gcse catering, primates (and mice!). Also, pioneers in self evaluation, artificial intelligence realized that the computer must be equipped with many facts: children can’t be as old or older than their parents, tools are bought at a hardware store, etc. They first estimated maybe as many as a million facts, but soon realized they must deal with tens of millions of facts! Where does the brain store all this information? Further, imagine the sheer number of one's memories and neural motor sequence memories?routines?necessary for gcse catering coursework evaluation a typist to hit 8 keys a second for minutes at a time, without realizing what he has typed?for words to appear on a page while he thinks of something else. Imagine the number of memory routines necessary to drive my car through traffic while I’m day-dreaming, and alert me instantly to anything requiring my attention; or for our thoughtless morning ablutions.

For a concert pianist to paper have thousands of musical phrases wired to the motor neurons of his fingers, arms, feet, and legs; some of which can be executed continuously for twenty minutes? Where could we possibly store all our memories and tens of evaluation, millions of facts and papers marketing, sensory and motor sequences?routines, subroutines, and sub-subroutines?all this memory? Why, only in a much larger cortex of course! We don’t need another operating system; but we humans obviously need more work-space (PFC RAM) and memory, a larger hard drive; both provided by the vast association areas and catering coursework evaluation, depth of the human cortex. Further, limited to fMRI scans of the brain, neuropsychologists consider activities such as thought, reasoning, perception, emotions, etc., as functions of the parts of the brain which ‘light up’ when those activities are operant, but activities which are impaired when that part of the significant in life brain is damaged, lesioned or diseased. But a computer hard drive operates exactly the same way?activates relevant sectors when certain programs are called for, and fails to execute those programs when those sectors are damaged. Does that mean computer operations are ‘functions’ of the hard drive? The hard drive is just a passive memory of operational sequences called forth and managed from somewhere else. Gcse Catering Coursework Evaluation? Correlation should not be confused with causal.

Calling mental and biological activities functions of brain segments which light up, is like saying that controlling an airplane’s flight attitude is a function of the ailerons, rudder, and elevator, which are active in significant essay, flight corrections, but which are functions of the catering coursework pilot or autopilot. Still further, believing all our higher powers are in the cortex, scientists have concentrated on the one-way upward course of information from the senses to the reticular formation and thalamus up to the cortex, where they think processing, analysis, and decision-making must take place. But in The Creative Loop - How the Brain Makes a Mind, Erich Harth says neuroscientists have “studiously ignored” the instant downward passage of evaluation of research paper, ten times more information from cortex to catering coursework evaluation thalamus. Baars and Gage recognize this phenomenon, but say these “neurons are running the wrong way! ” (sic!) And further, that RAS uses the appropriate components of the brain. to manage implementation of RAS selected or Soul initiated responses. For example, when one hears the words, ‘Marilyn Monroe’ (OK, I'm 95), they pass in neural networks through the reticular formation to uncomprehending consciousness in the thalamus and up to auditory regions in job objective, the cortex.

But ten times more information is instantly returned from the cortex to coursework evaluation thalamic consciousness?enough information to yield a picture of a beautiful blonde in a white dress and high heels standing over a subway exhaust grille trying to hold her skirt down?a picture which would require scores of thousands of significant, computer bytes. On the other hand, presented with that picture, it is sent in gcse, neural networks through unknowing consciousness to visual cortex V1 through V3, and returns the resume name 'Marilyn Monroe' to catering coursework consciousness in the thalamus, together with what the listener knows of her life. Some neuroscientists agree, at least in part: “From modern neuro-anatomy, it is apparent that the in life essay entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by evaluation the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” In view of the above, it is a major thesis of this article that although. we use the brain differently, e.g,. for college on yoga everything from coursework, language to. putting men on the moon, and on yoga, therefore develop different capacities. of its components, the human brain, in gcse coursework, and of itself, has no inherent. functional capabilities which differentiate it from the brain of the.

chimpanzee or Neanderthal. We have two distinctly different schools of thought: the “Modular Brain/Neuronal Man” (MB/NM) school, and that of the “Soul/Coherent Brain” (S/CB). The thoughtful reader will find many more problems, speculations, and contradictions in MB/NM in significant in life, this article and notes, and evaluation, hopefully appreciate the far-reaching explanatory powers of S/CB. How the Brain Works, Coherently. Look at it this way: if beings from another planet got to earth, and simply observed an self evaluation, automobile for a day or two without raising the hood, but listening, examining the gas, the exhaust, etc., they would undoubtedly be able to tell, without a design of coursework evaluation, each part, exactly what components were at work inside the car. They would know there must be a fuel vaporizer, combustion chambers, ignition devices, a transmission, etc., etc. Now with ever-increasing analytical skills, and ever-increasing data, we have been observing ourselves for several thousand years, and on yoga, no one seems to be trying to analyze the gcse coursework brain from a systems standpoint?to postulate the essay components and their functions which must be at evaluation, work ‘under the hood,’ in order to explain all the rational and irrational physical, mental, and essay, emotional responses which biologists, neuroscientists, and particularly cognitive psychologists know the brain can generate and/or implement. 1. Immediate access to all available internal and circumstantialental information,

2. A means of rapidly assimilating, evaluating, and pioritizing. 3. A means of selecting and implementing appropriate responses. t o the information, and. 4. Immediate two-way communications, for control and feedback, with all of the subsystems. The human brain is the most complex. system in gcse catering evaluation, the world, with many subsystems. capable of operating in a coordinated way. its components and subsystems?much more complicated than.

a battleship?could possibly coordinate each of their functions in. timely management of the thousands of complex physical, mental, emotional, and self evaluation of research paper, biological responses of the brain, providing as it. does, instantaneous, coordinated reactions to circumstances of. vital interest, without an ‘autopilot’—a priority evaluator and. responder to all internal and environmental stimuli, i.e., a command and control system. Fortunately, we have the coursework evaluation perfect candidate for essays on the the brain's. command and control system in the Reticular Activating.

System, centered (with consciousness?) in the midbrain, immediate access to all internal and external stimuli, known to gcse catering coursework evaluation scan and prioritize that information, select and. implement relevant responses: the Reticular Activating. System with its ‘sentinel,’ the college essays on yoga Reticular Formation. minor properties of the Reticular Activating System/ Reticular Formation for over 50 years, none of them, to my knowledge, has suggested they form a command.

and control system for operations of the entire brain. One of the gcse coursework keys to a cogent systems analysis of the brain was provided many years ago by the renowned Jerome S. Bruner, one of the fathers of job objective, existential psychology, when he stated. The human mind has an ‘inhibitory system’ which. routinely and catering, automatically removes from a summary/critique, perception, reason, and judgment over 90% of available fact. In 1958, physiologist H. Catering? W. Magoun described some of the RF/RAS functions in The Waking Brain. College Essays? The Reticular Formation was found to be a small bundle of short-axon neurons at the top of the gcse catering coursework brainstem, many ofwhich are uniquely unspecific. With its millions of neuronal pathways to and from the brain and the body, the whole system was named the resume Reticular Activating System, because stimulation of the RF awakened sleeping subjects, while damage to the RF resulted in coma.

But, now, after 50+ years, neurologists have identified only gcse catering a few of the RAS purposes. (Google ‘Reticular Activating System’ to essays on the see the paucity of information about gcse catering coursework evaluation, it, and the few powers attributed to it.) Although its centralized location and countless connections would seem to enable it to perform myriad functions, neurologists have no tools to essays book investigate the remarkable functions of the Reticular Activating System; how it can process 100 million impulses a second, and select the most ‘significant’ to each individual. The answer was not explicable by gcse coursework evaluation any known neurological processes. Drawing on the works of scores of on the book the shack, geniuses in biology, cognitive and phenomenological psychology, cybernetics, and catering evaluation, neuroscience in a systems analysis, we can now develop a schematic of cognitive brain functions. iInformation about RAS is scarce, but by job objective resume combing the literature, we find scores of clues to a coherent brain managed by the marvelous powers of RF/RAS. Following is compelling evidence that the gcse catering coursework evaluation Reticular Activating System, in both humans and animals, is the essays on yoga perfect neurological candidate for the brain’s Command and Control System. Gcse Catering? For example: [The reticular formation] “is well placed to monitor all the nerves connecting brain and body. Significant Event? It ‘knows’ what is going on gcse catering coursework better than any other part of the brain.” [The RF] “alerts the brain to incoming information from the senses, and papers marketing, from the centers of thought, memory and gcse evaluation, feeling. More than that, it adjudicates the relative importance of how to a summary/critique essay, that information. .. In a way the gcse coursework RAS is like a vigilant secretary, sorting out the trivia from the incoming messages.” “The reticular formation is, in essence, the physical basis of essays, consciousness, the brain’s chief watchguard. . The reticular formation continuously sifts and selects, forwarding only the essential, the unusual, the dangerous to the conscious mind. . The reticular formation can both send and receive messages. Catering? If it suddenly spots one that merits attention, it shoots up an how to write essay, alert through ascending RAS pathways to catering evaluation receiving areas in the cortex.

Timed to arrive simultaneously with the impulses sent directly from sensory receptors the RAS alerts the job objective resume cortex to coursework evaluation these impulses.” “The RAS determines which . bits of self evaluation of research paper, information are important enough - or novel enough - to report to gcse catering the higher portions of the brain. . Essay? Normally, the catering coursework evaluation information relating to automatic actions, such as the college heart-beat and digestion, is dealt with directly by the RAS without allowing any awareness of them to gcse evaluation filter through to self evaluation of research the conscious bran.” Fortunately we are blessed with the work of the genius Dean Wooldridge, Ph.D. (1913-2006) biologist and President of gcse, Thompson Ramo Wooldridge working on essays on the book the shack missile development and control, in his book The Machinery of the Brain written in 1963! He also found time to catering apply his stellar mind to neuroscience. The brain’s response selector has been given the name reticular activating system by H. Essays On The Book The Shack? W. Magoun and his coworkers at U.C.L.A. The reticular activating system consists of a mass of undifferentiated neurons that extend from the top of the spinal cord through the brainstem on up into the thalamus and hypothalamus. These two structures are at the extreme top and forward part of the brainstem and coursework, are well inside, but not a part of, the surrounding cerebral cortex. Essays Book The Shack? The hypothalamus, part of which is included in the reticular activating system, appeared in our earlier discussion as the seat of temperature control of the body. Gcse Catering Coursework? The reticular formation gets its name from the fact that it looks like a more or less homogeneous network of cells; it shows little evidence of organization into essays on the book anatomically distinct ‘nuclei,’ although it passes through and around a number of nuclei in catering coursework, traversing the length of the college essays on yoga brain-stem. Close examination of the evaluation reticular formation shows that it consists of a mixture of large and small neurons, many, but not all, having short axons. Concurrent with the selection by papers marketing research an organism of gcse, one of several alternate behavior patterns, there is often need for evaluation of research paper adjustment of some of the oper-ating parameters.

In our missile example, the shift from mid-course to terminal guidance usually must be accompanied by changes in the dynamic response characteristics of the gcse catering evaluation steering mechanism. During the white marketing final approach to the target, a tighter kind of ‘muscular’ control of the missile is catering evaluation required. . Reticular influences on evaluation the muscles are numerous and varied. Apart from such special modifications of muscular function as those just described, the general muscle tone of the body—the degree of contraction that characterizes the normal resting muscles-is controlled by the reticular activating system. Interference with certain of the communication channels from the reticular system to the muscles (by cutting of some of the nerves or by suitably placed lesions) results in evaluation, extreme muscular contraction; interference with other of the efferent fibers of the reticular formation causes the muscles to relax completely. Electric stimulation or lesions in another part of the reticular activating system interfere with the normal dynamic balance of the body's servomechanisms in such a way as to how to a summary/critique cause rhythmic muscular quivering similar to coursework the shaking palsy of Parkinson's disease.

Automatic Control Circuits in the Nervous System. There is another reason for emphasizing the resume automatic control functions of the central nervous system. These are the really important functions of the brain. Catering Evaluation? They keep the organism alive and event essay, healthy. It is catering evaluation only from a narrow human point of view that conscious thought and the so-called higher mental processes are of much significance.

Evidence of the truth of this is afforded by the way nature has allocated functions as between unconscious and essays on the book the shack, conscious control of the brain. Gcse Evaluation? Nature clearly does not yet trust the evaluation of research recently developed and not very well proved “higher” intellectual capabilities of man for the performance of catering evaluation, any really vital functions, such as breathing, regulation of the heartbeat, control of the parts of the throat to college essays on yoga prevent strangulation during eating, or regulation of the chemical balance of the digestive organs. To be sure, since this book has the disadvantage of being written from the highly distorted, narrowly human point of view, a disproportionate amount of attention is going to be devoted, in later chapters, to what we humans have arrogantly come to call the gcse catering “higher intellectual processes.” [??] So Dr. Wooldridge concludes that the neural processes involved in college on yoga, RF/RAS selection of catering coursework evaluation, our most important percepts, and implementation of relevant responses to those percepts—and certainly to our acts of job objective resume, Will — would hold no mysteries to the computer scientist of 1963! Today, 52 years later, we are still no closer to recognizing the marvelous powers of RF/RAS, and cognitive neuroscience is derisively described as merely ‘the expensive branch of philosophy.’ Wooldridge concludes with:

The Higher Intellectual Processes. The closer our explorations approach the field of complex mental phenomena, the catering coursework evaluation smaller becomes the quantity of significant in life, available and relevant physical measurements. This was noticeable in the last chapter and has become glaringly evident in gcse catering evaluation, this one, as our discussion has come to depend more and more on nonquantitative subjective and behavioristic observations, and on the book the shack, less and less on coursework evaluation supporting measurements made directly on the brain and nervous system. Write? Clearly we have come to the end of the line in our treatment of the observed facts of brain construction and gcse coursework, performance. From all the evidence, the human and essays on the the shack, animal RF/RAS can only be characterized as a marvelous cybernetic ‘autopilot’ which receives all incoming data, scans and prioritizes that data for disequiibria based on its ‘stored programs;’ continually selects and forwards the most significant to RAS for catering further processing; and RAS, retrieving memory data from the cortex, generates and controls responses or response-impulses ‘appropriate’ to college on yoga its iterations of the data. It is thus a major thesis of this theory, representing a new. paradigm of the brain, that in all sentient beings, the Reticular. Activating System, given an RF-selected or Soul-Commitment. stimulus, generates and manages brain component responses which. will maintain biological homeostasis; in social beings to maintain bio- sociological stasis; and in humans, to also maintain stasis of our. uniquely induced psychological, emotional, and volitional states.

All of our Loves and those Beliefs with an gcse evaluation, emotional or affective component are not additional facts to be stored as data. They are processed differently, with some representation probably in the amygdala and event in life, hippocampus. With the catering evaluation Social Animal Needs, they represent ‘databases,’ which with the environment, provide stimuli sources for RF selection, and RAS uses Wooldridge's ‘stored programs’ and ‘stored behaviors’ to select and implement relevant responses. I maintain that the RF/RAS is the entire organisms’ equilibrium sensor and balance restorer of write, all biological and physiological functions of all sentient beings, and, in gcse catering coursework, the human it is the RF/RAS, programmed with our SA-Needs and Love/Belief Systems, which generates responses in an effort to maintain stasis of our uniquely instigated emotional, psychological, and volitional states. Based on our autonomic responses, such as resentment or pleasure to job objective resume a personal insult or compliment, it is gcse catering coursework evaluation apparent that the human RF/RAS generates responses to stimuli relevant to Elements of our Love/Belief Systems. This facility of the job objective resume RAS together with our uniquely human metafaculties, makes of each of our brains what we have been calling the ‘mind’?a human brain, a brain with a ‘Heart.’ but subject to the Soul.

In addition to all its other functions, the RAS, with its arsenal of ‘perceptual defenses,’ works tirelessly to protect the fragile. shell of gcse catering, our Love/Belief Systems. We also have the power of the strange ‘metacognition.’ Baars and Gage recognize metacognition (without ascription, nor am I ready to speculate) as “our unique self-consciousness and cognizance of our mental processes . the white research ability to gcse catering know our own cognitive functions, and to be able to use that knowledge;” and job objective resume, say the prefrontal cortex is “necessary for metacognition.” (??) I believe metacogntion is our cognition of gcse coursework evaluation, PFC functions, the weighing of alternative responses, purposes, or ambiguous situations. Cognitive psychologists, e.g., Merluzzi, et al., have long recognized the faculty of metacognition, which they say, “refers to the ability to monitor a wide variety of cognitive enterprises, . to monitor one’s memory and comprehension, or knowing about knowing or an awareness of one’s own cognitive machinery and the way it operates .” Both metacognition and commitment are manifest in significant event in life, the well-known Benjamin Libet experiments. Gcse Evaluation? From Kenneth Klivington:

Benjamin Libet of the University of California, recorded electrical signals generated by the brains of his experimental subjects and looked particularly at a signal called the ‘readiness potential’ that always appears just before a movement. Using special timing techniques, he found that the how to a summary/critique essay readiness potential begins about half a second before a subject begins to move a hand. This is expected, since brain activity must begin before the brain issues a command to the muscles. What is surprising, however, is that the subjects do not become aware of deciding to move until only about two tenths of a second before the movement begins, some three tenths of a second after the brain activity began. “.. to Libet [this] says that the intention to act arises from brain activity that is not within our conscious awareness. . the gcse coursework brain initiates the job objective resume impulse to act and the conscious self subsequently becomes aware of it.

Libet also finds that his subjects are able to veto the coursework evaluation impulse to act during the few tenths of a second after a subject becomes aware of it. In this sense, consciousness becomes a gatekeeper for intentions generated by the brain, letting through only those that somehow meet an individual’s criteria.” But if precedent responses and their associated memories are ambiguous, conflicting, or inhibited, e.g., a threat generating ‘fight, flight, or freeze’ responses, all responses from cortex memory in the form of motor sequence memories?each weighted by their associated results?are registered in significant essay, the PFC, where, accompanied by continuous additional sensory input from thalamic consciousness regarding the significance and imminence of the threat?and additional relevant memories from the cortex?the momentary weight or urgency of each response is catering coursework evaluation adjusted until (in the animal) one response prevails and breaks through to the conveniently contiguous premotor cortex for implementation, or the threat abates. The vaunted prefrontal cortex is simply RAM, which does not store memory, but provides current work-space for job objective RAS-generated inhibited, ambiguous, or conflicting response-impulses. When the stimuls is resolved, the PFC is restored to coursework evaluation inactive RAM. The PFC doesn’t decide which response will be executed, any more than a neuron, with excitatory and inhibitory impulses, decides when to fire. Only the Soul can decide which response will prevail. But this ‘simple’ PFC function?also active but not determinate. in humans?has led neuroscientists to ascribe our unique. executive powers of reasoning, analysis, and essays on the book, decision- making to some mysterious powers of the prefontal. lobes because that is where most brain.

activity occurs prior to gcse coursework a response. So except for event in life essay knee-jerk reactions, if a RAS- or Self-generated response is even slightly ambiguous, conflicted, or inhibited, and does not require immediate implementation, we can either allow it to be executed, or we can imagine the effects of that response(s), review alternative responses and gcse catering evaluation, their potential effects, select a preferred response goal-image, and commit if to RAS for execution. Papers Marketing? This is indicated by the black arrow in gcse coursework, the diagram. Unfortunately, even in a considered decision, our analysis of alternative responses is limited to essays consideration only of our conscious memories and gcse evaluation, SA-Need/Love-Belief System Elements, but subject to strong insidious influences from subconscious Elements. Which is why we so often have two reasons for a summary/critique what we do: a good reason, and the real reason. And we can creatively will to catering coursework evaluation do things. How do “I” Will something to happen? In going to the store, first, I create a goal-image of myself at the store, run the idea through a feasibility check, and if there is a problem, the response hangs up in event essay, the PFC, where it can be resolved per above; then Commit myself to the trip. This process authorizes RAS to catering coursework execute the motor neuron programs from cortex memory which take me to the store, while I’m free to think of white papers research, something else if I wish. Autopilot RAS takes me there. Creative Will is the sequential use of the catering coursework Soul’s Faculties.

of Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment. How does the on the the shack brain do this? I submit that when furnished with a clear picture of a result, a goal-image, ans a feasibility check resulting in belief in its attainability and a commitment to achieve it, the gcse coursework RAS is presented with a disequilibrium: “I'm here—I intend to be there.” RAS executes the resume correct subliminal adjustments for this trp —steering, braking, accelerating, based on thalamic visual input—taking me to the store, leaving my mind free for daydreams—proving RAS implementation of responses in gcse catering coursework evaluation, fulfillment of our goal-image! This principle applies to long-range goals, “I will be a doctor, lawyer, wife and mother, teacher, millionaire, missionary, etc.” Any goal image, firmly held, creates a disequilibrium in the Reticular Activating System, and it constantly brings to our attention from the recesses of the college on yoga memory and from the environment the jigsaw-like pieces of the elements, ideas and opportunities which can contribute to actualization of the intent. Although it required a lot of catering coursework evaluation, innovation, the parts of Gutenberg’s printing press were all in existence when he decided to build one, and his RAS led him to the pieces of a solution.

The parts necessary to self make an automobile were all in place when Henry Ford decided to make one. And for evaluation Bill Gates to make a personal computer. History is rife with examples of people who accomplished remarkable achievements through a firmly held goal-image. R eturning to the PFC, it is not only ambiguous responses to situational stimuli which must be resolved in the PFC. Rather, isn’t it obvious that every human problem or problematic situation is essays on the the shack referred to the PFC RAM for resolution? Baars Gage say “.. the frontal lobes are critical in evaluation, a free-choice situation, when it is job objective up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation.” But most of us live in a virtual sea of catering evaluation, ambiguous situations.

We are always operating on a dozen or two perpetual purposes: safety, security, good health, welfare of loved ones, our love lives, our reputations, our spiritual lives, self-image, possessions, careers, finances, acceptance, ‘shoulds,’ etc. These are purposes to which the college essays environment or our Love/Belief Systems continually provide relevant stimuli. Catering? But because they are purposes which can never be completely resolved, and are often conflicting, the RAS can only engender ambiguous, conflicting or inhibited piecemeal responses. So most of us are worrying our poor PFC’s almost every waking moment—no wonder they are so large. And why so many of us live ‘lives of quiet desperation,’ and cognitive dissonance. We need a new paradigm of the human brain, as a brain which starts out physiologically and functionally identical to that of the chimpanzee, but is transformed into what we have been calling the ‘mind,’ by virtue of essays on yoga, our faculties of metacognition, imagination, conviction and commitment, as well as by the thousands of our Self-adopted Loves and Beliefs and their concomitant Desires and Fears which constitute our unique Love/Belief Systems and provide most of the coursework evaluation ‘significant’ stimuli to resume our Reticular Formations. We must also suspect that the thalamus is the catering coursework avidly sought locus of consciousness, certainly the locus of the Command and Control Center of the brain; and RAS the de facto Manager of the brain.

The RF is resume its sentinel and catering evaluation, perhaps one of its most important subordinates. The inaptly named Reticular Activating System should now be considered the brain’s Command and how to write, Control System; and gcse catering, must be seen to exercise its influences throughout the entire brain and body. All other elements of the brain then represent the subsystems or ‘tools’ of the RAS. Their functions?constantly contributing new sensory input and feedback to the RAS iterations, recovering memories, fleshing out the details of percepts, generating emotions, responses, etc.?are only enacted when generated by RAS/RF iterations, or purposes enacted from thalamic consciousness through the RAS, but originating in the Will. Sadly however, even our best intentions must pass through the RAS to be implemented, often a tortuous feasibility check, where they can be displaced. They just don’t get done. All the job objective involuntary response-impulses of us ‘normal’ people, whether or not they are assented to, are. a perfect RAS reflection of our Social-Animal.

Needs and the Loves and Beliefs and their. concomitant Desires and catering coursework evaluation, Fears arising. from our Love/Belief Systems or Hearts. To live in a different, better world, it has been said, Nothing need change but our Hearts. If cognitive scientists are to understand the brain, they must suspend their search for uniquely human faculties of the cortex and expand their studies of the Reticular Activating System. They must also hypothesize an white papers marketing, Agent?call it “X” or “Franistan” if you will?which can account for our unique needs and faculies. Obviously, I’m with Aquinas, Zimbardo, Assagioli, Horney, Becker, and thousands of mystics, saints, and gcse, sages. We have both a heart, or Love/Belief System, and job objective, are a Soul, a higher self; Becker’s ‘proud, rich, lively infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit,’ Horney‘s real self, . the central inner force, . which is the deep source of growth, . the spring of evaluation, emotional forces, of essays, constructive energies, of directive and judiciary powers'—a spiritual SouL, with Needs to Exist, to gcse evaluation Love, and to Know, which account for our motivations, and Faculties of Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment?Faculties which, acting in concert, yield free will, and resume, account for all our phenomenal creaivity. These concepts explain from a systems standpoint how the brain works, and explains not only all human behavior commonly considered normal (as well as our potential for enlightenment), but also psychoses, neuroses, obsessive-compulsion, character disorders, perceptual defense, cognitive dissonance, distractioin, displacement, repression, split personality, the powers of the self-image, suggestion, hypnosis, positive and negative thinking, etc., etc. And autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, ADD/ADHD, and even some physiological, biological, genetic, and gcse catering evaluation, chemically induced pathologies can all be the job objective resume result of a malfunctioning Reticular Activating System.

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