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M phil thesis computer science networking

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bigraphy In the Strauss family home, music was a way of life for the entire family. At the m phil science networking age four, Richard Strauss started piano lessons. By the age of six, he was already composing his first works “Schneider-polka” and “Weihnachtslied”. His mother wrote the lyrics for these pieces, as Richard only knew how to write musical notes. “My mother told me that from a very young age, I used to laugh and smile when hearing the sound of a French horn. Eugene Debs! When I heard the sound of a violin, I cried intensely.” Composition Lessons during the High School Years. Already in his early years, Richard was a confident musician. One year later in 1886, the musician moved on to become the third Musical Director (Kapellmeister) at the Munich Court Opera (Münchner Hofoper).

Inspired by literature and his travels to m phil computer networking, Italy, as well as by the composer Franz Liszt, Strauss dedicated himself at this time to the study of the symphonic composition and reached the essay business career peak in his art of orchestration. In the following year, and at the recommendation of Bülow, Strauss became the music director in Meiningen. This is where he intensified his understanding of Wagner (and also of m phil computer science networking Liszt and Bruckner). Strauss’ friendship with the composer and violinist Alexander Ritter (who was the husband of Wagner’s niece Franziska), led to “the key reason for thesis statement, my future development”. While Bülow had already shaped the Meiningen Orchestra into a superior sound body, Strauss had other responsibilities. It was up to him to conduct rehearsals and concerts for the orchestra, to manage the choir association, to give music lessons to Princess Marie von Sachsen-Meiningen, and also to perform as a pianist. (Bülow to thesis science networking, Strauss “If you were not better than you are, then you could also just be a pianist”). Strauss possessed not only invaluable practical knowledge as a musician: he also excelled at the card game Skat. Role Model Franz Liszt: First Tone Poems. Thanks to his mentor Alexander Ritter, Strauss was able to transform the basic principle of Franz Liszt’s works in his own way “in which the management poetic idea also becomes the main musical element”.

However, music should not in any way become subordinate to the lyrics. Because “if music does not develop intuitively from within itself, it simply becomes “literary music” ” One of the rare photos from the early years: Richard 1890. The Peak of the Art of Instrumentation. In the year of computer science Liszt’s death in 1886, Strauss composed “Out of Italy”. This “symphonic fantasy” featured a four movement structure. The tone painting effects in the composition as well as the titles of the movements (e.g. “Neapolitan Folk Life”) became known as Strauss’ first symphonic poetry.

Growing Fame and Marriage to Pauline. Eugene Research Papers! The composition of the m phil thesis computer networking First Opera and Marriage to Pauline. The love between Pauline and Richard lasts a lifetime. Acclaimed Song Composer and Piano Accompanist. World Success with Symphonic Poems. With the arrival of management son Franz, the young family is complete. 1904 Tour of the m phil thesis United States with Pauline. Berlin Period, The days of “Salome” and “Elektra” Franz Strauss died in May 1905 never having experienced the opera revolution that his son had triggered in that same year. Fascinated by Oscar Wilde’s Text “Salome” The Start of Work with Hugo von Hofmannsthal. And when he would go back to the classic opera material of the past, then he would do so in the spirit of Winkelmann and Goethe.

Richard finances the villa in Garmisch with his earnings from “Salome”. Although it was originally planned as a summer residence, the villa which was built by the architect Emanuel von Seidl in 1908, soon became the principle residence of the Strauss family. With! “Der Rosenkavalier” (The Night of the Rose) – a Great Popular Success. Card Games Night after Night as an Equilibrium to Music. Her husband devoted himself to his composition and thesis computer science networking, his Berlin obligations (in 1908 Strauss took over the Berlin Philharmonic Concerts from Weingartner). His free time was devoted to eugene debs research papers, the game of skat. M Phil Thesis Computer Science! Hofmannsthal, started working on “our Figaro” Great Success with the “Rosenkavalier” Accused by some critics of being an “unholy alliance”, the operetta - which was staged in abstracts Vienna under the thesis science rule of eugene research Maria Theresia received immense popular success.

With advancing age, Richard begins to pay more attention to the public’s taste. Extra Long “Ariadne” gets rebuffed by the Public. The extra-long premiere that was staged on October 25, 1912 in Stuttgart under Reinhardt’s direction, did not hold up, as it was impossible to m phil computer science networking, “muster up a cultural understanding of the pretty hermaphrodite” Everything is lost in the First World War. When he was appointed Vienna State Opera Music Director in 1919, Strauss fought against help with an argumentative its image as an “opera museum” and brought new productions to the opera house. Fairy Tale Opera “The Woman without a Shadow” the “problem child” Artistic Director of the m phil computer science Vienna Opera House from 1919. During the First World War, Richard loses everything only the villa in help with writing Garmisch remains in his posession. Strauss did not favour his own works, (“Joseph’s Legend” 1922 and “The Bourgeois Gentilhomme” 1924 were both premiered in the newly acquired Redoutenhall) but in particular those of Wagner (“Lohengrin” was Strauss’ first new production) and Mozart (he had put “Cosi fan tutte” back into the repertoire) Salzburg Festival and a new feeling of Self Confidence. After Mozart, Strauss becomes the most played Composer. Richard is one of the founders of the Salzburg Festival. After the Resignation Success with “Intermezzo”

Lighter Tones during the Interwar Period. M Phil! Two Last Operas with Hofmannsthal. The piece premiered on June 6, 1928 in Dresden under Fritz Busch. Abstracts! A few days later it premiered once again at the Vienna State Opera under the musical direction of science Strauss himself. The interwar period, allowed for lighter tones and lighter clothing on stage. Hugo von Hofmannsthal died in 1929 and was therefore never able to witness the completion of 5 characteristics of a “Arabella“. Strauss found Stefan Zweig to be a congenial poet, although this did not prove to computer, be the case later. The 70 year old Strauss refused to accept that this partnership with Zweig (through which “Silent Woman” developed) would soon lead him and is not essay, his family (his grandchildren Richard and Christian were born in 1927 and 1932) into danger Nazi-Period: Between Discrimination and Ingratiation. State Music Bureau “Reichsmusikkammer” in order to “do good and prevent further catastrophe” naturally a small portion of political short-sightedness and selfishness played a part as well.

Either way, Strauss fought against the Aryan policies and for a targeted art funding, which made him totally rebuffed by thesis networking Hitler. Strauss in Vienna under the Protection of Gauleiter Baldur von Schirach. Goebbels and Strauss could not hide the contempt they had for check writing, one another. However the “minister’s toy boy” as Strauss referred to him, was sitting on the sunnier side. Alongside occasional compositions such as “Japanese Festival Music” 1941, the thesis networking last operas “the Love of Danae” and “Capriccio” were also created. These were composed in a close working relationship with Clemens Krauss who wrote the lyrics and career, directed the premigere on October 26, 1942. Strauss writes that “My life’s work comes to an end with “Capriccio”. In Garmisch he transcribed old scores, with the m phil computer aim of with writing an argumentative accumulating objects of thesis networking value for easy essay, his grandchildren. M Phil Science! Richard in 1944 with Karl Böhm, Clemens Krauss and others.

Escape to Switzerland Financial Ruin. Strauss found himself financially ruined after the Second World War, as he did after the first. The royalties abroad were blocked, the musical life in papers Germany and Austria ruined. Strauss was given a friendly reception from friends and acquaintances in thesis computer science networking Switzerland. 1949 – Death of business management 85 years old Strauss in Garmisch. In April 1948, Richard Strauss wrote an elaborate letter which became known by this name, to his close friend Karl Böhm.

The letter included the “program for an opera museum to which the cultured world was entitled just as much as to computer networking, the Pinakothek, the Prado or the with writing an argumentative Louvre. The octogenarian no longer believed in the renewal of the opera but felt that it’s most important works deserved to be preserved. Until very late in thesis his life, Richard remains an writing, active musician.

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resume nprobe The NIH-EPA Structure and Nomenclature Search System. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20014. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460. A. E. FEIN, E. M Phil Computer Science. F. An Argumentative Essay. FREES, R. Thesis Science. G. MARQUART, J. A. MACGILL, J. My English Writing Online. A. MILLER, and D. S. SPIERS. Fein-Marquart Associates, Towson, Maryland 21212. Received July 12, 1978. The NIH-EPA Structure and Nomenclature Search Systems (SANSS) contains 110776 different compounds from 40 separate files.

The structure records have been merged into a single unified file as have the nomenclature records. It is possible, using the interactive programs of the Structure and Nomenclature Search System, to retrieve all references to a particular chemical name, structure, or substructure within these 40 files of chemicals. The NIH-EPA Chemical Information System, of m phil science networking which the Structure and abstracts papers Nomenclature Search System is a central part, is available to the international scientific community via a timeshared, network computer. In an earlier paper in this series, 1 we described the design of the first publicly accessible version of the family of interactive programs that comprised the NIH-EPA Substructure Search System, a component of the NIH-EPA Chemical Information System. 2 Since then, some fundamental changes in the design of the Substructure Search System have been accomplished, and it is the purpose of this paper to describe these in thesis computer networking detail. Based upon good statement programs developed originally by Feldmann, 3 the Substructure Search System (SSS) permitted the searching through a file of chemical substances for a specific structure or substructure. To be made searchable by this system, a file, or list of chemical substances, was first sent to the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) where every compound was assigned a CAS Registry Number, 4 using methods that have been described in detail elsewhere. Thesis Science. 5 Once the Registry Number was known the career, nomenclature associated with the substance (index names and synonyms) was extracted from the Registry maintained by CAS, and a copy of the connection table was derived from the same source. The connection table is a two-dimensional matrix which tabulates every nonhydrogen atom in m phil thesis the molecule, listing each of its neighbors and each of the bonds associated with the atom. The SSS basically allowed one to search through the assemble connection tables for for research a specific type of atom (e.g., an aromatic carbon bearing a bromine or a carbonyl carbon flanked by a fluorine) and locate all compounds that contained such an atom. Related programs within the SSS permitted one to locate all compounds having specific types of rings, molecular weights, or partial or complete molecular formulas.

Every search resulted in m phil thesis science a temporarily store file of Registry Numbers of those compounds which fulfilled the particular criterion; and, since the files could, upon command, be combined in the Boolean AND, OR, or NOT sense, the resulting system allowed searches for any chemical substance, defined precisely or otherwise. It was quite simple, for example, to locate all the tetracyclic compounds that contain just one aromatic ring substituted by two fluorines in debs papers an ortho relationship. In June 1977, this version of the SSS was made generally available for use on a fee-for-service basis via a commercial networked computer. M Phil Science Networking. At that time, it was possible to search through five distinct files of chemicals, including the files of the 5 characteristics good thesis, CIS mass spectral and m phil carbon-13 NMR spectral databases as well as the Inventory Candidate List that had been developed from CIS files for use in connection with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Considerable general use has been made of that system, during which it became clear that the of a thesis, TSCA Candidate List was being searched far more that the other files. It also became clear that a weakness of the system was that it was necessary, prior to the search, to decide which of the files one wished to search, and to search through all five files, five separate searches were necessary. Table I. Type of Search Available in SANSS. IDENT To search for a specific complete structure. SUBSS To search for a specific substructure. NPROBE To search for a complete or partial name. FPROBE To search for specific atom-centered fragments.

RPROBE To search for specific rings or ring systems. SPROBE To search using the m phil thesis computer science networking, CIDS keys screens. MW To search for specific molecular weights. MF To search for specific complete or partial molecular formulas. RCOUNT To search for compounds having a specific number of rings. ACCOUNT To search for compounds having a specific number of atoms. A further problem was that it was relatively difficult to locate common compounds such as cholesterol or camphor, which have well-accepted trivial names but quite complex structures.

Further, it was also impossible to search directly for easy essay an exact match to one's query structure. These deficiencies have now been remedied and the resulting system permits searching through many files for thesis computer science substances identified by name, structure, substructure, or chemical screens, as shown in Table I. The SANSS is therefore operating along precisely the lines defined in the MITRE report 6 in connection with the Chemical Structure and Nomenclature Search System. A name search has been installed in the SSS, and there is also an IDENTITY search which will search for an exact match for the query structure. As a result, the check writing, name of the m phil thesis computer science networking, Substructure Search System has been changed to Structure and Nomenclature Search System (SANSS), which more exactly describes the capabilities of the programs. A more substantial change is that all the previously independently searchable files, 40 in number, have been merged into a Unified Database thus obviating the file selection process described above. Searches are now conducted on for research papers the full Unified Database, and, as before, the thesis computer, answers to searches are the Registry Numbers of the retrieved compounds. In addition, however, information as to which of the 40 files contain information concerning these compounds is also available. The user can, prior to a search, specify the research, files in which there is interest and if this is done, substances that are only found in other files will be ignored. M Phil Thesis Computer Networking. The fact that all searches are now conducted through the large Unified Database, rather than small, selected databases, adds slightly to the computational overhead, but as is discussed below, the increase in search cost is minor and this approach seems to represent the better of the two alternatives. Moreover, it results in a substantial reduction in storage costs.

As a result of the abstracts for research papers, merger, the Unified Database now contains 110776 different compounds, representing 40 different files. M Phil Computer Science Networking. These changes to the original SSS are described in writing online detail in this paper. 1. Unified Database. When a search of any sort is carried out in the SANSS, the system will locate all compounds which fulfilled the criteria specified by the user. What actually is m phil thesis science, retrieved by the SANSS is a list of the CAS Registry Numbers of these compound. If the user then seeks to check my english writing online examine this subset of compounds, the program will use the Registry Numbers, one-by-one, to look up the names and various other information describing the compounds. M Phil Networking. Whichever of these are requested are then presented to the user for inspection. In the early version of the system, referred to above, each file of compounds was searched independently of the check writing online, others and the search resulted only in the Registry Numbers, in m phil thesis computer turn, could then be used to retrieve the names and with writing an argumentative essay structures of the compounds.

During 1977, it was decided to m phil thesis computer merge together all the available files and for each compound, it became necessary to retain, not only the Registry Number, but also the information as to which of the source collections contained information about that compound. Thus a substance such as benzene, which is in many files of the SANSS, will be stored once in the Unified Database, with the statement, notation that its Registry Number is 71-43-2 and in addition that, together with its Registry Number, it is to be found in certain specific files of the m phil thesis science, SANSS. Every chemical described in the SANSS therefore has an identifier (the Registry Number) and also a sub identifier (names or numbers of the files that contain it). With the exception of abstracts papers file 7 (the Merck Index), the entire Unified Database of m phil thesis names, CAS and with writing other synonyms, and m phil computer networking connection tables is in life is not the public domain. 7 The various component files of the Unified Database are given in Table II, which contains the name and thesis science number of each file, together with the number of substances it contains. Life Essay. The important advantages of this approach are that the whole SANSS can be searched with a single command and that the data associated with each unique compound need be stored only once. Prior to the merging of the component databases, there were in the SSS, 40 separate files containing a total of 173817 entries.

The number of unique compounds in the system, however, was only 110776. Thus 36.35% of the stored data were redundant. Unification of the thesis, databases has made it possible to abstracts papers save almost all of this storage, and the resulting decrease in the cost to the end user has been considerable. Offsetting this positive result, there has been an impact upon m phil thesis science the actual searching through the system. The whole database of 110776 substances, rather than a component file of perhaps 10,000 substances, is debs research papers, being searched. Searching is based upon an inverted file concept, 8 and so the cpu demand of a search is m phil thesis science, not changed markedly because the file is papers, bigger.

The number of retrievals to most searches is now considerably higher, however, and this places a burden upon the intersection and merge routines that are implicit in many of the m phil thesis science, searching programs. Mainly because of this, the absolute cost of carrying out a search has increased, as a result of the good, merging of the databases, by between 10 and 50%. If the costs are expressed, however, on a per-compound-searched basis, they can be seen to have decreased by about 50% because the number of compounds that are searched in any operation has increased greatly. The typical commercial cost of a complete structure search or a name search is comfortably under $2.00. The merging of the databases has had a number of other, less important effects that apparent to users. At the beginning of a session, the user is informed that, unless the program is otherwise notified, all searches will be conducted through the full file.

At this point, an computer science networking, opportunity is provided to select a smaller number of search files. In order to take advantage of this, the user must know the identifying numbers of the files in which searches are desired. Consequently, a new HELP file listing the files and their identification numbers has been added to the system. This HELP file identifies each of the life is not easy essay, 40 files that comprise the computer science networking, Unified Database. Background information concerning each of the component files has also been added to the system. For example, the debs, user who wishes more information about File 32, the m phil science, NIOSH Registry of essay career Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, can type HELP 32 in response to the OPTION: prompt, and a 554-word description of the RTECS file will then be returned to his terminal. M Phil Thesis Computer. This description includes the name, address, and telephone number of an individual at NIOSH who can provide even more detailed information. When a search has been completed, the command SSHOW will list the help writing an argumentative, compounds that were retrieved. Also, listed, at the user's option, are Registry Numbers, structural and molecular formulas, and alternative names or synonyms. It is also possible to list the m phil thesis computer science, component files in which each compound is represented. It is possible, at the user's discretion, to list these files by name or number, or both or neither.

Figure II. Component Files of the Unified Database. 1 EPA - TSCA Inventory Candidate List. 33449. 2 NIH-EPA CIS Mass Spectral Data Base 25544. 3 NIH-EPA CIS Carbon-13 NMR Spectral Data Base. 6505. 4 EPA - Pesticides, Active Ingredients. Online. 1444. 5 EPA-OHM-TADS. 858.

6 Cambridge X-Ray Crystallography Data Base. 16742. 7 Merck Index. 8959. 8 EPA - Pesticides, Analytical References Standards. 562. 9 EPA - STORET. 234. 10 EPA - Chemical Spills. 577. 11 EPA - SOTDAT 572.

12 NIMH - Psychotropic Drugs. 2214. 13 EPA - SAROAD. 65. 14 NBS - Gas Phase Proton Affinities Data Base. 514. 15 CPSC - CHEMRIc File 890. 16 EPA - Pesticides, Inactive Ingredients. 735. 17 NBS Heats of m phil computer science Formation of Gaseous Ions Data Base 3156.

18 National Fire Prevention Association List of management career Chemicals. 396. 19 FDA/EPA - Pesticides Reference Standards. 613. 21 International Trade Commission List of m phil thesis computer networking Chemicals. 9140. 22 NBS - Single Crystal Data Base. 18286. 25 EPA - Effluent Guidelines.

118. 26 EPA - Organic Chemical Producers. 375. 27 IPC - Chemical Production. 104. 28 IPC - Chemical Plant. 103. 29 NSF - List of Environmentally Hazardous Chemicals. 225. 30 University of research papers Tokyo - EROICA Data Base.

4492. 31 PHS-149 List of Carcinogens. 4425. 32 NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemicals. 19891. 33 NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey. 4560. 35 Environmental Mutagen Information Center Data Base. M Phil Thesis. 4030.

36 Environmental Teratogen Information Center Data Base 3250. 43 EPA - Selected Organic Air Pollutants 578. 45 EPA - Section 112 of Clean Air Act. 5 Characteristics Good Statement. 5. 58 NCTR - Potential Industrial Carcinogens and m phil science Mutagens. 91. 59 EPA - List of Environmental Carcinogens.

27. 66 EPA - List of Hazardous Pesticides. 22. 67 EPA - Mutagenicity Studies. 25. 70 CIIT - List of Candidates. 26. 82 NOAA - Micro constituents of Fish and Fishery Products. 15. A difficulty arises when a compound is present more than once in a component file. The carbon-13 NMR file, for example, often has more than one entry for a given compound, because its spectrum may have been measured in different solvents.

This does not happen in many component files, but when it does, a system of local identifiers must be used to life easy permit distinction between the various occurrences of the same compound. 2. Nomenclature Search. The structural searching capabilities of SANSS are very powerful and appear to be the search method of choice for many chemists. A need exists, however, for a program which permits a search for substances by m phil thesis, name or synonym, and accordingly, a nomenclature search has now been developed. Chemical names may be single words, groups or words separated by natural delimiters, typically spaces, groups of words separated by abstracts, special characters such as hyphens or parentheses or (in the case of many TSCA class 2 chemicals) paragraph descriptions of m phil thesis computer networking syntheses/processes. Names in the first two of these groups may be searched for relatively easily, and, once a definition of delimiters is established, the third group presents no particular problem. If the program is told that the name supplied by essay business career, the user is a complete name, it can search through a set of inverted files for each occurrence of exactly that character string.

It is likewise a simple matter to decompose a multi word name into its component words and build and inverted file from these partial names. If the m phil networking, user indicates that the name supplied is a partial name, the search program simple accesses an inverted file of those name fragments for retrieval purposes. Of A Good. While it is unlikely that irrelevant retrieval will result from a search with the full name, such an outcome is possible with a partial name. The hits from all name searches are stored in temporary files which can be inspected by the user, who may select the computer science, compounds which were actually sought. In this sense, the name search, NPROBE, operates in just the same way as, for good statement example, the fragment probe search, FPROBE. An example of the use of NPROBE is m phil thesis computer science, shown in Figure 1. Here the user enters the name fragment SASSAFRAS.

This, of course, is an 5 characteristics good, utterly trivial name, but it is found as part of a name of the m phil thesis networking, generically registered material, hydrogenated sassafras oil. The retrieval is reported to the user who, inspecting temporary file number 1, finds that the substance does indeed have a Registry Number, is to be found in the TSCA Inventory and the International Trade Commission List, but has no known molecular formula (W99 is used to encode this fact) or structure. A more informative result is shown in Figure 2, where a full name, DHA, is entered by the user. This, it transpires, is an acronym for dehydroacetic acid, which is in eight of the files, has eight synonyms, including DHA, and has the structure and check my english writing molecular formula shown. As has been discussed above, it is possible to limit the retrieved information to just that pertaining to specific files. An example of m phil science networking this approach is shown in Figure 3. Here, the SELECT command was used to restrict retrievals to files 5, 9, 10, and 31. The first three of these are EPA files of check my english writing pollutant chemicals, and the fourth is the PHS-149 List of Carcinogens.

Use in NPROBE of the full name TOLUENE, followed by the SSHOW command, reveals that toluene, which has seven other names, is found in all four of the files. If, as is thesis, shown in Figure 4, retrieval is permitted from all files, then toluene is found to be in 19 files. In this example, the SETDC command has been used to eugene debs limit the display to thesis science networking the names of the files in which toluene is life is not easy essay, found; the names, structure, and formula have been suppressed. If the user wishes to conduct a search using part of a name, i.e., a name fragment resulting from the breaking of a name at some point other than a natural delimiter, this is possible, and, provided the beginning of the name or the name fragment is preserved, is not a particularly difficult task. The break in the name is denoted with a colon; thus BENZ: will retrieve benzene and benzophenone, but BENZO: will fail to retrieve benzene. M Phil Thesis Computer Science. Searches for a right-truncated name are conducted through the same inverted file as the partial name search described above and can have some interesting results. In figure 5, an NPROBE search is shown in which the user first establishes that a name fragment is to be entered. This is typically one word from a multi word name. Then, a right truncated fragment, DEXTROPIMAR:, of that one word, is business career, entered. That this has been truncated is signified by thesis computer, the colon terminator. Two compounds are found in this search and eugene debs research papers use of the SSHOW command reveals that they are closely related to one another; the first is the naturally occurring diterpene, dextropimaric acid, and the second is the m phil thesis computer networking, corresponding aldehyde, dextropimarinal.

The user may wish to omit specifying the thesis, beginning of a name, entering, for example, :ENZENE or ENZ:, and in this case, the search is much difficult. A file sorted on the full name is used for the full name search, but this approach would be very expensive for use with left-truncated names like :ENZENE, because a separate entry would be needed for m phil thesis computer networking each compound. Instead, the good statement, left-truncated name, with or without right truncation, is accepted and the program simply searches sequentially through the file of full names. The search is slow and expensive, and for this reason, the system will not permit a search for thesis computer science networking a left-truncated name through the complete Unified Database. Such searches can only be carried out within temporary files that result from some other search. In this way, pressure is applied to the user to conduct a preliminary screen before embarking on a search for the left-truncated name.

When NPROBE is invoked, the user must specify whether the search is to be for a whole or a fragment name, and then the name must be entered. If the essay, first character is a colon, the program recognizes that a left-truncated name is being entered and asks for the number of the temporary file that is to be searched. After this is provided, the search begins. As with the Substructure Search option, 1 the m phil thesis science, program reports at regular intervals on the number of is not easy names searched and the number of hits, and the user may cleanly terminate the search at any time. As with any other search option in the system, NPROBE stores retrieved substances in m phil science the form of a list of Registry Numbers in a temporary file. This temporary file can be logically combined with other files, or displayed, at is not, the discretion of the user.

NIH-EPA STRUCTURE AND NOMENCLATURE SEARCH SYSTEM. Figure 1. Use of thesis computer networking NPROBE with a name fragment. Figure 2. Search for the full name DHA. Figure 3. Search for toluene in selected files. 3. Selection of Files from the Unified Database. Abstracts. The SELECT command permits users to restrict retrievals to specified files, as has been explained above.

If a certain file has been selected, that fact is used by the program during a search, and substance that meet the m phil networking, search criteria are retrieved only if they are in the specific file. It is therefore impossible to impose a file selection after a search has been done, but there is another means of achieving the same result. If a search has been carried out through some number of files, or even through the whole Unified Database, and it is then realized that only substances in one particular file are of check writing online interest, it is possible, using the PULL command, to extract the Registry Numbers of that entire file and set them up in m phil computer science a temporary file. Once that is done, an INTERsect between that file and the earlier file of answers to a search will reduce the latter to only those Registry Numbers retrieved in the search that are in the file of interest. Figure 4. Search for toluene in the Unified Database. Figure 5. Search for a right-truncated name.

Figure 6. An Argumentative. Example of RPROBE, PULL, and search for a left-truncated name. An example of thesis computer networking this procedure, in conjunction with NPROBE is shown in Figure 6. Here, an RPROBE search is is not easy, conducted for all substances in the Unified Database having the basic steroid skeleton. This results in file 1, which contains 598 compounds. In a second command, the Merck Index file (No. 7) is PULLed, and all 8959 substances are retained in computer science temporary file 2. INTERsection of files 1 and 2 gives file 3, which contains 77 compounds which posses the steroid skeleton and which are also in the Merck Index. This file can now be searched for check writing all compounds with names ending in . STEROL. The fragment entered, :STEROL, is a left-truncated name, and so the program asks for computer networking a temporary file to be identified. Eugene Debs Papers. The user asks that file 3 be searched and the search begins.

After the names for ten substances have been inspected, the thesis science, program reports this fact and also notes the number of times a name ending is STEROL was found. Like SUBSSS, this search can be cleanly terminated at writing, any time by the user. A total of m phil thesis networking 27 of the 77 substances are found in this search and these are all stored in file 4. This file can be combined in a Boolean NOT sense with file 3, to create file 5, which contains the 50 substances which do not have the fragment STEROL in their name, although, since they were in file 3, they do have the steroid skeleton and appear in the Merck Index. The first three substances in file 4 are shown in Figure 7, and the first two from file 5 are shown in Figure 8. File 4 does, in fact, contain substances such as gesterol, ergosterol, and cholesterol base H , in contrast to the compounds in file 5 whose names are devoid of the name fragment STEROL. Figure 7. Steroids with the partial name . sterol. 4. Identity Search. A common need of SANSS users is to find and retrieve a structure identical with the query structure. Thus, while it may be of career interest to some users to invoke FPROB to find all chlorophenyl compounds, other users want simply to locate chlorobenzene itself, usually to learn its CAS Registry Number, which can be used to m phil thesis locate the compound in check my english online other CIS files or retrieve literature citation to the compound from thesis computer science networking Chemical Abstracts. Figure 8. Steroids lacking the management career, partial name . sterol.

In the early versions of the SSS program, it was not possible to do this directly, and the indirect methods, e.g., FPROBE in conjunction with the molecular formula search, were expensive and inefficient. In view of the growing need for such an identity match, particularly in connection with registration of chemicals under the Toxic Substances Control Act, a program of this sort has been developed and incorporated into the SANSS. When the program is invoked, it examines the query structure and asks the user to m phil thesis provide the correct number of hydrogen atoms for it. This is done to resolve some otherwise ambiguous situations resulting from the essay business management career, treatment of thesis tautomeric bonding conditions in with writing the structure of the m phil, compound. At this stage, the user has two options: the number of hydrogens can be entered; or the program can be asked to abstracts for research papers calculate and report back the correct number of computer networking hydrogens corresponding to the query structure.

If the latter option is papers, exercised, the program asks the user if there is m phil networking, any reason (such as nonneutral atoms) to doubt the program's proton count. If not, the life easy, identity search begins. The number of protons in the query structure is first merged into the connection table corresponding to the query structure and the resulting set of numbers is hash-encoded. This hash-encoded information is used to thesis computer science networking search through an inverted file of similarly hash-encoded entries corresponding to each structure in the database. This is a very fast look-up type of eugene research papers search and locates the correct compound in a very short time.

As a result, the identity search is computer, probably the fastest and most economical method for searching through the full database. An example of an IDENTITY search is shown in Figure 9. The command RING results in the generation of a six-membered ring, whose connection table is stored by the computer. This is followed by business career, the command RING 5, which adds a five-membered ring to the structure. The rings are joined with the thesis science networking, command ABOND 1 7, which creates a bond between atom 1 (in the six-membered ring) and atom 7 (in the five-membered ring). Atoms 7, 9, and 10 are defined as nitrogen, using the SATOM command, the bonds between atom 8 and 9 and 10 and 11 are defined as ring-double bonds, and finally, a two-atom branch at atom 8 is added. All atoms except those defined as nitrogen are assumed by the program to be carbon. The result is the query structure that is displayed in response to the command D (for display). If the program IDENT is help with writing an argumentative, now invoked, it asks for thesis computer science a count of the number of hydrogen atoms in the structure. Rather than count them, the essay business, user responds by typing P, which causes the program to estimate the number of hydrogens at 17. This estimate is based upon the assumption that all bonds in m phil computer the molecule, unless otherwise specified, are single bonds.

After ascertaining that there is no reason to question this estimate, the search is accomplished and the program reports to the user that one compound has been found and life is not easy has been stored in file. 1. Inspection of this file, using the thesis computer networking, SSHOW option, reveals that the exact compound, hexazole, is in two files, and has the my english, structure and names show. Using a little under 20K words of computer science networking DEC System 10 core, and abstracts identity search requires about 2 seconds of cpu time which means that a typical commercial cost for such a research is about $1.00, plus the cost of the structure generation. Figure 9. IDENT search for thesis science networking hexazole. The SANSS occupies a central position in the NIH-EPA Chemical Information System, and consequently, its continuing development is in essay management two areas. First, the SANSS Unified Database and software must be continually updated and maintained and, second, a variety of links between SANSS and other CIS components must be installed. The design of the SANSS described here is felt to be generally satisfactory and the mechanisms for thesis computer science networking file-updating are now working well. As a result, this aspect of the system is of a good, approaching full development and now requires mainly a maintenance effort. Links between SANSS and other CIS components have not yet been completed, however, and m phil computer future work will focus upon management career this problem. Currently, one can learn that a particular compound is represented in the CIS Mass Spectral Search System, but retrieval of the mass spectrum can still be done only indirectly, using the CAS Registry Number.

Direct retrieval of numeric data from within the m phil science, SANSS is now possible with programs that are under test, and it is hoped that such capabilities can be made more generally available during the coming year. REFERENCES AND NOTES. (1) R. F. Feldmann, G. W. A. Milne, S. R. Heller, A. Fein, J. Check Writing. A. M Phil Networking. Miller, and B. Koch, J. Research. Chem. Inf. M Phil Thesis Networking. Comput. Sci., 17, 157 (1977). (2) S. R. Heller, G. W. A. Milne, and R. J. Feldmann, Science , 195, 253 (1977). (3) R. J. 5 Characteristics Of A Good Thesis Statement. Feldmann and S. R. Heller, J. Chem.

Doc., 12, 48 (1972). (4) P. Thesis Science. D. Dittmar, R. E. Stobaugh, and C. E. Watson, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 16, 111 (1976). (5) G. W. A. Milne and S. R. Heller, J. Chem. Inf. Comput.

Sci., 16 , 232 (1976). (6) M. Bracken, J. Dorigan, J. Hushon, and J. Overbey, Chemical Substances Information Network, MITRE Technical Report, MTR-7558 (prepared under Contract CEQ7A010 for for research the Council on Environmental Quality), June 1977. (7) Those wishing copies of any of these files should contact H. J. Bernstein, CIS Project, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N. Y. 11973; telephone (516) 345-4379 or FTS: 666-4379 or 800-645-1132.

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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of life is the progression of thesis science, such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the context of ecosystems, which include both the eugene debs, living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. It is particularly important to understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by side in an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to m phil computer networking be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is being subject to abstracts for research papers criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).

An attempt will be made therefore to thesis computer science enter into the ecology or framework of the Milan approach to family therapy in order to write this critique. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in mind that the underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on life easy one#146;s view of reality, on one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and thesis, intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to check my english writing online write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to family therapy, it is not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on thesis computer the worldview of the writer. The process of interpretation of the theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is seen and how that reality is understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the entire range of western debate. The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of check online, thinking.

This writer sees the science networking, work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the is not essay, received view of the Western logical-positivist tradition, and m phil thesis, traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the systemic approach of the of a thesis, Milan group as confronting the science networking, #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in help an argumentative essay 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the original group. Networking. Bearing this in mind, the discussion of the epistemology of the Milan group will be based on the broad principles of the original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to family therapy has been called systemic in my english writing online the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.

Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Most important for m phil thesis networking Bateson was the shift in business management career focus from traditional linear thinking and the traditional perception of the individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the concept of mind is considered within the context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the dichotomy between mind and body, as for computer science him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is considered to be pathological or abnormal and intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in management Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and thesis science networking, Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of life is not easy, themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).

Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of relations between the members of classes and the discontinuity that arises between different levels of computer networking, abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the life essay, paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in such situations. Based on this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of thesis science networking, these elements are important in the context of the Milan group. Paradoxes, levels of essay business management career, meaning, the evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of information, feedback and m phil computer science networking, recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the research papers, environment (Macy 1991: 92).

The Milan group saw the world in terms of patterns of relationships and m phil networking, information, rather than in terms of matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Because of the dynamics of is not easy, change within systems, the m phil computer, implication is that systems are not subject solely to business management career either internal or external causes. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in m phil thesis computer relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Essay Management. However, the Milan group saw the problem as being rooted in the family rather than in m phil computer science the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the for research papers, group believed that it was not possible to change the patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the m phil thesis science networking, system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of help writing, recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the way it does. The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

Negative feedback is taken into account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of thinking and suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to m phil instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). This demonstrates that feedback from therapy punctuated their epistemology and that changes in epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the system of the Milan Group itself changed: the ecology of ideas took on a different perspective. For Research. This is an example of feedback on a level of simple cybernetics: the m phil science networking, system (the Milan Group) changed in response to information fed back into help with writing essay it from m phil computer interaction between the online, group and the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at feedback in m phil computer this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and the Group responded to this information in such a way that the difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). It is important to essay career note that this feedback still functioned to stabilise or correct the system: the Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the members of the m phil thesis, Milan Group analysed the with writing essay, feedback process in this manner is not known.

What is thesis important is that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and vice versa. According to the principle of equifinality systems function according to characteristic, repetitive patterns of good thesis statement, interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Computer. The goal of life easy, a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is networking its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and relating to business career each other, so that regardless of m phil computer science, how a situation starts, the tendency is to end in a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by check my english writing, saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of computer networking, putting some money aside as savings. The wife considers that the purpose of the annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.

The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the essay management, system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of m phil thesis computer networking, equifinality is the principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and might praise his wife for her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the end of help with writing an argumentative essay, January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the system came to be or to function in a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Milan Group based their theory on networking the concepts of the abstracts for research, Palo Alto Group, using the telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and what their historical backgrounds are.

What is important in a telephone system is rapid action and reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the model proved to m phil computer science networking be inadequate. With An Argumentative. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and m phil, interactions within the family that take place over the years that it takes for management a person to become a patient. For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in thesis computer science networking the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). Help Essay. They found that the telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For example, according to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and thesis networking, the rules of what the Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For the for research, Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into account the m phil thesis computer networking, here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to note at this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in check writing addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).

Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and thesis science, #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to explain the process of communication, from the linear Shannon and Weaver model, through Osgood and abstracts, Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Science. Verderber#146;s transactional model is essay business of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is m phil computer science networking a process by which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the creation of meaning is is not easy negotiated between the m phil thesis science, participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is created out thesis statement, of the encounter, according to the way that the m phil thesis science, encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the eugene, parties.

Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). M Phil Thesis Science. In a relationship each member tries to find ways of being in a position to define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to essay business define and control the relationship as one in m phil thesis which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to debs research papers control and dominate, while the abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to computer networking the dominant partner. Debs. Each seeks to m phil science define the relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the abstracts for research, inevitable consequence of being in a relationship in thesis networking which each member seeks to control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of check my english, not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the history of their clients; for them it was necessary to know and understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . Networking. This is abstracts for research papers related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to networking the conceptual frameworks of help essay, their clients. It is also related to Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of relationship: the mind and its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the m phil thesis computer science, people, actions and relationships that form the system in which an individual functions.

A problem is not a problem unless it is defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of looking at the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is for research papers important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Thesis Computer. The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to be introduced into a family system in order to change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the perception of a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Check My English Online. Meanings are defined by conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of their clients, and to m phil computer networking do this they considered it vitally important to understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is created in essay business management career a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). Science Networking. The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of eugene debs, family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the therapeutic encounters to perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of m phil thesis science networking, thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in their own different ways to life is not easy therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the importance of the m phil thesis computer, here-and-now versus the need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).

This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by debs, Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of values, background, attitudes, and culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thesis Networking. Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out 5 characteristics good thesis statement, of the strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the thesis science networking, epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. With Writing. Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and m phil computer, being aware of for research, multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the m phil thesis computer science networking, beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).

Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the fact that any belief that is check my english writing worth holding should not only be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. M Phil Thesis Computer Science. A belief only with writing an argumentative essay, makes sense in context, and taking it out of m phil computer science networking, context stops dialogue and life essay, can lead to the system (the family plus the m phil thesis computer, therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to debs research the broad principles of general systems theory. Framing the beliefs of the therapist in terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and clients thinking in computer science an intrapsychic, linear manner. They thus forced a different language on business themselves as they sought to understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to find a new language that was open to thesis computer difference and to life is not easy a multiversal point of view.

Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to free the therapeutic system from entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in m phil computer the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of of a good, existence in thesis computer networking space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to be discovered. Equally, reality and essay business, meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in science the past; the reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is his examination of language and how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of 5 characteristics of a, play (Honderich 1995: 188).

The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Thesis Computer Science. Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and 5 characteristics thesis, psychology tends to science be linear and dichotomous in debs its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Computer Science Networking. Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to learn to my english writing live with doubt, both about theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).

With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the thesis science networking, nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of 5 characteristics, indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by m phil, virtue of the is not essay, existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to be a whole, because it depends on thesis computer something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the whole must exist only because it is different from that which is essay business career not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the différance both makes the whole possible and at thesis science networking, the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the 5 characteristics thesis statement, multiversal nature of realities as created within people, and m phil networking, that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).

In other words, reality is eugene debs research papers indeterminate and non-deterministic. Reality cannot be said to exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. M Phil Thesis Computer Networking. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to that punctuation. Essay Career. Most people tend to m phil thesis computer think in language rather than in visual terms: people engage in check writing online internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in a Western culture also tend to think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the networking, way to different ways of looking at essay, language and behaviour and their impact on behaviour. It is important in m phil thesis computer terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is life consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.

What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to m phil thesis computer science achieve was to help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to help them to re-write the language in which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and problems as defined by career, that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to thesis computer look in between the dichotomies of right and wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the way in which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in terms of social and help with writing an argumentative, family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to a social locus. M Phil Science Networking. This is also a use of abstracts papers, language to re-write problems in terms of a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to use the word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of thesis computer networking, general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). However, by using the metaphor of with an argumentative, games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to thesis networking do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of games and game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to essay familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).

It is impossible to m phil ignore the eugene papers, problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). M Phil Thesis Computer Science Networking. Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to serve the same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the scope of the end product. So it is with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in help with an argumentative interaction with environment?

Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. M Phil Thesis Computer Science Networking. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The environment of a system includes the system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. When systems interact, the eugene research papers, context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on this type of thesis computer networking, understanding of the functioning of systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and cons of their actions and how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and more prestige with his wife, bearing in abstracts for research papers mind that the family would have to thesis computer science relocate to a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and check writing online, this could result in m phil an unhappy teenager ruining away from abstracts home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.

Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is a natural process. However, the m phil networking, family system would need to of a good thesis re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the m phil computer science, father and the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over check my english, the maternal role in the case of the thesis computer networking, death of eugene debs papers, a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the m phil computer science, Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by abstracts for research papers, implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is computer carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on which it is built. Debs Research Papers. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the m phil computer, Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an observing team is check my english online involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by computer science, the Milan Group.

Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into thesis statement ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the whoever made the networking, initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of social control agent rather than that of therapist.

Therapist brings in eugene papers other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the m phil computer networking, family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and check my english, the session Conclusions of the team presented to the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for thesis computer family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and the observing team. 6 = Observing team.

(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in writing essay apparent opposition to the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in m phil thesis computer Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for help with essay both stability and m phil thesis computer science networking, change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to is not essay therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to thesis science change, to for research papers #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in one part of the m phil thesis computer networking, system cannot occur without change in the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is a context where change is expected to take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

The use of placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). Abstracts Papers. This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the science, Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of career, crucial importance 3.1.2. Thesis Computer Science Networking. The question that the Milan Group found to be most significant was: Why is this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of using the strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Help With Writing An Argumentative. Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the centre of m phil science networking, their focus of interest was families and not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).

Further, the Milan Group began to life experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. From the basis of m phil networking, these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to 5 characteristics of a statement why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to computer science networking the development of the therapeutic process over abstracts papers, time, according to the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the science, therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is a fundamental concept in the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into writing reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is thesis computer networking consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.

Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is help with an argumentative essay interrelated and thesis computer networking, is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). 5 Characteristics Of A Good. The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to punctuate relationships, re-defining them in such way as to m phil thesis computer show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and check online, differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to further questions, they used this technique to thesis computer science networking continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on my english online #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the crucial emphasis is thesis computer networking #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for easy the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to networking be able to follow the check writing, openings or responses that revealed themselves from the questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). The therapist had to m phil thesis be aligned to no one and to everyone in the family at essay business management career, the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).

Neutrality, and the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to be supported in a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the computer science networking, sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in therapy the necessary room and freedom to explore alternative ways of 5 characteristics good thesis statement, thinking and behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in therapy.

This is thesis computer epistemologically consistent with the eugene debs papers, paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by m phil science, the family. Essay Management. Being inside the system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to m phil thesis computer science networking whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in all, or even some families. A further question arises as to good statement the degree of integration in the family system. M Phil Computer Science Networking. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the system was perturbed by being punctuated by the presence of the therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the good statement, family in order to m phil thesis science accommodate that perturbation. Working from the base of being part of the family system, the life easy, Milan Group used to thesis computer networking prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to help an argumentative essay lead to change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Computer. Further, the Milan Group worked according to abstracts for research papers the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of m phil thesis science, rituals had to be carried out very exactly and for research, carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). It is important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the thesis networking, status quo in the family system is a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by the Milan Group 4.3 . Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of family life, but rather framed in terms of experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).

Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the debs papers, family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of thesis computer networking, a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and easy, reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of science networking, confusion arises at this stage for this writer, in that the Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to eugene papers understand the history of families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to open up the family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to penetrated into m phil computer science the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in is not easy their approach.

Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the m phil computer science networking, therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. If parents were told to good thesis statement attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in the children. Networking. Parents, even though adhering to the injunction to eugene debs secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the computer, session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. It is important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).

That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the my english writing online, hierarchy in terms of certain specific sub-systems within the computer networking, family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). 5 Characteristics Thesis. These subsystems, according to the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in the form of m phil thesis science, negotiation of roles within and between the subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by eugene research, the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and what is called a mental problem is thesis computer science really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and theory were directed rather at patterns and interactions, instead of at is not easy, the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.

The discussion between the members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in thesis the negative trap laid for them by writing online, the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. What the team did was to develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the embodiment of the family#146;s way of trying to keep the memories of m phil thesis science, his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Good. No longer was the boy seen as an individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the thesis science, prescription in this family#146;s case was for the boy to find a way to help his relatives to stop, or at writing, least deal with, their worries about him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the therapeutic techniques and interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.

This proposition will now be subjected to m phil computer science networking a brief analysis to test it. Testing the principle of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the for research, family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is thesis science consistent with the concept of mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Verderber#146;s transactional model of debs papers, communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and m phil thesis computer science, functioning of systems (communicator/s and recipient/s) in the context of the debs papers, communication encounter, where meaning is m phil thesis computer networking created and negotiated. Communication is abstracts papers a basic and m phil computer science, essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Communication, seen in the light of Verderber#146;s model, is a systemic or cybernetic concept.

The method of circular questioning devised by 5 characteristics of a, the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and the formation of hypotheses that not only function as feedback channels within the therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and m phil computer, that of their clients (at least in some cases). Check My English Writing Online. Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is thesis computer networking systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. Help An Argumentative Essay. framed in terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of homeostasis or equilibrium.

In terms of social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of m phil thesis networking, a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of 5 characteristics of a good thesis, therapy, the family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is self-explanatory: the patterns of communication that the family uses. In a homeostatic state the patterns of m phil computer science networking, communication are fixed and maintain an research papers, existing level of functioning for the family. M Phil Computer. The system can be described as stuck. Research Papers. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the communication patterns of the thesis computer, family that can occur by ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the equilibrium of the system.

The system thus needs to adjust in eugene debs papers order to maintain optimal functioning (the goal of systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. For example, Girard proposes the thesis networking, scapegoat myth as the origin of religion and culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the life is not essay, discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to science networking present an research, alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the m phil thesis science networking, transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).

Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over abstracts for research papers, possession of it. Because the fight was caused by mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the object that had triggered it, it became infectious and more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the desires of those already involved. Thesis Networking. Eventually the fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. Papers. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an m phil networking, important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). Eugene Papers. It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into m phil thesis networking focus, as according to Girard, during the business management career, course of the computer science networking, battle, all the combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.

Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on two levels: the level of human emotions (desire and help with writing essay, the conflict that results from it, and the level of m phil thesis computer networking, resolution of conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. The concept of an argumentative, ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to release the negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Science. Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for check writing a release of mimetic desire, and then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).

Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and computer networking, sometimes simplistic in eugene debs his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the Milan Group#146;s emphasis on prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of flexibility, which is less tied to dogma and theorising that the original model. This is an important development, as it could be said that the original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. M Phil Computer. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to of a good thesis slip into the pitfall of trying to make families fit their models. This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the work of networking, Cecchin and colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by developing a model of dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for the system/family concerned.

By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of breaking the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and their clients from the 5 characteristics of a good thesis, tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Part of the linguistic trap is that people tend to science networking reify labels. Business Career. For example: fear and ignorance of schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into thesis a position where the label becomes the disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and is not, maintenance of thesis, disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to 5 characteristics of a good thesis statement break the concept of the label as the disorder by reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.

Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the m phil computer, problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the abstracts, family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is a paradox. Systems do what they do best in order to function as a result of the m phil computer, way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an overlap of function and of definition. For example: a family is research papers defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.

That definition forms a boundary. M Phil Computer. However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the writing, boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). Science Networking. The definition and the structure of the family both need each other in order to form a reality that is abstracts valid for that family within a certain context. A change of thesis networking, context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the papers, family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the thesis science, family. Cybernetic systems can be seen in help with one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). They function in order to computer science networking do what they do, which is to business exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of internal pressures in relationship to perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the m phil, system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).

In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the easy, above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for science the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the eugene debs research, family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Thesis Computer Science. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to essay management career therapy by families as presented as problems by thesis networking, the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of check writing, a cybernetic point of view.

With regard to this proposition, the thesis networking, Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and theory, and acknowledge, and in fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of context.

Importance of recursiveness and feedback Acknowledgement of negative feedback Original acknowledgement of principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from this model and took history into help writing account. Importance of m phil thesis, communication patterns in essay management career a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the m phil thesis computer science, their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of with writing essay, saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of systems Room to find alternative ways of thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of computer, functioning Perturbations of communication patterns in families Negotiation of meanings between subsystems.

Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to business management the therapeutic process. In footnotes to the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). According to second order cybernetics, systems function the way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on breaking out of linguistic traps.

For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the m phil thesis science networking, term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. Essay Business. In terms of m phil thesis science, Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. 5 Characteristics Good Thesis Statement. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to m phil thesis science networking look for the reality in between these opposites. However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and help with an argumentative, dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of health is created by the meaning of dysfunction. It could then be said that it is necessary to have a concept of health in thesis computer science order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the good statement, reality of m phil thesis computer science networking, both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and dysfunction. Regarding the life easy essay, prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the m phil thesis computer science, knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).

The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the history and background of their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the eugene, Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the opposite in their theory. Connected to this point is the issue of history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of thesis networking, cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . With Writing An Argumentative. Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the do best in order to exist, and if the Group#146;s approach works in m phil therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to with writing an argumentative have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. 1995.

Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach . Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Bateson, G. 1971. M Phil. A Systems Approach. International Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 9, 242 #150; 244. Becvar, D S; Becvar, R J. 1996 . Family Therapy: A systemic integration. Third Edition . Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cecchin, G; Lane, G; Ray, W A. 1994.

The Cybernetics of Prejudices in abstracts the Practice of Psychotherapy . London: Karnac Books. Combrinck-Graham, L. 1987. Invitation to a kiss: Diagnosing ecosystemically. Psychotherapy. Volume 24, Number 35, 504-510. Cottone, R R. 1989. Defining the computer, psychomedical and systemic paradigms in marital and family therapy. Journal of Marital and easy, Family Therapy.

Volume 15, Number 3, 225-235. Davison, G C; Neale, J M. 1998. Abnormal Psychology: Seventh Edition. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Fishman, H C; Rosman B L. (Editors) 1986. Evolving Model for Family Change: A Volume in Honor of thesis computer science, Salvador Minuchin. New York: The Guilford Press . Fourie, D P. Check My English. 1998. Hypnosis in treatment: an ecosystemic approach . M Phil Thesis Computer Science. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Girard, R. (Translated by life easy essay, Yvonne Freccero).

1989. The Scapegoat. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Goosen, D P. Computer Networking. 1994. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4.

Pretoria: University of South Africa. Goosen, D P. For Research Papers. 1994. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Hanken, A F G. 1981.

Cybernetics and Society: An Analysis of Social Systems. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus Press. Honderich, T. (Editor) 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Janov, A. 1989. Prisoners of Pain . London: Sphere Books Ltd. Keeney, B P. 1979. Computer. Ecosystemic epistemology: An alternative paradigm for diagnosis.

Family Process. Volume 18, 117-129. Krüger, J S. 1995. Along Edges. Religion in South Africa: Bushman, Christian, Buddhist. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Krüger, J S; le Roux, C du P; Lubbe, G J A; Goosen, D P. 1994.

Religious Studies. Only study guide for 5 characteristics SBB200-D. Networking. Study guide 2 for MSR522-Y. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Macy, J. 1991. My English Writing. Mutual causality in Buddhism and general systems theory: the thesis computer, dharma of natural systems. New York: Albany State University of New York Press. Miller, A. 1987. For Your Own Good: The Roots of of a good thesis statement, Violence in Child-rearing . Thesis. London: Virago Press Ltd.

Miller, A. S.. 1991. Gaia Connections: An introduction to Ecology, Ecoethics, and Economics. Rowman and check my english writing, Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Savage, Maryland. Minuchin, S; Fishman, H C. 1981. Family Therapy Techniques. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press. Minuchin, S; Lee, W-Y; Simon, GM.

1996. Mastering Family Therapy: Journeys of Growth and Transformation. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Morton, A. 1996. Philosophy in Practice: an introduction to the main questions. M Phil Thesis Computer Networking. Blackwell: Cambridge, Mass. O#146; Callaghan, C A. 1976. A General Systems Theory Approach to the Diagnosis of my english, Emotional, Behavioural, and Learning Disorders of m phil thesis science networking, Childhood . Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms. Odum, E P. 1971.

Fundamentals of check my english writing, Ecology. Third Edition. W. B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia. Odum, E P. 1983. Thesis Computer. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth. Oosthuizen, G C. Help Essay. 1991. M Phil Computer Science. The death of the soul and the crisis in ecology. University of Pretoria: Pretoria.

Palazzoli, M; Cirillo, S; Selvini; Sorrentino, A M. Abstracts For Research Papers. (Kleiber, V Translator) 1989. Family Games: General Model of Psychotic Processes in science networking the Family. New York: W W Norton Company. Reber, A S. 1995. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology . Second Edition . London: Penguin Group. Satir, V; Banmen, J; Gerber, J; Gomori, M. 1991. The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond. Palo Alto: Science and Behaviour Books, Inc. Steinberg, S. 1997. Introduction to Communication: Course Book 1 The Basics. Cape Town: Juta Company.

Sue, D; Sue, D; Sue, S. Online. 1994. Understanding Abnormal Behaviour: Fourth Edition . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, M C. 1992. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. M Phil Computer Science. London: The University of management, Chicago Press Ltd. Visser E; Grundlingh A; Genot, S; McKay, D; Fourie D; Von Krosigk, B. M Phil Computer Science. 1995. Psychopathology: Study Guide for PSY311-B. Easy. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Zohar, D. 1991. The Quantum Self.

London: Flamingo.

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Mphil thesis in computer science …

Trevor Chamberlain and David Curtis. During the entire course I have done a lot of m phil thesis computer science networking research and have analysed the help with writing an argumentative work and technique of different artists, and in thesis science particular I have become interested in the works of people such as Trevor Chamberlain and David Curtis. These artist mostly concentrate on landscape including urbanised landscape, both can observe light condition and create an atmosphere in check the whole of the composition. Looking at their work they seemed weirdly familiar to me, I had the feeling that I had seem works like this before and I was right as both artists are continuing something that was shown in the 18 th century by Richard Wilson, Thomas Girtin, John Constable and m phil thesis science networking William Turner. Help Writing An Argumentative Essay? These artists started a new era in landscape painting because in their work in landscape moved away from m phil computer, figurative paintings where the landscape was just a background or decoration for help, figures and buildings or monument into a new kind of m phil networking thinking about landscape where the landscape is shown more truly and realistically. The main reason for this was the beginning of working in the outdoors; this was started by Richard Wilson whose work shows very authentic, fresh and subtle landscape. Is Not? This kind of outdoor painting was continued later by Thomas Girtin who created his painting on plain watercolour paper without using a sketch first. This sort of science networking technique requires quick decisions and great skill. Check My English Writing Online? All the artists named above love English nature and rural landscape. In their work they slowly throw away the usual patterns and colours of landscapes and they don’t beautify the landscape but create emotion, and these emotions are taken straight from thesis science networking, nature and put onto debs research canvas. They observe the relationship between shadow and light perfectly and often the colour is broken into pieces.

From these artists you can learn how to m phil science, paint fog, ice or snow and most importantly light. For example William Turner goes even further and writing online he plays with contrast of networking shadow and dark shades of colour and he also concentrates on abstracts papers storms, lightning and dramatic clouds, the buildings are set on fire with the light and colour and m phil thesis science figures and small elements of the landscape disappear in the fog. Doing this William Turner becomes precursor of business management impressionism, and looking at all of his work he may even go beyond impressionism because his work is computer networking included in the specific English landscape painting which the artist mentioned above all master. Essay? Studying and observing the thesis computer works of artist from 18 th and easy 19 th century, in a natural Trevor Chamberlain and David Curtis carry on their heritage and of course time does not stand still and in the world of art a lot has happened yet they still are able to take from classical art and add this to modern art and this is why their work will always be bringing something new to m phil computer science, the art world. This is what real art is about.

PART FOUR- LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS. PROJECT 1- LINEAR PERSPECTIVE. EXERCISE: DISTANCE- PREPARATORY DRAWINGS. I started this exercise with going to Holy Island on a trip taking my equipment with me, when there I drew some pictures that showed distance and perspective. The pictures had a clear horizon line. I wanted to paint but only used felt tips and writing did the drawing from inside my car as it was too windy. Thesis Computer Science? I had the idea of then diluting the felt tips with water, creating more colours and gave me the impression of what the colours would look like if I later chose to do the pictures in water colour.

EXERCISE: DISTANCE- LINEAR PERSPECTIVE DRAWING AND PAINTING. I started this exercise by painting the view from my window due to the weather conditions but the view showed too many things and the distance was not clear, I just saw a valley without sky or the horizontal line. So I experimented and tried to show more perspective adding darker elements in the foreground using chalk, this gave me the impression of distance as the darker objects appear closer than the lighter ones. Next I used a photo which I took while on Holy Island which shows very clear perspective and painted a picture of this, the pilgrims posts helped greatly with showing perspective. PREOJECT 2- ARIAL PERSPECTIVE.

EXERCISE: AERIAL PERSPECTIVE URBAN LANDSCAPE-PAINTING. For this exercise I chose to 5 characteristics thesis statement, paint from a photo as I live in the country and did not have a chance to thesis computer networking, go to a more urban area. I painted Clifford’s Tower in York. EXERCISE: AERIAL PERSPECTIVE IN RURAL LANDSCAPE. In the region I live in there is a lot of places where there is a lot of nature, rocks and small hills, so doing this exercise I did three paintings choosing places where there are rocks and cliffs as that is one of the topics I will be looking at later. Next I did a painting from a photograph of a lake in the Lake District, the inspiration for this was the painting “Dolbadarn Castle” by Samuel Jackson which shows perspective in a brilliant way. PROJECT 3- PAINTING SKY. EXCERICE: TONALLY GRADED WASH AND SIMPLE CLOUDS AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLOUDS.

I observed the sky and the first difficulty was how to paint clouds so I decided to for research papers, first do a small sample painting on dry paper and then a second on wet paper and compared which looked better, my conclusion was that I needed to work on wet paper. M Phil Thesis Computer Science? I did a third bigger painting remembering the clouds I saw as they kept changing but also experimenting at the same time. I then observed the sky later on and did a painting where the form of the clouds was different. I decided to then find greyer cold colour and attempted to paint them. Help An Argumentative? Doing this exercise I tried lots of m phil different things and experimented dampening the page and for research using a sponge to computer, create effects. The difficulty with this was that the sky was taken out of context and I wasn’t sure if I was true and abstracts I might have changed things to give the paintings a better effect. EXERCISE: SKY DOMINATED LANDSCAPE. Thesis Computer Science? I found including a landscape with the writing an argumentative sky much easier to thesis, paint.

My first work I wanted to give the effect of cloudy hills. Next I painted a picture looking down from a hill onto foggy moors with the fog blending in with the life essay sky. I then painted a sunset where the sky was being reflected in puddles of water. The next painting shows sky with just a dark outline of the horizon. The last two paintings show sky at the sea side with two different weather conditions, one with dark dramatic sky the m phil computer science other with a calm more warm sky. PROJECT 4- PAINTING WATER.

ECERCISE: STILL LIFE WITH WATER. Essay Management Career? I did two paintings for thesis science networking, this exercise where fruit was placed in a glass bowl filled with water. I had a problem with the glass bowl as it was very reflective and it can’t be hidden that the reflections changed the colour of the water and so the essay career banana and apple looked different surrounded by computer science networking water. EXCERSISE: PAINTING STILL AND DISTURBED WATER. In the first three paintings I tried painting a small stream where the water reflected the check my english online colours of the surrounding greenery and soil where only in some moments you could see light reflections that looked more like water. Next I painted a pond which had the reflection of trees and plants surrounding it but everything kept changing very quickly so I am not sure I portrayed the effect of water clearly. The first tried where done from a very close distance and show close ups of water, on a later day I returned and m phil thesis computer science painted the pond from a different perspective showing the water in a context. EXERCISE: PAINTING MOVING WATER. I first did one small try showing moving rain water which appeared brown and dirty. Next I went to the river and did a painting of foaming water trying out some new techniques and then I did a bigger painting showing more of the river and in some context. PROJECT 5- PICTORIAL INTREST.

EXERCISE: PAINTING TREES. It is very difficult to paint a tree because I always have a problem with the branches, I try painting the with writing an argumentative trees showing natural shape but also not making the branches looks too sharp. I found a lovely autumn atmosphere painting trees and in the second painting I also decided to m phil computer science, include water. I tried to make sure the trees were included and clear in with writing an argumentative essay the landscape but not over powering or in networking the foreground which to me looks more natural. I have the impression that the two paintings are a way of showing trees in the background in future paintings. EXERCISE: PAINTING ROCKS. First I found a place where there were plenty of rocks and life is not easy essay I did two paintings but I don’t think the composition was the best as it was too concentrated on the rocks and the composition seems too heavy. This lead me to paint some rocks from the distance but the light was not too good and there wasn’t much contrast on science networking the rocks.

On another day I tried to management career, paint different kinds of computer rock with a more orange tone and then I painted some gravel in water. Finally I painted some rocks from a photograph where the contrast was strong due to the light shining on the rocks from abstracts for research, one side, this photograph also had a very interesting background. EXERCISE: ANIMALS AND HUMAN FIGURES IN THE LANDSCAPE. I made quick sketches of cows in the field and m phil thesis computer networking worked very fast as they were all moving and I am not sure if I have drawn the life easy proportions right but I wanted to create an impression and capture them in a given moment. For the human figures I did a quick sketch of a farmer in thesis science a field. For the final painting I used a photograph from my holiday which showed an 5 characteristics of a good thesis, interesting scene of my family on a rocky beach giving me another chance to practice painting rocks and m phil thesis computer science water in the background. I did not do a very good study of the human figure but rather showed the contrast between the colours of the skin and papers the colour of the rocks the figures are on, I think it is an interesting show of colours and if I have more time I will come back to this concept and try to do this painting more precisely. Science Networking? The first painting with the farmer, in my opinion, show a better connection with the landscape but the essay business management career second shows clear contrast but I have the impression that the unusual choice of colours can also be very interesting. Scottish painter born in 1959. One of the most well-known British figurative painters but many of his paintings are landscapes.

I was especially interested in his landscape work as I was working outside. Some of his works have a very abstract character and m phil thesis science some of business career his work shows resemblance to work of Edward Munch, Cloude Monet and Gustav Climt. The thing I find most interesting is that the artist mostly uses photographs to create his paintings from but he changes the character of the photograph and m phil computer networking adds something personal. Photographic documentation allows him to capture a specific moment and capture time in a frame. We meet a scene where the light, objects and people which is easy essay ever changing is stopped on the film of science networking a photograph so the artist can now use different methods of expression to show the picture in with his own way. The artist also uses specific colours which aren’t the computer networking most realistic but when looking at for research tones everything fits together, you could say they have a very natural character.

The colour is often vibrant and there isn’t much contrast but everything is in the right balance. Sometimes we have a feeling that there is some optical effect in the painting, looking at his work we have ambivalent feeling. An artist whose work in some ways reminds us of art-deco but at the same time uses colour and is able to capture a photographic spot and turn it into a great unusual piece of art. I will definitely be looking more at his work especially when working with photographs.

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M phil Research projects and Thesis …

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Syllabus for English Language Proficiency. Subject Code: Engl 125 Descriptive Title: English for Specific Purposes; English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Nation . Pre-Requisite: Engl 121, Engl 122 Credit: 3 units I. Subject Description: This course is intended to develop students’ skills in the use of the English language in the context of teaching profession. Like any course in thesis computer networking, English for easy Specific Purposes, it is anchored on the philosophy that the students’ mastery of the English language should be developed, primarily, along. English language , French language , Language acquisition 719 Words | 5 Pages. Language Acquisition and m phil networking, Oral Proficiency. Testing Oral Proficiency: Difficulties and Methods Introduction: Although testing language has traditionally taken the for research papers, . form of testing knowledge about language, the m phil science, idea of essay career, testing communicative competence is becoming recognized as being of great importance in m phil thesis science networking, second language learning. In testing communicative competence, speaking and listening tasks are commonly used. Those require tasks such as the completion of an information gap and role play (Kitao Kitao, 1996). As language.

Assessment , Communication , Language 2504 Words | 7 Pages. Oral Communication in debs research papers, English : Forms , Functions, and Strategies. Thesis! KHAIRIYAH BT MOHAMMAD ASRI The Communication . Essay Career! Process. ? ? ? Sender send message to the receiver. The sender will encode his message and go through a channel. The receiver will then decode the message using contextual Importance of English ? ? ? Lingua franca Used world wide. Malaysian’s mother language has influence the English – Manglish.

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Rather than thinking of oral communication skills as the ability for a student to make a speech, it is important to consider both informal and formal uses of communication within a situation. Rationale Oral communication skills equip students to effectively comprehend, critique, and analyze information. Communication , Critical thinking , International Communication Association 1852 Words | 6 Pages. ? Oral Book Report: 10% of final grade Task: Give an oral presentation of 5 -10 minutes in length in which you . present a novel to the class. Your discussion of the essay business, novel must include the following elements: a short biography of the science, author a description of the main characters and setting a brief description of the main events (without spoiling the novel for other readers!) an analysis of the good thesis statement, main theme or themes of the novel an evaluation of the book overall. What did you like? What did you. Canada Reads , Canadian novelists , Canadian short story writers 493 Words | 4 Pages. Guess Paper – 2009 Class – X Subject – English (Grammar) Make regular practice of thesis science, English grammar at eugene debs research . Thesis Computer Science! Learn English from home. email : Max. Marks 25 Que. 1. The following passage has not been edited.

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Swimming , Swimming at the Summer Olympics 344 Words | 3 Pages. Intelligence Definition and Measurement Paper. Intelligence Definition and Measurement Paper Dr. Christie Seiler February 14, 2013 Intelligence Definition and Measurement . Paper Introduction The definition of intelligence has been debated for years within the debs, psychology field. Intelligence does not have a standard definition of which it comprises. Thesis Science! Psychologists such as Howard Gardner and Robert Sternberg established their own definitions of with writing essay, intelligence. Howard Gardner focused on multiple intelligences which described eight dissimilar. Intelligence , Intelligence quotient , Psychometrics 1242 Words | 4 Pages.

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Course ENGLISH – Year 12 Standard and Advanced 2013 Date Week 2 Tuesday 5th of February Time: By appointment Place: . Sutherland Rooms Task No. 1 Weighting - 10% ( 5 % speaking/ 5 % reading) Topics to be assessed: Belonging Nature of Task: Reading/Speaking Students are to select a related text on the topic of ‘Belonging’. Life Is Not Easy! This text is not allowed to m phil computer networking, be a text issued in class by check my english any one of the Standard or Advanced English teachers or a text previously studied. Audience , Demonstration , Gospel of Mark 1201 Words | 5 Pages. ? RESEARCH PAPER COURSE # and thesis computer, TITLE: ENGLISH 102: Literature and life is not easy, composition SEMESTER OF ENROLLMENT: . Fall B 2013 NAME: WRITING STYLE USED________APA__________ Sophocles’ Oedipus A Tragic Hero Thesis: One of the best known fictional heroes in the history of m phil science networking, Greek drama and papers, literature is Sophocles’ Oedipus; a character who represents many aspects of life; he is a hero, a son, a husband. Character , Drama , Oedipus 1498 Words | 5 Pages. Some Guidelines to Teach English Introduction English is currently the most popular “second language” in the world. Its . unquestioned position as the lingua franca of international business, media, science, education, and politics has spurred millions of people across the globe to learn this once marginal language.

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PAPER ( 5 PAGES DOUBLE-SPACED) DUE: April 28th, 2011 1. Carol B. Davies defines “politics of location” as “ positionality in is not easy, . society based on class, gender, sexuality, age, income. It is also about relationality and the ways in which one is able to m phil thesis computer science, access, mediate or reposition oneself, or pass into help an argumentative, other spaces given certain circumstances.” How does the “politics of location”, as defined by Davies, affect two characters in one or two of the novels we read this semester? Use specific examples to show.