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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Topic! This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in childhood vaccinations, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and essay, other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the research of business, peculiarities of topic, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to essay misunderstanding, reply it in animation topic, all of essay vaccinations, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.
Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Essay Topic! The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is dissertation in italian, followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is essay animation topic, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the california of the arts, whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and essay, mention the methodology used to childhood vaccinations, achieve them. Animation Topic! Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Dissertation! In-text references . Topic! The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.
APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of dissertation in italian, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Animation Topic! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the research of business, word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in essay topic, case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it.
Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Of Business! Thus use different heading styles for headings of essay animation topic, sections and writing, subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and essay, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to essay, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to animation topic, keep in mind: double spaced; have all the research papers risk, margins set to essay animation, one inch; it’s recommended to use the research papers on management of business, font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for topic any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Biggest Misunderstanding! Your essay will come to you in essay animation, the APA format with a free bibliography and research papers of business risk, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.
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Within 10 minutes, you can be out essay topic having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on golding essay time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of essay animation, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.
Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). Essay! In-text references are put in essay, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in childhood, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to essay topic, the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Paper! E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the essay animation, man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
2. If you are quoting the source or bring in risk, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in animation, your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of essay, publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is essay topic, no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924).
4. Golding Essay! Multiple authors reference . If the source is essay, written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of golding essay, all of them, at essay, least in the first reference within the in italian, essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an essay animation organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the golding essay, mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in topic, the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication).
Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of on management, article. Title of essay animation, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on research on management of business the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for animation succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on research papers on management risk font, punctuation and essay, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Research On Management! Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the animation topic, main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at golding essay, the top of the page next to the page number. Animation Topic! A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. Dissertation In Italian! APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and topic, write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and institute, the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on essay animation abbreviations, tables and paper, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the essay, page. What to remember with the golding essay, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to topic, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is dissertation, entirely designed to topic, structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in golding essay, cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is essay animation topic, considered a critical part of the pay for writing a research paper, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism.
In an academe, plagiarism is essay, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the essay biggest misunderstanding, APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and animation topic, result-oriented essay help.
The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Narrative! Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for essay animation topic each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for golding essay all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the animation, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level.
What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Essay Childhood! Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. Animation Topic! APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the golding essay, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the essay animation, APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the essay vaccinations, whole essay.
P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Essay Animation! The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for golding essay your APA college essay format .
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mary white essay An Introduction to the 1950s Textiles of Mary White. .they made thousands of people discontented with the run of the mill conventional designs; they opened the eyes of a new generation to the possibilities of colour and pattern. few of us would really go back to essay animation topic, the old stereotyped flower pieces and stale Jacobean prints. We have tasted something fresher and the taste is still with us. This essay has come about because of a chance jumble sale purchase of a pair of california institute writing, curtains that I instinctively knew dated from the 1950s. They stood out essay as being something fresher and unlike many curtains that bear no identifying marks, the narrative biggest misunderstanding, selvedge of these stated Cottage Garden by Mary White. [see Illustration 1] Great Britain is privileged to have had, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, for almost one hundred and fifty years, a repository of information for the study of essay animation, decorative arts and design. Golding Essay! It came as no surprise then, to discover that the textile department at the V A held several examples of furnishing fabrics by Mary White and that the National Art Library, housed in the V A, held a ?Mary White? information file. However, consultation of this information file revealed that the essay animation, person concerned was a ceramicist and calligrapher, rather than a textile designer. Research Papers Of Business Risk! What emerged as a result of essay animation topic, preliminary enquiries, about childhood Mary White, was the paucity of information about lesser known designers, in particular, women. Much work has been done in recent years to rescue women in essay animation topic the design world from either anonymity or the shadow cast over them by golding essay male designers to animation topic, whom they were quite often related or married.
Authors such as Isabelle Anscombe, and research papers Judy Attfield and Pat Kirkham have done much to ?rescue? designers such as Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh and Marion Dorn from the patriarchal shield of their male partners. However, it would appear that even those female designers, from the nineteen fifties, whose names are still recognised today, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, are the animation, ones who have a close connection to a male designer. Institute Of The Mfa Creative! The question that emerges is animation whether Mary?s White?s anonymity is due to her lack of connections in the design world, her inability to design more than a few textiles of in italian, any merit or whether other factors caused her to remove herself from the world of textile design and thus caused her absence from the visible history of essay animation, twentieth century textile design. References to Mary White appear to occur only between the years 1953 and 1956. California Institute Of The Arts Mfa Creative! Eleven designs, by five different manufacturers were identified as being by essay topic her, either from textiles in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London and The Whitworth Gallery, Manchester or from contemporary 1950s press reports. Six of these fabrics were produced by Heals, two for dissertation, Edinburgh Weavers and one each for Libertys, David Whitehead and Turnbull Stockdale. The Circulating Department of the essay animation, Victoria and Albert Museum collected fabrics by her from the dates 1953-1956, the earliest being Ambleside dated 1953 and made for Heals and the latest in their collection being: Cottage Garden; Oberon; Bizarre all collected in 1956. Although newspaper articles in 1955 refer to her as Mary White M.S.I.A (Member of the Society of Industrial Artists) there is no reference made to her in Designers In Britain: Index to Designers published by Allan Wingate and the Society of pay for writing a research paper, Industrial Artists. Cottage Garden was clearly by a competent designer and yet, other than the contemporary reports and a few samples of her textiles in two design archives, there appeared to be no record of her existence as a designer. In an article in the Bristol Evening World of animation topic, 29 March 1955, discussing the Furnishing Fabrics Exhibition at research of business risk Hamilton House, Piccadilly, London, three designers were mentioned by name: ?A much-admired printed satin in muted shades of grey, beige and black is designed by Lucienne Day.
Mary White contributes a print of formal leaves in animation topic white, black and pay for green against essay animation a background of golding essay, irregular rectangles in essay animation varying shades of essay misunderstanding, green and tan. Marianne Straub is responsible for a new green upholstery cloth with a ?Terylene? surface finish.? The design written about in this press cutting is not Cottage Garden, the Mary White design most mentioned in the press, and yet White is mentioned in the same paragraph as two extremely famous designers from the mid twentieth century. This fact would lead one to animation, suppose that she made a significant contribution to design in the 1950s, whether it be at the top end of the market, like Lucienne Day , as the main designer for a company, like Marianne Straub, or on a more mundane level, providing designs for the mass market. With a birth date of 1930 it seemed imperative to biggest misunderstanding, discover more about this designer before any trace of her existence was obliterated. Having exhausted design sources for information about White, a more personal approach was taken. Using information about her county of residence in 1955, it was decided that White should be looked for as a person rather than as a designer. This approach proved successful and eventually White was located living not far from where she had been born, grew up and essay animation trained as a designer. Mfa Creative! This information may appear to be irrelevant, but it should be noted that many well-known women designers seem to have at least gravitated towards a capital city, for example Lucienne Day who had trained at Croydon Art College and therefore was already in animation the Greater London area before she went on narrative essay, to the essay, Royal College of Art. Other women designers such as Jacqueline Groag moved from one country to another to pursue their careers..
For example Jacqueline Groag, born Hilde Blumberger, studied in Vienna in dissertation in italian the 1920s under Josef Hoffmann and Frank Cizek at topic the Kunstwerbeschule. Later she designed for the Wiener Werstätte and in 1929 worked in essay childhood vaccinations Paris designing fabrics for internationally known couturiers. Although White entered the essay topic, world of freelance designing straight from narrative, art school, she never moved away from the Isle of animation topic, Thanet, a promontory forming the north-east extremity of Kent with an area of approximately five square miles. Even Canterbury School of Art and essay childhood vaccinations Crafts that White attended for one year is only approximately fifteen miles from Margate.The fact that she remained based away from any large city, national or international, may well have affected her exposure in the design world. The vast majority of information used in this essay has been acquired through interviews with Mary White and with her husband Claude Dening. Essay! This has been carefully augmented by documents, photographs, textile samples and other materials in Mary White?s personal archive. These items include: design records, many of which are supported by photographs; her design registers; sales records for each textile firm in London and Manchester; account books which include details of golding essay, receipts for designs sold; enlarged photographs of selected textile designs; two archive storage boxes of fabric samples of Mary White designs; a photograph album of essay animation, ceramic decoration carried out for Thanet Pottery; framed examples of flower paintings; specimens of biggest misunderstanding, large decorated ceramic bowls and animation other items; a photograph of essay vaccinations, Mary White as a potter in the ?Thanet at School? book; a photograph of a Mary White textile design in ?How to Furnish Your Home? by Gordon Russell; her curriculum vitae; papers relating to animation, her election to a research paper, the Society of Industrial Artists; ceramic price lists. Her gracious loan to me of this valuable contemporary material has allowed me to fully explore her designs and working practices, thus gaining a wider view of her work than would have been possible from the limited published sources and small number of textile samples available in design institutions. Animation! Close contact with Claude Dening, most especially via email, has ensured that any questions, arising during the inspection of the materials were directly addressed and resolved.
Chapter one will provide biographical and educational details about Mary White. Chapter two will consider some Mary White designs that are available in public repositories. Essay Misunderstanding! Chapter three will go some way to serving the purpose of a catalogue raisonné by looking at visual and sales evidence of her total output as a freelance designer. Chapter four will seek to set her in animation topic context and compare her working practices with those of other designers. It should thus be possible to offer some explanation as to papers of business risk, White?s lack of visibility in the design history of the twentieth century.
At the topic, very least, this essay seeks to bring Mary White to the attention of those who have an interest in mid-twentieth century design and allow her work to be considered alongside those whose names are already known. Interviews with both Mary White and Claude Dening revealed the institute, family and social background of Mary White. She was born as Mary Lilian White, the daughter and topic granddaughter of wholesale nurserymen, on 22nd January 1930 in Margate, Kent. The family business had several quite extensive sites, employed a foreman and of the mfa creative several workers and according to essay animation, Mary White had she ?been a boy, she would have gone into a research the business. Mary made it clear early that her objective was a School of Art ?. Claude Dening explained that she initially attended Canterbury School of Art Crafts at the age of animation topic, fourteen in 1944, transferring to Thanet School of Art Crafts, in Margate, when it reopened after the war in 1945. She remained there until 1950, obtaining the National Diploma in Design (Fabric Printing) in 1949 and golding essay the National Diploma in Design (Pottery) in 1950. [Illustration 2 shows Mary White at essay Thanet School of dissertation, Art and topic Crafts in 1950]. ?Thanet at School?, a book in golding essay Mary White?s library, that was published for Thanet Education Week in 1950, explains how in East Kent, the Canterbury College of Art and Crafts served as a regional centre for a group of art schools: Thanet School of Art and Crafts was one of the schools amongst these. The combined facilities of these schools, with advanced and specialized subjects concentrated in essay Canterbury, enabled students to achieve the highest qualifications in art and arts industrial design. Free entrance for those under eighteen was by examination with grants towards travelling expenses and maintenance made by Kent Education Committee in appropriate cases: White was one such case.
Claude Dening explained that Mary received a grant because her father had died in 1944, leaving her mother with four children to essay animation topic, support. Dissertation In Italian! Courses of full-time art education at the school led to annual examinations by Kent County Examinations Board, the City and Guilds of London Institute and the Ministry of Education. Essay Topic! Students who gained the School Leaving Certificate were able to study for the National Diploma in Design which was recognized by the Ministry of Education as a qualification for teaching. It would appear that White benefitted directly from papers on management of business risk, Education reforms. The Ministry of Education had come into being as a result of the Butler Education Act in 1944 . The school leaving age was increased to fifteen and it was stated that children should ?be given an education appropriate to their age, abilities and aptitudes.? Claude Dening, retired Divisional Education Officer for Kent suggests that had his wife been granted a place at the Girls? Grammar school, rather than a secondary modern school : she would have been jockeyed to move on post art school to the graduate ATD [Art Teachers Diploma] course and would have finished up in teaching solely - certainly not in the precarious field of commercial textile design. Illustration 3, a photograph taken at Thanet School of Art in 1948, suggests that an overwhelming majority of students were female.
This should come as no surprise in light of a pamphlet entitled ?Further Education: The Scope and essay animation the Content of its Opportunities under the Education Act of 1944. Golding Essay! In this publication it was suggested that local education authorities should encourage ?women?s specialised interests? which in accordance with the hegemony of the day believed that the main goal of women?s education was to fit them for their roles as wives and mothers. White?s attendance of classes in fabric printing and animation pottery fitted in well with the advice that domestic skills should be made more attractive by the inclusion of essay biggest misunderstanding, instruction in ?repair and topic decoration to fabric and narrative furniture [and] planning good colour schemes?. when talented female students arrived to study at the Bauhaus, they soon discovered that the founder of the school, Walter Gropius, was not strictly adhering to essay topic, his original declaration of equality between men and women. In the hierarchy of art and design, it was textiles that were deemed to be ?women?s work?.
When discussing the link between femininity and embroidery, Roszicka Parker stated that: women. managed to make meanings of their own in the very medium intended to inculcate self-effacement. This may well be an issue to consider at a later dater in connection with the work of Mary White who clearly delights in the more feminine side of vaccinations, design. Despite having sold her first textile design [Illustration 4] whilst still a student, White appreciated that her two National Diplomas in Design ?gave qualified teacher status in primary, secondary and special schools.? According to her curriculum vitae, from 1950 to 1961 she taught in further education at Thanet School of Art Crafts, Dover School of Art Crafts and Canterbury College of Art whilst also pursuing a career as a freelance textile designer. Illustration 5 shows pages from a Dover School of Art and Crafts brochure for the year 1958-59; Mary White is named as a part-time pottery assistant, under her married name of M.L.Dening. It would appear that this binary existence was never considered to be a conflict of interests. Indeed an article in ?The Cabinet Maker and Complete Home Furnisher? dated 13 Mar 1955, stated that Mary White, M.S.I.A [Member of the Society of Industrial Artists] was ? a pottery teacher at essay Dover School of Art?and her designs were ?inspired probably by golding essay the garden ?full of strange plants? which she and her husband have with their bungalow on a cliff top in essay animation Kent?. In May 1955, another article, this time in ?The Houseowner? again reported that Mary White, M.S.I.A ?is 25. Narrative Essay Misunderstanding! She is married and essay animation a teacher of pottery at Dover School of Art? . Rather than attempt to conceal the fact that not all her time was taken up with designing, White openly advertised that she also taught.
1955 appears to have been the highpoint of White?s career as a textile designer, or at least the point where the press took the pay for writing paper, most interest in her. In the White archives a cutting from an unidentified newspaper, pasted onto essay topic ?Barlow Jones Limited of Manchester?, headed paper states: Arriving in Manchester on Monday with a portfolio of sketches under her arm will be Mary White, who at 25 is fast becoming one of the best-known of our young textile designers. Golding Essay! About three times a year she makes this trip to animation, Manchester to visit leading cotton firms with her latest ideas for furnishings and fabrics. ?I have been lucky? she told me. ?The first time I ventured North, feeling very nervous and just out from five years at an art school, I sold nearly all my designs. I have always been freelance because I married soon after I started designing and I find it easier to work from home.? When a woman designer is discussed, reference is often made to her marital status and research papers on management comments about her partner are considered to essay topic, be as relevant as any information about the essay, designer or her designs. However problematic this method of discussing a female designer may be, in the case of White it is revealing. Interviews with both Mary White and Claude Dening suggested that White?s family life greatly influenced the length of time that she worked in textile design and animation even had a bearing on her moving from textile design to pottery. In effect, White was active in textile design for less than a decade.
Had she lived in a textile producing area, such as Lancashire her career may well have been prolonged and she would possibly have had the opportunity to become an in-house designer. When interviewed, she stated that the main reason for ceasing to work as a freelance designer was the difficulty of combining family life with ?lugging a huge portfolio up to London and Manchester? . Further education teaching in research papers on management of business the evenings provided a good income for a growing family and White?s personal creativity was satisfied by the work that she did with her brother, David White, in their business Thanet Pottery Ltd, first located at Westwood, Margate, Kent, and from 1961 at Broadstairs, Kent. This business could be used as a paradigm to demonstrate what patriarchal design historians consider to be the polemical split between the male and female conceptions of design for during interviews with Mary White and Claude Dening it was suggested that David?s prime concern was shape and essay topic texture, whilst Mary?s specialisation was surface decoration. Initially this suggestion is writing acceptable, particularly when one considers that Mary White was already well-established in textile design, a traditionally female area. However, in her book on potters and paintresses, Cheryl Buckley puts forward a case that: The ground-rules of history which define the essay animation topic, criteria for the selection, classification and prioritisation of types of design, categories of designers, distinct styles and periods and different modes of production are shaped within patriarchy. Buckley debates the meaning of dissertation, patriarchy and rejects the idea that it is a ?universal and trans-historical form of oppression? in favour of Griselda Pollock?s definition: Patriarchy does not refer to the static, oppressive domination of one sex over another, but a web of psycho-social relationships which institute a socially significant difference on animation, the axis of sex which is golding essay so deeply located in animation topic our very sense of essay childhood, lived, sexual identity that it appears to us as natural and unalterable. Revealingly, when questioned, Mary White said that as a young girl, her ambition had been to be a painter. Reflecting this ambition, White?s designs are distinctly two-dimensional. However, this should in essay animation no way suggest that she lacks understanding of the underlying structure of the plants and flowers on which she bases her designs.
Indeed, account books show that she embarked on personal expeditions to particular areas of Kent to sketch plants upon which she had decided to base a design. For example on 7 August 1950 she cycled to Minnis Bay and Birchington to gather seaweed and other seashore specimens and on 11 February 1950 she went to california of the, Cliffsend, Ramsgate again for seashore materials, entering in animation her accounts 1s 6d for refreshments and 1s for bus fares. Biggest Misunderstanding! and on 2 June 1951 she made a visit [to] the animation, salt water marshes at Faversham and Seasalter for special saltwater plants, marsh samphire, annual seablite? . She also purchased scientific and botanical books, such as ?A Botanical Register? dated 1825 and ?Elements of Conchology?, to golding essay, aid her in her understanding of the structure of the plants and other natural materials that she drew. These books remain in her library today. A note in accounts for 1955 shows that she also borrowed biological and zoological books from the University of London. Even in retirement, White?s books are meticulously arranged according to subject matter and a catalogue maintained: this facilitates the finding of a particular book. Animation Topic! Books on the shelves include: fine art; peasant art; non-European mythology; V A Museum publications; gardening; horticultural; botanical; biological subjects. By far the childhood, largest category of books relate to horticulture. Therefore it come as no surprise that the vast majority, if not all, of White?s designs are based on plants or flowers.
DESIGNS ON VIEW. Of fourteen contemporary references to Mary White, in such diverse publications as ?Farmer and Stock Breeder?, ?The Hospital? and ?The Ceylon Observer? as well as the expected trade publications, six were of her design Cottage Garden. This would appear to be one of White?s most successful designs. It was made available by Heals, in 1955, at a price of 10s 9d per yard, coming onto the market at a time when a greater number of topic, people than ever were accepting ?contemporary? design. On 23 March 1955, the Liverpool Daily Post reported: The past two years have seen a furnishing fabric revolution - not in the fabrics themselves, for there were abstract and ultra-modern designs about before the war, but in the demand for them. The fact is institute arts people can now appreciate fabric patterns which don?t look ?like? anything, but which make a surface pleasing and restful to the eye, expressed in colours that are soft and topic unexpected. But most of the contemporary fabrics people are buying now, do take recognisable objects - single flowers, or leaves, or perhaps animals - and writing paper arrange them in more or less geometric patterns?. Cottage Garden does indeed utilise recognisable shapes: one of the main design elements is floral, an ever-popular design motif in England.
In Cottage Garden, White has managed to move away from essay topic, a purely representational style, evident in some of her earlier designs, such as Zinnias, Design No.164, (Illustration 21a), sold to Heals, and Design No. 255 (Fig.1a) sold to Warners. California Institute Of The Mfa Creative Writing! In Cottage Garden, White has analysed the essay, structure and writing form of the plants that she uses in ther design, yet for all that they are instantly recognisable as garden plants. Furnishing World also considered Cottage Garden to be a worthwhile design: The phrase ?floral cottons? conjures up a picture to many people of the topic, duller, bread-and-butter designs in this fibre. Nothing could be further from the truth, when floral cottons from the 1955 ranges are viewed by essay the buyer. Essay Animation! Three of these garden-inspired fabrics are illustrated here. California Of The Writing! Each is essay individual - one is very contemporary in style - and golding essay all are attractive and essay easy to live with. From this year?s new range of roller-printed cottons by Heal?s Wholesale and Exports Ltd., we have selected ?Cottage Garden? designed by Mary White. This design is contemporary in feeling, but the gay, dancing movement of the stylised flowers gives it a softness infrequently seen in the more advanced furnishing fabrics.
It is a 48-inch cloth available in blue/grey/lime; wine/grey/lime; green/grey/tan; sage/grey/yellow; grey/yellow/red; and brown/fawn/coral. This design was so successful that it was mentioned in california institute of the writing an article in The Hospital in November 1955. The article discussed an essay animation topic, exhibition of cotton fabrics that ran from 12th to writing, 19th October 1955 at the Building Centre, Store Street, London WC1: There were more than 100 cotton furnishing fabrics on essay animation topic, display selected from research of business, current ranges which are now, or are shortly to be available in leading stores throughout the country. The article explained how not all designs are suitable for topic, the hospital environment: In an exhibition of contemporary fabrics, many of them are ruled out for hospitals because the colours used tend to be over stimulating and golding essay even startling.
There were however some restful and unobtrusive designs among the fabrics displayed. Animation! From among the range of curtains on display the following were noted of pay for paper, interest for hospital furnishing schemes:- . Essay Topic! HEAL?s ?Cottage Garden? No.WE.1015 which had a large leafy contemporary design and was a roller-printed cotton in yellow-green with soft olive and tan on a white ground. Cottage Garden (Illustration 1) consists of a design printed onto 48 inch wide white cotton. The pattern is printed in childhood five colours, one of which is black. The design is animation topic simple and ?clean? consisting of background areas of coloured, abstract leaf shapes, superimposed with black outlines of flower parts. The design would appear to be typical of the 1950s in its simplicity, freshness and use of white background. The design has strong vertical movement created by the individual elements of the design being several times longer than their width. This, coupled with the vertical axis of golding essay, each element being slightly off-centre, is ideally suited to curtains that are likely to be hung in a modern domestic interior with large windows.
The dimensions and placing of the individual elements, suggest the folds of hanging curtains being moved by a light breeze. Coppice (Illustration 6) produced by Heals in 1954 produces a similar effect. In this design, however, the ground is less white, being under- printed with leaves that are even more abstract, in two close tones of blue/green. White?s characteristic skeletal plant ?drawings? are executed in black and dark red. Tibor Reich, an internationally known textile designer wrote : the purpose of pattern in printed textiles should be expression of flow and rhythm which will move sympathetically with its surroundings, distribution of colour areas, and to give pure visual pleasure and tranquillity on the one hand, and interest and thrill on the other. Coppice ably meets these requirements as can be seen in the photograph that appeared in ?The Studio Year Book of essay, 1955-6.? (Illustration 7). The design of the full-length curtains, rather than detracting from the institute of the mfa creative, contemporary lines of the furniture designed for Heals by A.J.
Milne, compliments and completes the interior in just the topic, way described by Reich. Astrid Sampe, was the designer who supervised the textile studio of A/B Nordiska Kompaniet in of the Sweden and, according to Lesley Jackson: was responsible for commissioning textile designs, including the important ?Signerad Textil? (?Signed Textile?) collection by artists and architects in 1954. such as the architect Sven Markelius and Stig Lindberg, the ceramic designer. She also had strong views on the purpose of pattern: I feel that the purpose of the pattern of topic, a printed textile is to golding essay, create a clean and attractive background to human beings, and their accessories, such as furniture and lamp fittings. There are three groups of essay topic, printed textile designs: spontaneous, textures, and geometric. I think a printed pattern should be architectural. Pay For A Research! This means that the design should have a basic feeling of either horizontals or verticals or both. Essay Animation Topic! Design should be neat and precise; the broken surface of the research on management of business risk, hanging cloth will give all the necessary freedom. White?s use of regular-sized and regularly-spaced cutouts as the animation, underlying design ensures that Coppice meets Stampe?s design criteria. Essay! The effect is clean, neat, precise and has structurally commanding horizontal and vertical elements.
According to White, Coppice was probably her best-selling fabric. She recalls seeing this fabric used on television when famous people arriving in Britain were interviewed at London Airport. A letter from Mr Worthington of Heals mentions the design Coppice by name. Essay Animation Topic! He states: we have had quite a success with ?COPPICE? and I think some of papers risk, your other designs would be very suitable to print. In her Furnishing Fabric (Illustration 8) designed for David Whitehead in 1954 White?s methodology of superimposing simple black, or other dark colour, line drawings onto blocks of colour is again successful. The under-design emulates the effects of vertical folds, this time even simulating the animation, effects of writing a research, fading caused by strong sunlight. The design serves to animation topic, remind the onlooker of the narrative, underlying texture and animation substance of the woven cotton fabric onto which the design is printed. Golding Essay! In turn, the simplified rendering of the plant, Lunaria Annua (Honesty), is well-executed. Essay Topic! The strong black outlines of the childhood, plant emphasise the under-design that is printed in pale neutral tones. Lucienne Day?s Trio (Illustration 9), also available 1954-55, utilises the topic, same method of superimposing an abstracted pictorial representation over a horizontally-banded, continuous design of paler tones.
Herbert Read wrote that: The aim of the designer of dissertation, fabrics should, however, respect the nature of the material and the process of working it; a good textile is frankly fibrous in animation topic its appearance, and makes no attempt to disguise warp and weft, even in the production of ornament. White?s working practises were exemplary in narrative essay biggest misunderstanding so far as she kept meticulous records,thus it has been possible to create a spreadsheet from her index of designs, with details of those sold, who to and for how much. In some cases, a black and white photographic record was also kept. Appendix 8 is the spreadsheet that has been created using this original material, with some additions made from other notes belonging to White. Details held on the card index relate to textile designs in the period 1950 to 1958. The first numbered design was Design No: 130. This number was chosen arbitrarily in animation order to disguise the biggest misunderstanding, newness of the designer to the design world.
It was felt by essay both White and her husband, who aided her with administrative tasks, that allocating extremely low numbers to designs would advertise that she was new to freelance designing and might influence the decision to essay misunderstanding, buy or reject a design. Therefore design numbers range from 130 to 1244, a total of 1113 designs in eight years; an average of essay animation topic, 140 designs each year. Information included in the spreadsheet is in columns, from left to right: number allocated to design; whether photograph of essay childhood vaccinations, design available; whether textile sample available; name of design or comment about subject or type of design (square brackets [ ] denote comment by essay author, curly brackets denote additional note by writing designer); company design sold to; date design completed if known; date design sold; date payment received; amount of payment received for design. The table shown below sets out how many designs were completed in topic each month from research of business, April 1952 to Nov 1957 . However, It should be remembered that this table is essay only as accurate as the california institute arts mfa creative, information annotated on animation, the cards. NUMBER OF DESIGNS COMPLETED PER MONTH. This table indicates that of the pay for writing paper, 1246 designs shown in Appendix 8, completion dates are available for only 766. Although not all cards show a completion date it can still be ascertained that White completed well over one hundred designs per year.
Appendix 8 also shows one hundred and six scanned images relating to designs in the card index, for essay, which there was a photographic record, and which were sold to manufacturers by White between May 1952 and January 1958. Again it should be stressed that this information is incomplete as not all designs sold have a photographic record card. However, this appendix serves to illustrate the variety of designs created by White. Dissertation In Italian! The card index also holds photographic record cards for topic, a great many designs that were not sold. It is research papers on management risk hoped that these ?withdrawn? designs will be scanned at a future date to allow an animation, even fuller inspection and golding essay investigation into all available designs by Mary White that has not been possible at this time. It is important to emphasise that however many designs Mary White succeeded in selling, there are a great many additional designs that did not sell, but should not be overlooked in any further study of essay animation topic, her, White?s perennial love of essay childhood, drawing and essay animation producing floral subjects is narrative shown in designs such as: 255; 291; 573; 658; 815; 824; 852; 853 [see Appendix 3]. At the other end of the scale are completely abstract designs: 344; 400; 462; 524; 533; 579; 584; 849 (see Appendix 8). Nevertheless, White?s work is not polemical as in between these two extremes are designs where she has combined tried and trusted elements to create designs which are neither overtly floral nor completely geometric or abstract. Illustration 11 shows Coppice [Design No:362], and Merry-go-Round [Design No:344].
The basic underpinning of both these designs is a series of virtually identical ?cut-out? shapes. In Coppice, which has already been discussed in chapter two, White has overlaid this base with skeletal line drawings of leaves. Merry-go-Round also makes use of essay topic, another element often used by White. This element can be seen in the horizontal design based on illustrations of cells from botanical books in White?s library. In Merry-go-Round this element has been strongly defined whereas in other designs it is often subsumed beneath another overlaid pattern or linear drawing. An able demonstration of dissertation, this can be seen in Furnishing Fabric (Illustration 8) sold to David Whitehead in 1954, a fabric that has already been discussed in chapter one and Rambling [Design No:292] (Illustration 12). Similarly with the more floral designs, White reuses her repertoire of elements and motifs: she varies size, configuration and combination thus enabling an topic, almost limitless supply of designs.
For example Design No: 852, completed in June 1956 and sold to Heals, and Design No: 882, completed in September 1956, and sold to D.Whitehead, both have the plant Begonia Rex as the main design element. The size of the leaves in pay for each design varies considerably, as does the way in which the plant is combined with other elements. However individual White?s designs may be, she did not exist in a vacuum. By the time White was ten years old she was living in a country at war where textile design was low on a list of priorities, if not non-existent. Shortages of dyes, fibres and production time for other than essential war work led to restrictions influencing what could be produced: small pattern repeat size causing less wastage was a major issue in utility textile design. Once the animation, second world ended, exhibitions such as ?Britain Can Make It? in 1946 and the Festival of Britain in 1951, exposed the idea of research on management of business risk, good design to a wider public. The influence of the essay animation topic, Bauhaus, and Modernism combined with advances in science allowing nature, on a microscopic scale, to inspire artists and designers. Relaxation of austerity measures allowed international styles such as the ?New Look? to emerge in Paris in 1947. Cross-fertilisation occurred by means of increasingly popular magazines which advertised exciting new goods. Manufacturers such as David Whitehead and Heals began to promote textiles by named designers, some of whom were already known as artists. It is interesting to note that in golding essay a selection of eight curtain fabrics shown in ?How To Furnish Your Home? by Gordon Russell Alan Jarvis, published in 1953 (Illustration 14), only the fabric Rock Garden designed by Mary White for Story Co mentions the designer by essay animation name.
Even Heal?s Calyx linen bears no mention of its designer, Lucienne Day. Though White has stated that her very early ambition was to be a painter her practical nature led to the realisation that a career as a textile designer was more likely to golding essay, result in her earning her own living. From the age of fourteen, when she first attended Canterbury School of Art, she had already begun an essay, intensive course of practical study that led to becoming a commercial designer. In contrast to White, Paule Vézelay, another textile designer active in the 1950s, had a very different background and began her career as an artist. Vézelay always considered herself to have been one of the very first painters to be commissioned to design non-figurative textiles. David Whitehead was to commission artists such as John Piper and Eduardo Paolozzi in the 1950s but Vézelay always maintained that she was in the vanguard of such activity. By the 1950s Vézelay?s private income was insufficient to support her: in the nineteen fifties and beyond, she had to rely heavily on her income as a freelance designer and artist. Vézelay is being compared with White because both were members of the Society of IndustrialArtists. In White?s personal archive, a leaflet published by the S.I.A, laying out a schedule of average fees and salaries for mfa creative writing, textile design was found. Animation Topic! Indeed, payment records show that amounts paid to research risk, White corresponded closely to amounts suggested by the S.I.A.
Several times, without success, White applied to essay, be included in Designers in Britain, an S.I.A publication. However, her lack of success with applications for inclusion in golding essay their publications does not seem to have caused her to essay, be disillusioned with the society and when interviewed White stated that she had sat on dissertation, one of their sub-committees. In contrast, Vézelay appears to have had a problematic relationship with the. S.I.A and also with at least one manufacturer. Vézelay?s correspondence with both the S.I.A and Mr Worthington at Heals demonstrates how she was prepared to essay topic, stand up for what she considered to essay, be the rights of designers. Time and again, in letters to various officials of the S.I.A she states how she feels that the animation, needs of golding essay, freelance designers are swept aside whilst the various committees are monopolised by teachers who insist on pushing forward the needs of students. Essay Animation! However disparaging she may have been about the ways in which the S.I.A helped established freelance designers, she never hesitated to quote S.I.A rates to manufacturers. At one stage in the 1950s the letters cross backwards and forwards between Vézelay and Mr Worthington of Heals in a respectful battle of wills. On the 22nd June 1956, Worthington states: you?ve invoiced us 50 gns plus 15% for each colourway for ?Contrast?. Institute! This as you know is considerably more than we paid you before [she was paid 35gns , plus 15% for each colourway, for her first designs for Heals] and you didn?t inform us that you were increasing your prices.
By 26th July 1956, he writes: I notice that you have quoted the S.I.A scale of animation topic, fees but the pay for writing, 50gns for the design plus 15% per colourway is of course, the essay topic, maximum charge suggested. In any case, this is more than double what we pay any other designer, including Lucienne Day, at least four times the research, average fee. If however you are sticking to the price, I will pay it but I must inform you that I cannot afford this outlay each year. Vézelay stands her ground explaining how Mr Worthington saw a painting of animation, hers at papers the Festival of Britain Exhibition and asked her to do a design based on it. She explains how much work she has put into the design and its various colourways. Animation Topic! Finally by dissertation 21st August, a fee of 40gns was agreed upon and an undertaking made that both sides would agree a price in advance for any future designs. Throughout her relationship with Heals, Vézelay continues to demand the highest end of the animation, scale of dissertation in italian, fees for her designs. In 1957 she charges 50gns for essay animation, a design made from a painting and 45 gns for other ?ready? designs.
In 1959 she informs Mr Worthington that she is increasing her fees to: 60gns for medium sized designs, 65 gns for very large designs with extra colourways at 10% for two colours and 15% for more than two colours. White was one of the students that Vézelay railed against. The training and advice that White was given was so successful that she sold a design to Turnbull and Stockdale just after she had completed her National Design Diploma (Fabric Printing) and whilst she was still studying for National Design Diploma (Pottery). The two designers negotiated sales and payments in arts very different ways. Animation Topic! Vézelay subscribed to the idea of the artistic genius. She was particular about every aspect of how her designs were used and insisted on maintaining control at vaccinations all times. Every colourway for topic, a design was worked out by Vézelay herself and indeed a considerable part of her income was generated from such adaptations of her original designs. After seeing one of research papers risk, her designs photographed upside down in a Heal?s brochure, she insisted that on essay, her more ambiguous designs an indication of ?TOP? and an arrow should be printed on the selvedge. In contrast, White?s attitude was more craftsmanlike: I do about a research paper 100 new patterns a year . . . then the firms usually choose their own colourings, as most of them have their own definite idea about essay animation that side.
White may not have been insistent on such technicalities as markings on california mfa creative, selvedge, nevertheless, Cottage Garden, which has already been discussed at length, has an indication of ?TOP? printed. Animation! Illustration 21 shows scans of fabric produced by Heals. The selvedges of three of the designs are shown: Zinnias; Cottage Garden; Fiesta. An inspection of Appendix 8 shows that White quickly became adept at interpreting comments made by manufacturers. A larger number of designs are marked as withdrawn from portfolio at pay for writing paper the beginning of White?s card index. However, the percentage of designs sold increased rapidly. She soon learned which producer preferred which type of design and was able to be selective about which designs she presented to them. A note about her second visit to British Celanese Limited on 13 January 1956, when she met with Mr Walker states ?Big florals and country scenes. Animation Topic! NO contemp. at present.? After her fourth visit to Liberty Co (Wholesale) Ltd on 14 September 1956 when she met with Mr Sudlow, she recorded in her card index ?florals - not spiky - not fussy - few colours.? When interviewed White stated that in no way would she design to order but by listening to the comments of prospective clients she was able to take into account such considerations as pattern repeat sizes, width of fabric and preferred types of design.
Such market awareness resulted in White selling a higher proportion of essay vaccinations, her designs than she had initially done. Once a design had been bought by a manufacturer, White appears to have accepted whatever price was suggested. A few smaller designs were sold for essay, four, six or eight guineas, many around fifteen to eighteen guineas and the highest price of essay, twenty-three guineas was paid in March 1958 by Story Fabrics Ltd for designs no: 1109 and 1138. Illustration 13 showing a 1953 advert for a Myer?s single divan bed priced at ?17-10-0 allows some understanding of the value of essay animation, such prices. Whilst White did not expect or insist on such high payments for designs as Vézelay, nevertheless some of the sums that she received were not insignificant. On several occasions Vézelay invited Mr Worthington of Heals to come to biggest misunderstanding, her studio to view her designs. In contrast, White made many trips per year to both London and Manchester to show her portfolio of designs to different manufacturers. Essay Animation Topic! A report of one such visit to Manchester in pay for a research paper 1955 has already been mentioned in chapter one.
It would appear that White may have been unusual in approaching manufacturers so frequently. An article in Design, states: Like most Lancashire cotton manufacturers, Whitehead?s buy many of their textile designs from French studios. The Paris designers, they say, take the trouble to go to essay animation topic, Lancashire with their new designs, instead of sitting at home and waiting for on management of business, clients to go to them, as many of their counterparts in London do. From 1950 to 1958, White regularly visited prospective purchasers of her designs. She may well have been one of very few British designers to animation topic, do so.
Following an early interest in art and design, White received a more than adequate training from a tutor who had studied at the Royal College of Art, London, an establishment well known for its expertise in textile design. Successfully combining her training with an dissertation in italian, inherent ability to visualise pattern repeat she began a career as a freelance designer immediately after she had graduated from the Thanet School of Art and Crafts. Meticulous record keeping and an ability to topic, assimilate the papers of business risk, requirements of purchasers without compromising her personal design ideals, ensured that her designs were bought and produced. However, unlike Vézelay who considered herself to essay topic, be an artist, White?s attitude to her design career was more that of a craftswoman and perhaps as such, more in line with the tenets of the Society of Industrial Artists. She was well aware that without the manufacturers, her designs would not be produced and sold to a wide market. Her attitude was professional and consistent and narrative essay biggest although she provided personal information to the press, at no time did she consider herself to be a personality. Nevertheless, in the 1950s, both she and animation topic her designs were mentioned in trade, design and general periodicals. Her designs were very much of the time, met the criteria of leading designers such as Tibor Reich and Astrid Sampe and design theorists such as Herbert Read, and more than served the purpose for which they were created. White worked as a textile designer for just under ten years. Her designs are easily identifiable as having emerged from a British tradition of textile design which has always had a tendency to favour designs originating from nature.
Although White was well able to produce designs in a variety of styles or categories, in her own words what she excelled at and what she would wish to be remembered for are her designs in ?the modern floral idiom?. Unlike designers such as Day, Groag and Vézelay, Mary White was not totally immersed in writing paper the art and design world of a large city. Other areas of essay animation topic, her life assumed equal importance and consequently, although she was well known in the nineteen fifties by many textile producers, she never became a household name. A patient in a hospital bed in the nineteen fifties surrounded by golding essay Cottage Garden curtains would no more have been aware that they were designed by Mary White than a passenger on an underground train in the nineteen thirties would have known that the upholstery fabric on which they sat was by Enid Marx. The post-war years saw the emergence of fresher, brighter textiles.
These were created by essay topic older, established designers such as Jacqueline Groag, Marion Dorn, Marianne Straub and Paule Vézelay together with a new generation of British designers emerging from the Schools of Art and Crafts. Amongst these younger designers were people such as Lucienne Day and the subject of papers on management risk, this essay: Mary White. It has been demonstrated that building on artistic abilities, White developed strong business skills thus ensuring that a considerable number of her designs were purchased and eventually printed. Essay Animation Topic! Had she gone one stage further and also developed a skill for writing paper, public relations, she may well have achieved a higher profile and lasting visibility in essay the design world. Essay! There is no way of topic, knowing whether her designs ?in the modern floral idiom? or her more abstract or geometrical designs would have continued to golding essay, be successful throughout the essay topic, nineteen sixties with the increase in man-made fibres and the accelerating decline in the British Textile Industry. Neither the brevity of White?s textile career, nor her lack of personal visibility should detract from the contribution that she made to the look of the 1950s.
Now that the twenty-first century has begun, the in italian, mid-twentieth century should come under closer scrutiny and previously hidden designers such as Mary White should be revealed. It is hoped that this essay has gone some way to achieving that aim.
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The Purpose-Driven Life : A Review Essay. Considering it has spent almost three years on best seller lists, the animation topic, number of people who have not heard of Rick Warren’s The Purpose-Driven Life (Zondervan, 2002) must be very small. As of September 2005, over 23 million English copies and 1.5 million Spanish copies of the book have been sold. 1 Thousands of churches the world over have experienced “40 Days of Purpose,” a program developed by Warren which takes participants through the book from beginning to institute arts, end. Essay Animation Topic. Free publicity courtesy of “Larry King Live,” Time , even the Wall Street Journal , 2 is only a small part of the reason its hardcover sales exceed those of any other book in American history. 3 Its “no-nonsense” style, avoidance of overtly religious terminology, clarity, compassion, and its bold declaration to a cynical generation that life really does have a point come together to produce an Evangelical tract of unexpectedly broad appeal. Warren’s genius lies not in creating new ideas but in his distillation of a complex body of Christian doctrine into five simple, though overlapping, propositions. It is easy to mistake The Purpose-Driven Life ( PDL ) for a self-help book.
Warren writes as if carrying on a face-to-face conversation with his reader. Paper. He demands discipline from his audience, as many self-help writers do, requiring them to make a forty-day commitment and animation read one chapter a day. And, like most other self-help authors, Warren makes promises: readers who accept his message will experience less stress in their lives, find a focus for their energies, make decisions more easily, discover the meaning of their existence, and be prepared for an eternity with God when they die (9). But Warren quickly subverts self-help expectations by pointing out that we cannot convincingly create the meaning of our lives for ourselves. We know intuitively that our sense of purpose needs validation through an arts, objective authority; we need to know that our purpose accords with what our Creator had in topic mind when he made us. Moreover, while most self-help books stoke the egoism of their readers, Warren immediately decenters his by papers, declaring, “It’s not about you” (17). It is, rather, about God and what he wants.
We will best help ourselves when we give up the idea that we can help ourselves and instead yield to God’s purposes for animation our lives. The substance of Warren’s message will not immediately strike veteran believers as novel: Everything exists for the glory of dissertation in italian, God. We are not accidents but created by God for friendship with him. Because of Jesus, we can be part of God’s family and live with him forever. Life on earth is a testing ground where we are made more like Christ. We must serve as we are gifted and essay animation share with others the good news of what God has done for us. Biggest Misunderstanding. Warren’s genius lies not in essay topic creating new ideas but in on management his distillation of a complex body of essay animation topic, Christian doctrine into essay five simple, though overlapping, propositions: We exist to please God. We are meant to join his family. Our goal is to become Christlike. We are designed to serve God.
Our mission is to share God’s good news with the world. The packaging is new, but as other readers have noted, PDL presents no principles that differ in any significant way from those that most Evangelicals already hold. Essay. 4. And yet there is something new here. In the distilling process Warren subtly reconfigures the old Evangelical doctrinal system to essay childhood, produce a theological outline that will nourish a leaner, more aggressively missional, less introverted Evangelical self. Doctrines of essay animation, creation, divine sovereignty, sanctification, judgment and eternal life remain relatively unaffected by his revisioning, even if, for strategic reasons, he does not mention most of them by name. But they take on a slightly different significance by essay vaccinations, the role they are asked to play in Warren’s theological vision. The doctrine of God’s sovereignty, for example, is used not so much to reduce readers to submission, and then to animation, worship and golding essay wonder, but—since God never allows anything to essay animation topic, happen that cannot be directed to a spiritual end—to encourage them to think how divinely-permitted hardships can develop their character. The necessity of conversion, to research risk, take another example, is fully acknowledged. But Warren does not dwell on it as if it were the zenith of Christian experience.
Accepting Christ is merely the essay, beginning of a relationship with God that grows deeper with time, through which we are slowly refashioned into the likeness of dissertation, Christ, that directs our energies toward work of eternal significance, that culminates (normally) only much later in topic a direct meeting with God in heaven. This is why Warren offers his readers the opportunity to receive Christ earlier rather than later in the book: it forestalls a fixation on in italian the experience of dramatic rebirth and allows the post-conversion essentials of church participation, spiritual formation, obedience, and mission to be given their proper due. He thus relativizes the value of the essay, “born again” experience. Research Papers. It is significant as a starting point of a God-directed life rather than an end in its own right. This demotion, if you will, of conversion from leading to supporting character in the Evangelical drama is not serious but represents an essay, important shift. Other aspects of Evangelical doctrine are not so much relativized as glossed over. Warren never explains exactly why, in the absence of a redeemer, we would have to go to hell, or just how Jesus’ dying provides us with a way to avoid going there. The doctrine of atonement, of on management, course, has exercised the minds of theologians for centuries.
Perhaps Warren is simply stepping around a theological hornet’s nest by keeping his discussion of it short and superficial. As other critics have noted, however, Warren does not strongly emphasize repentance as part of the conversion experience either, and this lack seems connected to an inadequate account of human sinfulness. 5 Perhaps this is why Warren’s explanation of Christian faith can touch so lightly on the subject of essay, atonement: although an atonement doctrine can exceed one’s hamartiology in depth, 6 in Evangelical practice the two tend to be closely coordinated and equally weighted. Since Warren spends little time on the nature of dissertation in italian, our sinfulness, he feels no need to essay, provide details on just how the cross redeems us from in italian, that condition. Essay Topic. But he also hurries past these doctrines because he can afford to. In his rendition of narrative essay biggest misunderstanding, faith, knowing what to do once we have been reconciled to animation, God is more pressing than understanding the golding essay, metaphysical mechanisms by which reconciliation itself is accomplished. So, with conversion reduced to the first step of animation topic, a longer journey, atonement through Jesus being a bare given, and our sinful nature, a condition to be recognized and confronted but not unduly lamented, space is freed up at the center of Warren’s theology for pay for the concept of essay animation topic, God’s original purposes in creating human beings. The idea that human beings have ends that dovetail with their deepest longings, indeed, that are rooted ontologically in what human beings are, has the advantage of giving post-conversion life on earth some meaning. To listen to some Evangelicals, the best thing you can do after you “get saved” is die, because it gets you out of this miserable world and into heaven.
Warren, without denying the splendor of the future life, strives to convince his readers that much remains to be done here. Indeed, he asserts that the quality of their life in heaven depends very much on vaccinations what they do or do not do on earth (232). Among other things, there are heavenly rewards to be had, even positions of responsibility (255), for those who devote their talents and energies to essay topic, serving God (263). This life and the next are inextricably linked. The idea that Christians ought to cultivate an intimate relationship with their Lord and Savior (a “friendship,” in Warren’s words) through Bible reading, meditation and prayer (i.e., worship), is a mainstay of Evangelicalism, and Warren underscores and emphasizes it by making it the first the five purposes he discusses. But one of the surprises of PDL is the prominence Warren gives to the church and membership in it, though this will not be entirely unexpected for those familiar with his first best seller. Research Papers Risk. 7 “God wants a family, and he created you to be part of it,” he says (117). The Bible is finally the story of how God shapes a family for himself that will love and honor him and rule with him throughout eternity (ibid.). To be part of God’s family is therefore our highest honor and greatest privilege, and baptism is the rite by which we are initiated into essay topic it. So important is the church in essay PDL that, early on, having walked the essay animation topic, reader through the sinner’s prayer, Warren writes, “If you sincerely meant that prayer, congratulations! Welcome to the family of God!” (59).
Another Evangelical writer might easily have said, “Congratulations! You’re saved!” In PDL , conversion means being born into narrative biggest misunderstanding the church, the primary training ground and support network of a purpose-driven life. The points at which PDL will most resonate with Mennonite Brethren (MB) are obvious: it encourages a close personal relationship with God as well as discipleship, upholds the authority of the Bible in matters of faith and life, insists on essay animation God’s sovereignty, stresses the importance of establishing an intimate and accountable fellowship with other believers, of serving in one’s church, and golding essay of the responsibility to proclaim the gospel to neighbors far and near. On these points there will be no argument since, in one form or another, they have been central to animation, MB spirituality and ethos from the beginning. PDL will encourage us to maintain and strengthen these emphases. Institute Arts. Indeed, Warren’s trumpeting of topic, mission as an obligation for california of the writing all Christians may call MBs back to an old passion that, in North America at least, has waned in essay topic recent years. And his emphasis on pay for writing a research paper the church just might keep MBs from essay animation topic, sliding further down the slope of golding essay, spiritual individualism. But PDL also begs a number of questions from an MB perspective. We can appreciate Warren’s emphasis on baptism as nonoptional for Christians (120), but why pass over the Lord’s Supper?
The Supper, like no other Christian observance, establishes Christian identity and unity as it commemorates the essay, Lord’s passion and the mystery of our redemption. Why no attention to it? Should it be any less nonoptional? As for the discipline of daily meditation and Bible reading, Warren’s encouragement is welcome, especially in these days when even churchgoers suffer from biblical illiteracy at an alarming rate. But what is the role of the church in in italian facilitating and guiding scriptural interpretation and holding private interpretation accountable? Warren’s practice in PDL is not exemplary.
His freewheeling citing of verses from a host of biblical versions and paraphrases encourages proof texting as well as reliance on essay animation religious experts (like himself). Neither of writing paper, these options fits comfortably with the biblical “hermeneutics of essay animation, peoplehood” to golding essay, which the MB church has committed itself. 8. Furthermore, the personal piety Warren promotes is guilt-free and self-confident in a way which would once not have put us at essay, ease. The consciousness of narrative essay biggest, our sinfulness can only be felt by believers regularly reminded of their sorry condition apart from God. This same awareness, however, determines the intensity of essay animation topic, our thanksgiving: gratitude for forgiveness is california institute arts mfa creative writing, only as strong as our sense of how badly we need it.
Indeed, a feeling of unworthiness used to be part and parcel of MB piety, which was suffused with a deep awareness of God’s holiness and one’s lostness without his grace. PDL sometimes seems impatient with such sensibilities in its eagerness to get us out serving and missionizing. Warren’s is, in topic the end, the gospel of an activist and self-confident extrovert. He would be at home with the British Evangelicalism of of the arts mfa creative, Spurgeon, who is said to have urged his listeners (in a manner worthy of Nike), “Brethren, do something; do something; do something. Essay Animation Topic. While committees waste their time over resolutions, do something.” 9 Though Warren urges “balance,” in the end there is more of mission than mystery in PDL , more work than worship. JESUS MISSING FROM WARREN’S CHRISTLIKENESS. Finally, while Warren insists Christians make Christlikeness their telos , his discussion of what this entails seldom refers to the gospel accounts of Jesus. The reason for this omission is california institute of the arts mfa creative writing, that Warren equates “becoming like Christ” with spiritual formation, the development of essay, subjective “character.” But is childhood vaccinations, there not more to “Christlikeness” than attitudes and character? Than knowing the Bible and resisting temptation? The ethical dimensions of animation, becoming like Christ, the notions of golding essay, self-giving, nonresistance, and enemy-love taught in the Sermon on the Mount, seem to lie outside the scope of Warren’s understanding of essay animation topic, what it means to be Christlike.
Indeed, Warren seems to be blind to other key biblical themes. Our immortality is golding essay, a main premise of his theology, but the idea of the resurrection of the body, so central to the New Testament witness, gets hardly a mention. And the notion, scattered throughout the Scriptures, of justice for the orphan, widow, and poor is left out of his discussions of service and mission. Like most conservative Evangelical thinking, PDL seems infected with a Platonic dualism of body and soul, the latter being its first and often only concern. 10 To the extent that popular MB thought shares this infection, PDL will confirm it in its dualistic mental habit.
The influence of North American Evangelicalism on MBs has been so far-reaching for so long that it is animation topic, hard to imagine that PDL —in the end, a classic Evangelical text—will produce a noticeable change in MB thinking. And yet it might. Warren summarizes his vision of Christian faith in the alliterative jingle, “A great commitment to the Great Commandment and the Great Commission will make you a great Christian” (306). Unfortunately, he reduces the broad scope of Christian ministry and golding essay mission implied in this maxim when he asserts that “Nothing else you do will ever matter as much as helping people establish an eternal relationship with God” (284). If churches consistently adhere to animation, the latter principle, if they evaluate and develop all programming on that basis, if individuals make it the sole criterion by which they choose vocations and worthy causes to support, a great deal of good will be done, but a great deal will also be left undone. Institute Of The Arts Mfa Creative Writing. Perhaps relief work, medical aid, and limited educational projects could still be justified: the first two might keep people alive long enough to hear the essay animation, gospel and the third would equip them to read the Bible. But ultimately, Warren leaves us with no doubt that all efforts and goods that do not serve the goal of saving souls are wasted and golding essay ultimately without value. Those who take this message seriously will fix their gaze firmly on the business of animation topic, soul saving. This is a valid conclusion given the Evangelical metaphysic in which, apart from pay for writing paper, God, only souls are eternal. It should come as no surprise, then, that PDL fails to help us appreciate the eternal significance of earthly life in all its harsh, fleeting splendor, as intimated throughout the Scriptures.
It also helps us little in essay animation understanding why the biblical God seems to in italian, care so deeply about our temporal well-being, even though we as bodies are vapor and wither away like grass. It fails on these scores because it works with a lamentably inadequate doctrine of creation and essay animation topic a soteriology that borders on childhood vaccinations the gnostic. But in these matters, too, Warren has not been creative; he has merely passed on the received wisdom of North American Evangelicalism, which has tended to essay topic, see temporal and eternal as constituting a tension to be resolved in favor of the latter. That having been said, Warren’s newly found passion for the poor, sick, illiterate, and dissertation oppressed is a measure of the seriousness with which Evangelicals can take the Great Commandment and, perhaps, also their insensitivity to the more extreme implications of their theology. 11 It also reveals the basic generosity at the heart of Evangelicalism, which manifests itself in an irrepressible desire to share the gift of faith and to do good. This generosity is evident throughout PDL , as is much hard-won insight into the meaning of animation, Christian faith and life and how that life might be deepened and sustained.
And these go a considerable distance toward making up for its several theological deficiencies. The Purpose-Driven Life should not be the last book of theology Christians ever read, but for essay childhood clarity and topic simplicity, for catching the basic spirit of Evangelical faith, they could read many that are worse but probably not many that are better.
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The poverty line for Pakistan for FY1999 on this basis has been defined at Rs. 670 per capita per month. 2. In 1991, FBS. strength that Sun Life Financial possesses is the experience that it has accrued in essay misunderstanding the insurance business. Sun Life Financial was set up in Canada in 1865. It was not long until the company began the internationalization process and entered numerous foreign markets. Around 1900 Sun Life Financial started. objects, an overflowing, electrifying force that flows from essay animation topic, one thing to another. ANIMISM This is the belief that certain inanimate objects have life and personality called spirits, that reside in pay for writing features of the physical environment, such as trees, stones and animals. SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF. develops asthma.
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Does reading a story like that of The Ghost Map make you feel more or less positive about cities and urbanization? Urbanization is the california of the writing growth of urban cities and animation, areas due to people migrating from rural areas into cities. Urbanization. Types of Urban Dynamics - spatial exclusion - suburbanisation - counter urbanisation - ex-urbanisation - decentralisation - urban consolidation - urban Renewal Spatial Exclusion - refers to the defense of luxury lifestyles which have resulted in restrictions in spatial access and the freedom. ASH SOC 203 Week 5 DQ 1 Decline of Rural America. com/soc-203-ash/soc-203-week-5-dq-1-decline-of- rural -america After viewing the required video for this discussion, pick one of the following overlapping issues highlighted in this week’s readings to discuss: a. How does the corporatization of farming affect all Americans, not just those living in rural areas? What can you. Nature and Urban Sprawl: How Much is childhood, Too Much?
Urban sprawl is defined as the essay animation topic spreading of urban or suburban land over rural areas. Many are concerned that this sprawl is forcing many animal species to find new homes, and forcing many others into the danger of extinction, while others claim that some.