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bill ayers essay Mike Ludwig of Truthout: Trump's nominee to head the EPA's clean air program has represented industry groups opposed to economics phd thesis, new standards meant to protect workers from cancerous dust. Trump's Quest to Enrich the Richest: An Interview With Noam Chomsky. The Trump administration's policies at home and abroad represent the current form of the Republican Party: a wrecking ball wielded by the powerful. (Image: HarperCollins Publishers) More than 30 top progressive thinkers have joined together to Imagine Living in a Socialist USA, a new book from HarperCollins edited by Frances Goldin, Debby Smith and american Michael Steven Smith. Get the book now from Truthout for a minimum contribution of $25. Just click here for this roadmap to environmental economics phd thesis, a socialist America. The following is a chapter by essay childhood retired education professor William Ayers from the anthology.

In it, Ayers advocates replacing a capitalist-oriented educational system with one that liberates students and their intellectual and creative capabilities. From Imagine Living in a Socialist USA: High-stakes standardized testing is to environmental, learning as: a. Memorizing a flight manual is to research, flying. Phd Thesis. b. Short Essay. Watching Hawaii Five-0 is to doing police work. Environmental Phd Thesis. c. Phd Thesis Proposal. Exchanging marriage vows is to a successful marriage. d. Reading Gray’s Anatomy is to practicing surgery. e. Environmental. Singing the national anthem is to good citizenship. f. All of the to other assignments that above. Economics Phd Thesis. The typical American classroom has as much to offer an inquiring mind as does: c. A street corner. d. The city dump. Presentation. e. The custodian’s closet. f. none of the environmental above. The answer to india, each is “f” - in the first question for obvious reasons, and in the second because each of the other answers offer much more to an inquiring mind. Capitalist Education: Into the economics phd thesis Wreckage. Schools serve societies, and every society is reflected, for better and for worse, in its schools. Proposal Presentation Outline. Every school is both a mirror of and environmental phd thesis a window into the defining social order. If one looks at the schools hard enough, one can see the whole of the larger society; if one fully grasps the intricacies of society, one will know something about how its schools must be organized, and why. In a totalitarian society, schools are built to teach obedience and conformity, plain and simple. In a kingdom, schools teach allegiance to the crown.

An ancient agrarian community apprentices the young to become participants in a rustic world of farming. With a theocratic regime come lessons in faithfulness and piety and devotion. These schools might be “excellent” by some standards or measures, but whatever else is taught - math or music, literature or science - the most important lessons are those that teach how to function in to other writing assignment required a specific social order. South Africa under apartheid had beautiful palaces of learning and small state-of-the-art classes for white kids - and overcrowded, dilapidated, ill-equipped classes for the African kids. That made perfect, if perverse, sense: privilege and oppression were on environmental opposite sides of the color line, and everyone understood that hard, cruel fact. German schools in the early twentieth century produced excellent scientists, athletes, artists, and intellectuals, and they also produced submission and conformity, moral blindness, obtuse patriotism - and people for whom a pathway straight into the furnaces for some of their fellow citizens seemed acceptable. Debs. In our capitalist society, we are insistently encouraged to think of education as a product like a car or a refrigerator, a box of bolts or a screwdriver - something bought and sold in economics phd thesis the marketplace like any other commodity. Eugene Debs Research. The controlling metaphor is that the schoolhouse is a business run by a CEO: the teachers are the workers, and the students are the raw material bumping along the assembly line, getting information stuffed into their little upturned heads. Within this model, it’s easy to economics, believe that downsizing the least productive “units” and privatizing a space that was once public is perfectly natural. It’s also easy to childhood vaccinations, think that teaching toward a simple standardized measurement and relentlessly applying state-administered (but privately developed and quite profitable) tests to determine the “outcomes” are a rational proxy for learning. It’s easy to think that “zero tolerance” for environmental economics phd thesis, student misbehavior is a sane stand-in for child development or justice.

And it’s easy to think that centrally controlled “standards” for curriculum and teaching are commonsensical, and that “accountability” - that is, a range of papers, sanctions on students, teachers, and schools (but never on lawmakers, foundations, corporations, or high officials) is logical and economics phd thesis level-headed. Scholar Essays. A merry band of billionaires, including Fortune 500 CEOs Bill Gates, Michael Bloomberg, Sam Walton, and Eli Broad, has led a wave of “school reform” within this frame - capitalist schooling on steroids. These titans spread around massive amounts of cash to promote their agenda as “common sense”: dismantle public schools, crush the teachers’ unions, test and environmental phd thesis punish. In other words, destroy the collective voice of teachers, sort students into winners and losers, and sell off the public square to the wealthy. Eugene. This peculiar brand of schooling is part of environmental economics, these billionaires’ social vision - that education is an individual consumer good, neither a public trust nor a social good, and certainly not a fundamental human right. It serves a society of brute competition that produces mass misery along with the iron-hard idea that such misery is the phd thesis proposal only alternative. Environmental Economics. The education we’ve become accustomed to debs, is a grotesque caricature, neither authentically nor primarily about full human development.

Why, for example, is education thought of as only kindergarten through twelfth grade, or even kindergarten through university? Why does education occur only early in life? Why is there a point in our lives when we no longer think we need education? Why, again, is there a hierarchy of phd thesis, teacher over students? Why are there grades and grade levels? Why, indeed, do we think of a “productive” sector and compared writing an essay required a “service” sector in our society with education designated as a service activity? Why is economics phd thesis, education separate from production? Schools for compliance and conformity are characterized by vaccinations passivity and fatalism and infused with anti-intellectualism and irrelevance. They turn on the little technologies for control and normalization - the elaborate schemes for managing the mob, the knotted system of rules and discipline, the exhaustive machinery of schedules and clocks, and the laborious programs of sorting the crowd into winners and losers through testing and punishing, grading, assessing, and economics judging. Paper Finance India. All of this adds up to a familiar cave, an intricately constructed hierarchy - everyone in a designated place and a place for everyone. In the environmental schools as they are here and now, knowing and accepting one’s pigeonhole on the towering and barren cliff becomes the only lesson one really needs.

When the aim of education and the sole measure of success is competitive, learning becomes exclusively selfish and there is no obvious social motive to pursue it. People are turned against one another as every difference becomes a potential deficit. Getting ahead is the primary goal in such places, and mutual assistance, which can be so natural in other human affairs, is severely restricted or banned. Beyond Capitalist Education: Trudging Toward Freedom. Parents, students, citizens, teachers, and educators might press now for an education worthy of a democracy and essential to a future of free people. This would include an end to sorting People into winners and losers through standardized tests. An end to starving schools of needed resources and then blaming teachers and their unions for dismal outcomes. Short Essay. An end to the militarization of schools, “zero tolerance” policies, and gender-identity discrimination. An end to the savage inequalities that deprive schools in historically segregated and poor communities of the resources they need and have rarely received.

All children and youth, regardless of their economic or social circumstances, deserve full access to richly resourced classrooms led by caring, thoughtful, fully qualified, and generously compensated teachers. Economics Phd Thesis. The development of free people is the central goal of proposal, teaching toward and environmental economics within the free society of the future. Teaching toward freedom and democracy is based on a common faith in the incalculable value of every human being and the principle that the fullest development of all is the condition for the full development of each, and, conversely, that the fullest development of phd thesis outline, each is the condition for environmental, the full development of all. At its best, socialist education would strive for short essay author, this ideal. But a hundred years of history demand that we resist lazy labels or easy assertions of political purity. We know that capitalism is an exploitative system, but socialism has often presented itself in authoritarian and narrowly nationalistic shrouds, which revolutionary humanists cannot (and should not) defend. As a teacher and an activist, I want to urge a little doubt, a hint of skepticism, a word of caution, lest we trap ourselves in the prison of a single bright and blinding idea. Just as revolutionaries living through the death throes of environmental economics phd thesis, feudalism could not predict with any certainty the institutions that would be born in the new age, built up within the shell of the old, we cannot do more than fight for more peace, more egalitarianism, more participation, more justice, and more democracy. We would do well to bring a strong sense of agnosticism to the effort, along with our expansive dreams of freedom, our desires, our sense of play, humor, art, surprise, and, mostly, love, which is rooted in reciprocity and short by filipino author always renewable.

Love sharpens our senses and asks us to outdo ourselves. In a vibrant and liberated culture, schools would make a serious commitment to free inquiry, open questioning and phd thesis full participation; access and equity and simple fairness; a curriculum that encourages independent thought and judgment. Instead of paper finance, obedience and conformity, it would promote initiative, courage, imagination and creativity. The schools we need - and economics phd thesis schools that we can fight for essays, now - are lived in the present tense. The best preparation for a meaningful future life is living a meaningful present life, and so rich experiences and powerful interactions - as opposed to a bitter pill - should be on offer at schools every day. A good school or classroom is an artist’s studio and a workshop for inventors, a place where experimentation with materials and investigations in the world happen every day. A good school is fearless, risk-taking, thoughtful, activist, intimate, and environmental phd thesis deep, a space where fundamental questions are pursued to their furthest limits. Foundational questions that free people pursue might become the essay by filipino central stuff of our schools: What’s your story? How is it like or unlike the stories of others?

What do we owe one another? What does it mean to economics phd thesis, be human in the twenty-first century? What qualities and dispositions and knowledge are of most value to humanity? How can we nourish, develop, and organize full access to those valuable qualities? Why are we here? What do we want? What kind of world could we reasonably hope to create? How might we begin? These questions - themes in literature and short essay by filipino author the arts through the ages - are not as lofty and distant as they might sound. Environmental Phd Thesis. In a preschool, a teacher might organize a “Me Curriculum” and interview each child, reserving a section of wall devoted to a “kid of the week” that spotlights each one, with kids telling the childhood story of their family, how they got their first name, their favorite books and food, and more. In third grade, students might interview a “family hero” and present oral histories to the group, focused on significant events in their life, migration or movement, and life lessons learned.

A group of middle-school students might spend a year exploring the environment of their neighborhood, mapping everything from housing and labor patterns to health and recreation and environmental economics phd thesis crime statistics. High school kids might develop a rich and varied portfolio for graduation, a set of works to be defended in front of a committee consisting of an advisor, a peer, a teacher, a community resident, and a family member. This might consist of paper india, grades and phd thesis test scores (in the an essay required short-term, as the environmental phd thesis system transitions), along with an original work of art, a physical challenge set and essays met, a favorite piece of writing, a record of community service, a work/ study plan for the next four years, a list of the ten best books they’ve read, an essay on “What Makes an Educated Person,” and a list of the books and essays they want to read, films they want to watch, and projects they plan to pursue in the next five years. And so on. We learn skills, facts, and knowledge in a context. In a future free society, that context would be the pursuit of a free and productive life for all. Our schools would resist the overspecialization of human activity, the economics separation of the intellectual from the manual, the head from the hand, the paper finance heart from the brain, the creative from the environmental economics functional. The standard would become fluidity of function, the variation of finance, work and capacity, the mobilization of intelligence and creativity and initiative and work in all directions. Where active work is the order of the day, helping others is not a form of charity, something that impoverishes both the recipient and the benefactor. Rather, a spirit of open communication, interchange, and analysis becomes commonplace. Phd Thesis. In these places, there is a certain natural disorder, a certain amount of anarchy and chaos, as there is in any busy workshop.

But there is a deeper discipline at work: the discipline of getting things done and learning through life. On the side of a liberating and humanizing education lies a pedagogy of questioning, an approach that opens rather than closes the process of thinking, comparing, reasoning, perspective-taking, and dialogue. It demands something upending and revolutionary from students and teachers alike. Repudiate your place in the pecking order, it urges, remove that distorted, congenial mask of compliance: You must change! We would learn to embrace the importance of dialogue with one another.

In dialogue, one speaks with the possibility of being heard and simultaneously listens with the possibility of being changed. Dialogue is both the most hopeful and the most dangerous pedagogical practice, for in it, our own dogma and certainty and orthodoxy must be held in abeyance, must be subject to scrutiny. The ethical core of teaching toward tomorrow must be designed to create hope and essays a sense of agency and possibility in students. There are three big lessons. Economics. History is still in the making, the future is compared writing assignments an essay assignment that, unknowable, and what you do or don’t do will make a difference (and, of course, choosing not to choose is itself a choice). Each of us is environmental, a work in progress - unfinished, dynamic, in-process, on short by filipino the move and, yes, on the make - swimming through the wreckage toward a distant and indistinct shore. And, finally, you don’t need anyone’s permission to ask questions about the world. Teachers with freedom on their minds would come to recognize that the opposite of moral is indifferent, and that the opposite of aesthetic is anesthetic. They would encourage students to economics, become engaged participants in life, and not passive observers. They would encourage students to see the splendor and essays the horror, to be astonished at both the loveliness of life and all the undeserved harm and environmental economics pain around us, and then to release their social imaginations in order to essay vaccinations, act on economics what that knowledge demands. The challenging intellectual and india ethical work of teaching pivots on our ability to see the world as it is environmental phd thesis, and to see our students as three-dimensional creatures - human beings like ourselves - with hopes and dreams, aspirations, skills, and capacities; with minds and hearts and spirits; with embodied experiences, histories, and stories to tell of a past and a possible future; with families, neighborhoods, cultural surroundings, and language communities all interacting, dynamic, and entangled.

This requires patience, curiosity, wonder, awe, and more than a small dose of essay childhood, humility. It demands sustained focus, intelligent judgment, inquiry, and investigation. It calls forth an open heart and an inquiring mind, since every judgment is environmental, contingent, every view partial, and each conclusion tentative. In any liberating pedagogy, students become the research paper subjects and environmental economics the actors in research india constructing their own educations, not simply the objects of a regime of discipline and punishment. Economics. Instead of credentialing, sorting, gate-keeping, and controlling, education should enable all students to become smarter, more capable of negotiating our shared and complex world, better able to work effectively in and across communities to innovate and initiate with courage and essay childhood creativity. This requires courage and determination - from teachers, families, communities, and economics phd thesis students - to build alternative and insurgent classrooms and schools and community spaces focused on scholar essays what we know we need rather than what we are told we must endure. We must transform education from rote boredom and endlessly alienating routines into something that is eye-popping and mind-blowing - always opening doors and opening minds and opening hearts as students forge their own pathways into an expansive world.

Knowledge is an inherently public good, something that can be reproduced at little or no cost. Like love, it’s generative: the more you have, the better off you become; the more you give away, the more you have. Offering knowledge and learning and phd thesis education to others diminishes nothing. In a flourishing democracy, knowledge would be shared without any reservation or restrictions whatsoever. This points us toward an education that could be about full human development, enlightenment, and freedom. Copyright 2014 by Frances Goldin, Debby Smith and Michael Steven Smith. Not to be reprinted without permission of the editors or HarperCollins.

William Ayers is retired as a distinguished professor of education and senior university scholar at the University of Illinois-Chicago; is founder of the Small Schools Workshop and the Center for Youth and Society; taught courses in interpretive and qualitative research, urban school change, and teaching and the modern predicament. A graduate of the University of Michigan, the Bank Street College of Education, Bennington College, and Teachers College, Columbia University, Ayers has written extensively about social justice; democracy and education; the cultural contexts of schooling; and teaching as an essentially intellectual, ethical and political enterprise. He is the vice president of the curriculum studies division of the American Educational Research Association. Essay. Study Shows Kids' Test Scores Drop When Their Food Stamps Run Out. States and Local Advocates Lead the Way for Criminal Legal System Reform.

University of New Haven and Saudi Police: Big Money Makes Strange Bedfellows. Phd Thesis. Puerto Ricans Protest Trump's Visit, Denounce Militarization Amid Lack of Aid Distribution. They Don't Care Who the Guns Go To: Experts Warn Trump Administration Plans to Widen US Weapons Exports. (Image: HarperCollins Publishers) More than 30 top progressive thinkers have joined together to Imagine Living in vaccinations a Socialist USA, a new book from HarperCollins edited by Frances Goldin, Debby Smith and Michael Steven Smith. Get the book now from Truthout for a minimum contribution of $25. Just click here for this roadmap to a socialist America. The following is a chapter by retired education professor William Ayers from the anthology. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis. In it, Ayers advocates replacing a capitalist-oriented educational system with one that liberates students and their intellectual and creative capabilities. From Imagine Living in a Socialist USA: High-stakes standardized testing is to learning as: a. Paper. Memorizing a flight manual is to flying. Economics Phd Thesis. b. Watching Hawaii Five-0 is to doing police work. Proposal Outline. c. Exchanging marriage vows is to a successful marriage. d. Reading Gray’s Anatomy is to environmental, practicing surgery. Short Essay By Filipino. e. Environmental Phd Thesis. Singing the national anthem is to good citizenship. f. All of the above. By Filipino. The typical American classroom has as much to offer an economics phd thesis inquiring mind as does: c. A street corner. d. Debs Papers. The city dump. e. Economics Phd Thesis. The custodian’s closet. f. Scholar. none of the above.

The answer to each is “f” - in phd thesis the first question for obvious reasons, and in the second because each of the other answers offer much more to an inquiring mind. Capitalist Education: Into the Wreckage. Schools serve societies, and every society is reflected, for better and for worse, in its schools. Every school is both a mirror of and a window into finance india, the defining social order. If one looks at the schools hard enough, one can see the whole of the environmental economics phd thesis larger society; if one fully grasps the intricacies of society, one will know something about how its schools must be organized, and why. In a totalitarian society, schools are built to teach obedience and conformity, plain and simple.

In a kingdom, schools teach allegiance to the crown. An ancient agrarian community apprentices the young to become participants in a rustic world of farming. With a theocratic regime come lessons in faithfulness and piety and paper finance devotion. These schools might be “excellent” by some standards or measures, but whatever else is taught - math or music, literature or science - the most important lessons are those that teach how to function in a specific social order. South Africa under apartheid had beautiful palaces of learning and small state-of-the-art classes for white kids - and overcrowded, dilapidated, ill-equipped classes for environmental economics phd thesis, the African kids.

That made perfect, if perverse, sense: privilege and oppression were on opposite sides of the color line, and everyone understood that hard, cruel fact. German schools in the early twentieth century produced excellent scientists, athletes, artists, and intellectuals, and they also produced submission and conformity, moral blindness, obtuse patriotism - and people for whom a pathway straight into the furnaces for short author, some of their fellow citizens seemed acceptable. In our capitalist society, we are insistently encouraged to think of education as a product like a car or a refrigerator, a box of bolts or a screwdriver - something bought and sold in the marketplace like any other commodity. The controlling metaphor is economics phd thesis, that the schoolhouse is a business run by a CEO: the writing assignments an essay teachers are the workers, and the students are the raw material bumping along the assembly line, getting information stuffed into their little upturned heads. Within this model, it’s easy to believe that downsizing the least productive “units” and privatizing a space that was once public is perfectly natural. It’s also easy to environmental phd thesis, think that teaching toward a simple standardized measurement and relentlessly applying state-administered (but privately developed and phd thesis outline quite profitable) tests to determine the “outcomes” are a rational proxy for learning. It’s easy to think that “zero tolerance” for student misbehavior is a sane stand-in for phd thesis, child development or justice. And it’s easy to think that centrally controlled “standards” for curriculum and short teaching are commonsensical, and environmental economics phd thesis that “accountability” - that is, a range of sanctions on essay childhood students, teachers, and schools (but never on lawmakers, foundations, corporations, or high officials) is logical and environmental economics phd thesis level-headed. A merry band of billionaires, including Fortune 500 CEOs Bill Gates, Michael Bloomberg, Sam Walton, and to other assignments assignment Eli Broad, has led a wave of “school reform” within this frame - capitalist schooling on steroids. These titans spread around massive amounts of cash to promote their agenda as “common sense”: dismantle public schools, crush the teachers’ unions, test and punish.

In other words, destroy the collective voice of environmental economics phd thesis, teachers, sort students into winners and losers, and sell off the public square to the wealthy. Paper Finance India. This peculiar brand of schooling is part of these billionaires’ social vision - that education is an individual consumer good, neither a public trust nor a social good, and certainly not a fundamental human right. It serves a society of brute competition that produces mass misery along with the iron-hard idea that such misery is the only alternative. The education we’ve become accustomed to is a grotesque caricature, neither authentically nor primarily about economics, full human development. Why, for example, is education thought of as only kindergarten through twelfth grade, or even kindergarten through university?

Why does education occur only early in life? Why is there a point in our lives when we no longer think we need education? Why, again, is there a hierarchy of teacher over students? Why are there grades and grade levels? Why, indeed, do we think of a “productive” sector and a “service” sector in our society with education designated as a service activity? Why is short essay by filipino, education separate from production? Schools for phd thesis, compliance and conformity are characterized by passivity and fatalism and infused with anti-intellectualism and irrelevance. They turn on research paper india the little technologies for control and normalization - the elaborate schemes for managing the mob, the knotted system of rules and discipline, the exhaustive machinery of schedules and clocks, and the laborious programs of sorting the crowd into winners and losers through testing and punishing, grading, assessing, and judging.

All of this adds up to a familiar cave, an intricately constructed hierarchy - everyone in environmental a designated place and scholar essays a place for everyone. In the schools as they are here and now, knowing and accepting one’s pigeonhole on the towering and barren cliff becomes the only lesson one really needs. When the aim of education and the sole measure of success is environmental, competitive, learning becomes exclusively selfish and there is no obvious social motive to pursue it. People are turned against one another as every difference becomes a potential deficit. Getting ahead is the primary goal in such places, and mutual assistance, which can be so natural in scholar other human affairs, is economics phd thesis, severely restricted or banned. Beyond Capitalist Education: Trudging Toward Freedom. Parents, students, citizens, teachers, and educators might press now for an education worthy of a democracy and essential to a future of free people. This would include an end to sorting People into winners and losers through standardized tests. An end to starving schools of needed resources and then blaming teachers and their unions for dismal outcomes. An end to the militarization of schools, “zero tolerance” policies, and gender-identity discrimination.

An end to the savage inequalities that deprive schools in historically segregated and short poor communities of the resources they need and have rarely received. All children and youth, regardless of their economic or social circumstances, deserve full access to richly resourced classrooms led by caring, thoughtful, fully qualified, and generously compensated teachers. The development of free people is the central goal of teaching toward and within the free society of the future. Teaching toward freedom and democracy is environmental economics, based on a common faith in the incalculable value of every human being and the principle that the fullest development of all is the condition for the full development of each, and, conversely, that the fullest development of each is the condition for the full development of eugene research, all. At its best, socialist education would strive for this ideal. But a hundred years of history demand that we resist lazy labels or easy assertions of political purity. We know that capitalism is an exploitative system, but socialism has often presented itself in phd thesis authoritarian and narrowly nationalistic shrouds, which revolutionary humanists cannot (and should not) defend. As a teacher and an activist, I want to urge a little doubt, a hint of skepticism, a word of paper finance, caution, lest we trap ourselves in the prison of a single bright and blinding idea. Just as revolutionaries living through the death throes of feudalism could not predict with any certainty the institutions that would be born in the new age, built up within the shell of the old, we cannot do more than fight for more peace, more egalitarianism, more participation, more justice, and environmental economics phd thesis more democracy. Eugene Research Papers. We would do well to bring a strong sense of agnosticism to the effort, along with our expansive dreams of freedom, our desires, our sense of play, humor, art, surprise, and, mostly, love, which is rooted in reciprocity and always renewable. Love sharpens our senses and asks us to outdo ourselves.

In a vibrant and liberated culture, schools would make a serious commitment to free inquiry, open questioning and full participation; access and equity and simple fairness; a curriculum that encourages independent thought and judgment. Instead of obedience and conformity, it would promote initiative, courage, imagination and creativity. The schools we need - and schools that we can fight for economics phd thesis, now - are lived in the present tense. The best preparation for a meaningful future life is living a meaningful present life, and so rich experiences and phd thesis proposal presentation powerful interactions - as opposed to a bitter pill - should be on offer at schools every day. A good school or classroom is an artist’s studio and a workshop for inventors, a place where experimentation with materials and investigations in environmental phd thesis the world happen every day. A good school is presentation, fearless, risk-taking, thoughtful, activist, intimate, and deep, a space where fundamental questions are pursued to their furthest limits. Foundational questions that free people pursue might become the central stuff of our schools: What’s your story? How is it like or unlike the stories of others? What do we owe one another? What does it mean to be human in the twenty-first century?

What qualities and dispositions and knowledge are of most value to humanity? How can we nourish, develop, and organize full access to those valuable qualities? Why are we here? What do we want? What kind of world could we reasonably hope to create? How might we begin? These questions - themes in literature and the arts through the ages - are not as lofty and distant as they might sound. In a preschool, a teacher might organize a “Me Curriculum” and interview each child, reserving a section of wall devoted to a “kid of the week” that spotlights each one, with kids telling the story of their family, how they got their first name, their favorite books and food, and economics phd thesis more. In third grade, students might interview a “family hero” and present oral histories to the group, focused on significant events in their life, migration or movement, and life lessons learned. A group of middle-school students might spend a year exploring the environment of their neighborhood, mapping everything from housing and labor patterns to health and compared writing assignments required recreation and crime statistics.

High school kids might develop a rich and varied portfolio for graduation, a set of economics phd thesis, works to be defended in front of short by filipino author, a committee consisting of an advisor, a peer, a teacher, a community resident, and a family member. This might consist of grades and test scores (in the short-term, as the phd thesis system transitions), along with an original work of art, a physical challenge set and met, a favorite piece of writing, a record of community service, a work/ study plan for research paper india, the next four years, a list of the ten best books they’ve read, an environmental phd thesis essay on “What Makes an Educated Person,” and a list of the books and essays they want to read, films they want to compared an essay, watch, and projects they plan to pursue in the next five years. And so on. Phd Thesis. We learn skills, facts, and knowledge in a context. In a future free society, that context would be the pursuit of presentation, a free and economics phd thesis productive life for all. Our schools would resist the eugene debs papers overspecialization of economics phd thesis, human activity, the separation of the intellectual from the manual, the head from the essay childhood hand, the heart from the brain, the creative from the functional. The standard would become fluidity of function, the variation of work and capacity, the mobilization of intelligence and creativity and initiative and work in all directions. Where active work is the order of the day, helping others is not a form of charity, something that impoverishes both the recipient and the benefactor. Rather, a spirit of open communication, interchange, and analysis becomes commonplace.

In these places, there is a certain natural disorder, a certain amount of anarchy and chaos, as there is in any busy workshop. But there is a deeper discipline at work: the discipline of getting things done and learning through life. On the side of environmental, a liberating and humanizing education lies a pedagogy of questioning, an approach that opens rather than closes the process of thinking, comparing, reasoning, perspective-taking, and dialogue. It demands something upending and revolutionary from students and short teachers alike. Repudiate your place in the pecking order, it urges, remove that distorted, congenial mask of compliance: You must change! We would learn to environmental economics phd thesis, embrace the importance of dialogue with one another. In dialogue, one speaks with the possibility of being heard and to other writing assignments an essay that required simultaneously listens with the possibility of being changed. Dialogue is both the phd thesis most hopeful and the most dangerous pedagogical practice, for in it, our own dogma and certainty and orthodoxy must be held in short abeyance, must be subject to scrutiny. Economics Phd Thesis. The ethical core of teaching toward tomorrow must be designed to create hope and a sense of eugene research papers, agency and possibility in students. There are three big lessons. History is still in the making, the future is unknowable, and what you do or don’t do will make a difference (and, of course, choosing not to choose is itself a choice).

Each of us is a work in progress - unfinished, dynamic, in-process, on the move and, yes, on the make - swimming through the wreckage toward a distant and economics indistinct shore. And, finally, you don’t need anyone’s permission to ask questions about the world. Teachers with freedom on short essay by filipino author their minds would come to phd thesis, recognize that the opposite of moral is indifferent, and that the opposite of aesthetic is anesthetic. Childhood. They would encourage students to become engaged participants in life, and not passive observers. They would encourage students to see the splendor and the horror, to be astonished at phd thesis, both the loveliness of life and all the undeserved harm and pain around us, and then to release their social imaginations in order to act on assignments an essay assignment that what that knowledge demands. The challenging intellectual and ethical work of teaching pivots on economics our ability to research paper finance india, see the world as it is and to see our students as three-dimensional creatures - human beings like ourselves - with hopes and dreams, aspirations, skills, and capacities; with minds and hearts and economics spirits; with embodied experiences, histories, and scholar essays stories to tell of a past and a possible future; with families, neighborhoods, cultural surroundings, and language communities all interacting, dynamic, and environmental phd thesis entangled.

This requires patience, curiosity, wonder, awe, and more than a small dose of humility. Short By Filipino Author. It demands sustained focus, intelligent judgment, inquiry, and investigation. It calls forth an open heart and an inquiring mind, since every judgment is contingent, every view partial, and each conclusion tentative. In any liberating pedagogy, students become the economics subjects and essay childhood vaccinations the actors in constructing their own educations, not simply the objects of a regime of environmental economics, discipline and punishment. Instead of credentialing, sorting, gate-keeping, and controlling, education should enable all students to research paper, become smarter, more capable of environmental, negotiating our shared and complex world, better able to work effectively in and across communities to innovate and initiate with courage and creativity. This requires courage and determination - from teachers, families, communities, and students - to compared to other writing an essay assignment that required, build alternative and insurgent classrooms and schools and community spaces focused on what we know we need rather than what we are told we must endure. We must transform education from rote boredom and endlessly alienating routines into something that is eye-popping and mind-blowing - always opening doors and opening minds and opening hearts as students forge their own pathways into an expansive world.

Knowledge is an inherently public good, something that can be reproduced at little or no cost. Like love, it’s generative: the more you have, the better off you become; the more you give away, the more you have. Offering knowledge and learning and education to others diminishes nothing. In a flourishing democracy, knowledge would be shared without any reservation or restrictions whatsoever. This points us toward an education that could be about full human development, enlightenment, and freedom.

Copyright 2014 by Frances Goldin, Debby Smith and environmental phd thesis Michael Steven Smith. Scholar. Not to be reprinted without permission of the editors or HarperCollins. William Ayers is retired as a distinguished professor of education and economics senior university scholar at the University of research papers, Illinois-Chicago; is environmental economics phd thesis, founder of the eugene research Small Schools Workshop and the Center for Youth and Society; taught courses in economics interpretive and qualitative research, urban school change, and teaching and the modern predicament. A graduate of the University of Michigan, the Bank Street College of Education, Bennington College, and Teachers College, Columbia University, Ayers has written extensively about social justice; democracy and proposal presentation education; the cultural contexts of schooling; and environmental economics teaching as an essentially intellectual, ethical and phd thesis presentation political enterprise. He is the vice president of the curriculum studies division of the American Educational Research Association.

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Genetics and Homosexuality: Are People Born Gay? The Biological Basis for Sexual Orientation. There is a common belief among liberals that people are born either gay or straight. Conservatives tend to believe that sexual orientation is actually sexual preference, which is chosen by the individual. This page represents a review of the economics phd thesis, scientific literature on debs research, the basis for environmental economics, homosexual orientation.

Are people born gay or straight? Much of the current media sources assume the question is a solved scientific problem with all the evidence pointing toward a biological (probably genetic) basis for a homosexual orientation. Contrary to this perception, the question has been poorly studied (or studied poorly), although there is some evidence on both sides of question. In addition, many of the initial studies, which were highly touted by proposal outline, the media as proof for a biological basis for environmental, homosexuality, have been contradicted by later, more thorough studies. Assignments That? This evidence falls into four basic categories: Brain structure Possible hormonal influences Concordance of economics, homosexuality in twins Concordance of short by filipino, genetic markers in siblings Real genetic studies (GWAS) Until a few years ago, sexual orientation used to be called sexual preference. Obviously, the two terms denote significant differences in the the manner by which sexuality develops.

A preference is something that is chosen, whereas orientation is merely something that defines us. The differences are potentially important regarding how the law applies to those who are gay. If homosexuality is not chosen, but actually is economics a biologically-determined characteristic over which we have no choice, then laws should not treat gays and straights differently, since homosexuality would be equivalent to one's race, over which we have no control. Since sexual attraction begins in the brain, researchers first examined the question of sexual orientation by phd thesis proposal outline, comparing the anatomy of brains from males and females. These studies showed that male and female brains showed sexual dimorphism in the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus, where males demonstrated a greater than two-fold difference in cell number and size compared to females. 1 A second study found that two of four Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH) were at least twice as large in males as females. 2 Since the environmental, INAH was involved in sexual dimorphism, it was hypothesized by Simon LeVay that there might be differences in this region in compared to other an essay assignment that required heterosexual vs. homosexual men. Postmortem examination of the brains of AIDS patients vs. control male subjects (presumed to be heterosexual) showed that the phd thesis, presumably heterosexual men exhibited INAH3 that were twice the size of both females and presumably homosexual men who had died of AIDS. 3 The study has been criticized for its uncertainty of sexual orientation of the subjects, and potential complications caused by paper, the AIDS virus (which does infect the environmental, human brain), and also by lowered testosterone levels found in to other assignment that AIDS patients. A popularized Newsweek cover story, Is This Child Gay?

4 characterized LeVay as a champion for the genetic side, even though the study involved no genetic data at environmental phd thesis all. A subsequent study by Byne, et al. examined the question of INAH3 size on the basis of sex, sexual orientation, and HIV status. 5 The study found large differences in INAH3 volume on the basis of finance india, sex (with the male INAH3 being larger than the female INAH3). Economics? However, the volume of IHAH3 was decreased in male heterosexual men who had contracted AIDS (0.108 mm 3 compared with 0.123 mm 3 in male controls). There was no statistically significant difference between IHAH3 sizes of male heterosexuals vs. male homosexuals who had contracted AIDS (0.108 mm 3 and 0.096 mm 3 , respectively). The study also found that there were no differences in short by filipino author the number of neurons in the INAH3 based upon sexual orientation, although researchers found significant differences between males and females, as in other studies.

5 It was obvious from this study that LeVay's study was fatally flawed due to the AIDS complication, and that there were no differences in the INAH3 based upon sexual orientation. The role of the hypothalamus in sexual orientation was further studied by Swaab, et al . Other researchers had hypothesized that differentiation of the hypothalamus occurred before birth. However, Swaab's study showed that the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) of more than 100 subjects decreased in volume and cell number in the females only 2-4 years postnatal. This finding complicated the findings of the brain studies, since not only chemical and hormonal factors, but also social factors, might have influenced this process. 6. A study by environmental phd thesis, Allen and Gorski examined the anterior commissure of the brain, finding that females and eugene debs research, homosexual males exhibited a larger size than heterosexual males. 7 However, later studies using larger sample sizes found no such differences.

8. Complicating the issue of economics, brain differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals is the problem that sexual experiences themselves can affect brain structure. 9 So, the question will always be whether homosexual practice changes the brain or whether the brain results in homosexual practice. Since sexual differentiation occurs within the womb, as a result of hormonal influences, it has been hypothesized that homosexuality may result from to other, a differential hormone balance in the wombs of those who eventually exhibit a homosexual orientation. Since hormonal levels within the womb are not available, proxies for hormonal influences have been used to environmental phd thesis, examine the question of how hormonal influences might impact sexual orientation. Outline? These proxies include differences in skeletal size and shape, including the economics, ratio of the long bones of the arms and legs relative to arm span or stature and the hand bones of adults (the ratio of the length of the phd thesis proposal outline, various phalanges).

Studies have shown that ratios of economics, digit length are predictors of several hormones, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estrogen. 10 In women, the phd thesis presentation, index finger (2D, second digit) is almost the same length as the fourth digit (4D). Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? However, in men, the index finger is usually shorter than the fourth. It has been shown that this greater 2D:4D ratio in females is established in two-year-olds. It has been hypothesized that the american essays, sex difference in phd thesis the 2D:4D ratio reflects the prenatal influence of by filipino author, androgen on males. A study by Williams, et al. showed that the 2D:4D ratio of homosexual men was not significantly different from that of heterosexual men for either hand. 11 However, homosexual women displayed significantly smaller 2D:4D ratios compared with heterosexual women (see figure to right). It has been hypothesized that women exposed to economics phd thesis, more androgens in the womb tend to express a homosexual orientation.

However, since these hormone levels were never measured, one is papers left with the proxy of environmental, finger lengths as a substitute. Studies have found that the eugene, more older brothers a boy has, the more likely he is to phd thesis, develop a homosexual orientation. 12 This study also found that homosexual men had a greater than expected proportion of debs research papers, brothers among their older siblings (229 brothers: 163 sisters) compared with the general population (106 males: 100 females). Environmental Phd Thesis? Males who had two or more older brothers were found to have lower 2D:4D ratios, 11 suggesting that they had experienced increased androgens in the womb. Papers? Why increased androgens would predispose both males and females to be homosexual was not explained in the study. Another study examined the length of long bones in the arms, legs and hands. Environmental Economics? Both homosexual males and an essay that required, heterosexual females had less long bone growth in the arms, legs and hands, than heterosexual males or homosexual females.

13 Accordingly, the researchers hypothesized that male homosexuals had less androgen exposure during development than male heterosexuals, while female homosexuals had greater steroid exposure during development than their heterosexual counterparts. Of course, with regard to male homosexuality, this study directly contradicted the presumed results of the Williams study above, which showed that males with multiple older brothers (who tended to environmental economics phd thesis, be homosexual) experienced increased androgen exposure. A study of research paper finance india, one homosexual vs. two heterosexual male triplets found that the homosexual triplets scored more on the female side of the Masculinity-Femininity scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 14 suggesting a possible hormonal influence (decreased androgens) involved in male homosexual orientation. All of the studies reporting possible hormonal influence on homosexuality suffer from the lack of any real evidence that hormones actually play any role in sexual orientation. The fact that contradictory studies report increased 11,15 vs. decreased 13-14 androgens as a basis for homosexuality doesn't provoke confidence that the proxies are really true. Obviously, a study that documented real hormone levels, as opposed to proxies, would probably provide more definitive data. Studies involving a rare hormonal imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), caused by defective 21-hydroxylase enzyme, suggest that hormonal abnormalities can influence sexual orientation. CAH results in increased production of male hormones during development. In males, increased androgens has little effect. However, female fetuses that develop in this environment develop ambiguous external genitalia, which complicates subsequent development. In utero treatment with dexamethasone reduces the androgen imbalance, resulting in an individual who is genetically and phenotypically female.

However, dexamethasone treatment also results in reduced homosexual orientation among treated females, 16 suggesting that some homosexuality may result from hormonal influences during development. Homosexual rights groups have suggested that dexamethasone treatment not be given, because it reduces homosexual orientation in females affected by CAH. The observation that familial factors influence the prevalence of homosexuality led to environmental phd thesis, a the initiation of number of essay author, twin studies, which are a proxy for environmental, the presence of possible genetic factors. Most of these early studies suffered from methodological flaws. Kallmann sampled subjects from correctional and psychiatric institutionsnot exactly representative normal populations. 17 Bailey et al. published a number of studies in the early 1990's, examining familial factors involved in both male and female homosexuality. Essays? These studies suffered from the environmental economics phd thesis, manner in which subjects were recruited, since the investigators advertised in essay vaccinations openly gay publications, resulting in skewed populations. 18 Later studies by the same group did not suffer from this selection bias, and found the heritability of homosexuality in Australia was up to 50 and environmental economics phd thesis, 60% in american scholar females but only 30% in males. 19. A study by Kendler et al. in 2000 examined 1,588 twins selected by a random survey of 50,000 households in the United States. 20 The study found 3% of the population consisted of non-heterosexuals (homosexuals and bisexuals) and economics phd thesis, a genetic concordance rate of proposal outline, 32%, somewhat lower than than found in the Australian studies.

The study lost statistical significance when twins were broken down into male and female pairs, because of the low rate (3%) of non-heterosexuals in the general U.S. population. A Finnish twin study reported the potential for homosexual response, not just overt homosexual behavior, as having a genetic component. 21. On a twist on homosexual twin studies, an environmental phd thesis Australian research group examined the question of whether homophobia was the result of nature or nurture. 22 Surprisingly, both familial/environmental and genetic factors seemed to play a role as to whether or not a person was homophobic. Even more surprising, a separate research group in the U.S. confirmed these results (also adding that attitudes towards abortion were also partly genetic). 23 Now, even homophobes can claim that they were born that way! Twin studies suffer from the problem of trying to distinguish between environmental and genetic factors, since twins tend to live within the same family unit. A study examining the effect of birth order on homosexual preference concluded, The lack of relationship between the compared to other writing assignments an essay that, strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in environmental phd thesis the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on short author, homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. 12 So, although the twin studies suggest a possible genetic component for homosexual orientation, the results are certainly not definitive.

An examination of family pedigrees revealed that gay men had more homosexual male relatives through maternal than through paternal lineages, suggesting a linkage to the X chromosome. Dean Hamer 24 found such an association at region Xq28. If male sexual orientation was influenced by a gene on Xq28, then gay brothers should share more than 50% of their alleles at this region, whereas their heterosexual brothers should share less than 50% of their alleles. In the environmental phd thesis, absence of such an association, then both types of brothers should display 50% allele sharing. An analysis of 40 pairs of phd thesis outline, gay brothers and found that they shared 82% of their alleles in economics the Xq28 region, which was much greater than the 50% allele sharing that would be expected by chance. 25 However, a follow-up study by the same research group, using 32 pairs of gay brothers and found only to other assignment 67% allele sharing, which was much closer to the 50% expected by phd thesis, chance. 26 Attempts by scholar essays, Rice et al. to repeat the Hamer study resulted in only 46% allele sharing, insignificantly different from chance, contradicting the Hamer results. 27 At the same time, an economics phd thesis unpublished study by Alan Sanders (University of Chicago) corroborated the Rice results. 28 Ultimately, no gene or gene product from the Xq28 region was ever identified that affected sexual orientation. When Jonathan Marks (an evolutionary biologist) asked Hamer what percentage of homosexuality he thought his results explained, his answer was that he thought it explained 5% of male homosexuality. Marks' response was, There is no science other than behavioral genetics in which you can leave 97.5% of a phenomenon unexplained and get headlines.

29. A study of 13,000 New Zealand adults (age 16+) examined sexual orientation as a function of childhood history. Author? 30 The study found a 3-fold higher prevalence of childhood abuse for those who subsequently engaged in same sex sexual activity. However, childhood abuse was not a major factor in homosexuality, since only 15% of homosexuals had experienced abuse as children (compared with 5% among heterosexuals). 30 So, it would appear from this population that only a small percentage of homosexuality ( 10%) might be explained by early childhood abusive experiences.

If homosexual orientation were completely genetic, one would expect that it would not change over the course of one's life. Phd Thesis? For females, sexual preference does seem to eugene debs research papers, change over time. A 5-year study of lesbians found that over a quarter of these women relinquished their lesbian/bisexual identities during this period: half reclaimed heterosexual identities and economics phd thesis, half gave up all identity labels. 31 In a survey of essay childhood vaccinations, young minority women (16-23 years of age), half of the participants changed their sexual identities more than once during the two-year survey period. 32 In another study of subjects who were recruited from organizations that serve lesbian/gay/bisexual youths (ages 14 to 21 years) in New York City, the environmental, percentage that changed from a lesbian/gay/bisexual orientation to a heterosexual orientation was 5% over the period of just 12 months (the length of the survey). 33 Other studies have confirmed that sexual orientation is not fixed in compared writing required all individuals, but can change over time, especially in women. Environmental Economics? 34 A recent example of an orientation change occurred with The Advocate's Person of the Year for 2005. Kerry Pacer was the youngest gay advocate, chosen for her initiation of a gay-straight alliance at White County High School in Cleveland, Georgia. However, four years later, she is raising her one year old daughter, along with the baby's father.

35 Another former lesbian, British comedienne Jackie Clune, spent 12 years in lesbian relationships before marrying a man and american, producing 4 children. 36 Michael Glatze came out at age 20 and went on to be a leader in the homosexual rights movement. At age 30, he came out in the opposite direction, saying, In my experience, coming out from environmental economics, under the influence of the homosexual mindset was the most liberating, beautiful and to other writing assignments required, astonishing thing I've ever experienced in my entire life. Environmental Phd Thesis? 37 A 2011 study of Christian gays who wanted to change their sexual orientation found that 23% of the subjects reported a successful conversion to heterosexual orientation and functioning, while an additional 30% reported stable behavioral chastity with substantive dis-identification with homosexual orientation. 38 However, 20% of the subjects reported giving up on the process and fully embraced a gay identity, while another 27% fell in between the two extremes. 38 Obviously, for at least some individuals, being gay or straight is something they can choose. The question of nature vs. nurture can also be seen by examining children of homosexual vs. heterosexual parents.

If homosexuality were purely biological, one would expect that parenting would not influence it. Paul Cameron published a study in 2006 that claimed that the children of short essay author, homosexual parents expressed a homosexual orientation much more frequently than the general population. 39 Although claims of bias were made against environmental, the study, another study by Walter Schuum in 2010 confirmed Cameron's results by research paper finance, statistically examining the results of environmental economics phd thesis, 10 other studies that addressed the question. 40 In total, 262 children raised by proposal outline, homosexual parents were included in the analysis. The results showed that 16-57% of environmental phd thesis, such children adopted a homosexual lifestyle. The results were even more striking in daughters of lesbian mothers, 33% to author, 57% of whom became lesbians themselves. Since homosexuals makeup only. 5% of the population, it is clear that parenting does influence sexual orientation. It always amazes me when people say that they were born gay. Looking back on my own experience, I would never say that I was born straight.

I really didn't have any interest in environmental females until about the seventh grade. Before that time, they weren't really interesting, since they weren't interested in short essay sports or riding bikes or anything else I liked to do. I am not a huge fan of Neo Darwinian evolution. Nevertheless, there is some clear evidence that natural selection (and sexual selection) does act upon populations and has acted on our own species to produce racial differences. 41 Natural selection postulates that those genetic mutations that favor survival and reproduction will be selected, whereas those that compromise survival and reproduction will be eliminated. Obviously, a gene or series of environmental economics, genes that produce non-reproducing individuals (i.e., those who express pure homosexual behavior) will be rapidly eliminated from any population. American Scholar? So, it would be expected that any gay gene would be efficiently removed from economics, a population. However, it is possible that a gene favoring male homosexuality could hide within the human genome if it were located on the X-chromosome, where it could be carried by reproducing females, and not be subject to negative selection by non-reproducing males. In order to survive, the gene(s) would be expected to be associated with higher reproductive capacity in women who carry it (compensating for the generation of non-reproducing males). I can't imagine a genetic scenario in american essays which female homosexuality would ever persist within a population.

Within the last decade, genetic analysis of heritable traits has taken a huge step forward with the advent of DNA microarray technology. Using this technology, it is possible to scan large lengths of the human genome (even an entire genome wide scanGWAS) for numerous individuals, at quite reasonable costs. This DNA microarray technology has led to the discovery of genes that are associated with complex diseases, such as Crohn's Disease, which is the topic of economics, my research. If homosexuality truly has a genetic component, DNA microarray studies would not only definitively prove the research finance, point, but would identify specific gene(s) or loci that might be associated with those who express a homosexual orientation. The first attempt to economics, do genome wide scans on homosexual males was done by india, Mustanski et al. in 2005. 42 The results suggested possible linkage near microsatellite D7S798 on environmental economics, chromosome 7q36. Phd Thesis Proposal? However, an attempt to repeat the finding (along with. 6000 well-defined SNPs spread comparatively evenly across the phd thesis, human genome) failed to find any significant SNPs. Debs Research Papers? 43 However, a third study using Chinese subjects found a weak association at the SHH rs9333613 polymorphism of 7q36. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? 44 A more general study, examining mate choice among different populations, found no genetic link, prompting the investigators to speculate that such choices were culturally driven. Paper Finance? 45 The largest genome wide scan was conducted by 23andMe.

7887 unrelated men and 5570 unrelated women of European ancestry were analyzed by GWAS. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? Although unpublished, the data was presented at the American Society of Human Genetics annual meeting in San Francisco, showing that there were no loci associated with sexual orientation, including Xq28 on the X chromosome. 46 So, the american essays, preliminary studies on possible genetic causes of homosexual orientation tends to rule out any dramatic genetic component to sexual orientation. Why are people gay? The question of how homosexual orientation originates has been the subject of much press, with the general impression being promoted that homosexuality is largely a matter of environmental economics phd thesis, genes, rather than environmental factors.

However, if one examines the scientific literature, one finds that it's not quite as clear as the news bytes would suggest. The early studies that reported differences in the brains of homosexuals were complicated by HIV infection and were not substantiated by larger, better controlled studies. Numerous studies reported that possible hormonal differences affected homosexual orientation. Childhood Vaccinations? However, these studies were often directly contradictory, and environmental economics, never actually measured any hormone levels, but just used proxies for hormonal influences, without direct evidence that the proxies were actually indicative of compared that, true hormone levels or imbalances. Twin studies showed that there likely are genetic influences for homosexuality, although similar studies have shown some genetic influences for environmental economics, homophobia and even opposition to abortion. Short By Filipino Author? Early childhood abuse has been associated with homosexuality, but, at most, only explains about 10% of those who express a homosexual orientation. The fact that sexual orientation is not constant for environmental, many individuals, but can change over time suggests that at least part of sexual orientation is actually sexual preference. Attempts to find a gay gene have never identified any gene or gene product that is actually associated with homosexual orientation, with studies failing to essay childhood, confirm early suggestions of linkage of homosexuality to region Xq28 on environmental phd thesis, the X chromosome. The question of genetic influences on sexual orientation has been recently examined using DNA microarray technology, although, the results have largely failed to pinpoint any specific genes as a factor in compared writing that sexual orientation. Swaab, D.F. and E. Fliers.

1985. A sexually dimorphic nucleus in the human brain. Phd Thesis? Science 228:1112-1115. Allen, L.S., M. Hines, J.E. Shryne and eugene debs papers, R.A. Gorski. 1989. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain. J. Neurosci.

9:497-506. LeVay, S. 1991. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science 253:1034-1037. Gelman, D. Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. Newsweek September 9, 1991, p. 52.

Byne W., S. Tobet, L. Economics Phd Thesis? A. Mattiace, M. S. Lasco, E. Kemether, M. A. American Scholar Essays? Edgar, S. Phd Thesis? Morgello, M. S. Buchsbaum, and L. Research Finance India? B. Jones. 2001. The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of variation with sex, sexual orientation, and economics, HIV status. Horm. Behav. Research Paper Finance India? 40:86-92. Swaab, D.F., L.J.G. Gooren, and M.A.

Hofman. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? 1992. Gender and Sexual Orientation in Relation to Hypothalamic Structures. Vaccinations? Horm. Res. 38 (Suppl. 2):51-61. Allen, L. S. and R. A. Gorski. Economics Phd Thesis? 1992.

Sexual orientation and short essay by filipino author, the size of the anterior commissure in economics the human brain. PNAS 89: 7199-7202. Allen, L. S. and R. A. Gorski. Research India? 1991. Sexual dimorphism of the anterior commissure and environmental economics, massa intermedia of the human brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 312: 97-104. Research Paper Finance India? K. M. Bishop, K. M. and D. Wahlsten.

1997. Sex Differences in the Human Corpus Callosum: Myth or Reality? Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews 21: 581-601. Lasco , M. S., T. Environmental Phd Thesis? J. Jordan, M. A. Edgar, C. K. Petito and W. Byne. 2002. A lack of writing an essay required, dimorphism of economics, sex or sexual orientation in the human anterior commissure. Brain Research 936: 95-98. Breedlove, M.S. 1997.

Sex on the brain. Nature 389: 801. Manning, J.T., D. Scutt, J. Wilson and D. I. Lewis-Jones. 1998. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen.

Human Reproduction 13: 3000-3004. Williams, T. J., M. E. Pepitone, S. E. Christensen, B. M. Cooke, A. Essay Vaccinations? D. Huberman, N. J. Breedlove, T. J. Breedlove, C. L. Jordan, and S. M. Economics Phd Thesis? Breedlove. 2000. Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation. Nature 404: 455-456. McConaghy, N., D. Hadzi-Pavlovic, C. Stevens, V. Manicavasagar, N. Essay By Filipino? Buhrich, and U. Vollmer-Conna.

2006. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men. Environmental Phd Thesis? J. Homosex. 51:161-74. Martin , J. T. and D. H. Nguyen. 2004. Anthropometric analysis of homosexuals and heterosexuals: implications for essay, early hormone exposure Hormones and Behavior 45: 31-39. Hershberger, S.L., and N.L. Segal. Environmental Economics? 2004. The cognitive, behavioral, and personality profiles of a male monozygotic triplet set discordant for sexual orientation.

Arch. Assignments An Essay Assignment Required? Sex. Behav. 33:497-514. McFadden, D. 2002. Masculinization effects in the auditory system. Arch. Sex. Behav. 31:99-111.

Frisén L, Nordenström A, Falhammar H, Filipsson H, Holmdahl G, Janson PO, Thorén M, Hagenfeldt K, Möller A, Nordenskjöld A. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? 2009. Gender role behavior, sexuality, and psychosocial adaptation in proposal presentation outline women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to CYP21A2 deficiency. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Economics? Metab. 94:3432-3439. Kallmann, F.J. 1952. Twin and sibship study of overt male homo-sexuality.

Am. Phd Thesis? J. Hum. Genet. 4:136-146. Bailey, J.M., and R.C. Pillard. 1991. Economics? A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48:1089-1096. Bailey, J.M., R.C. Pillard, M.C. Neale, and Y. Agyei. Research Papers? 1993.

Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50:217-223. Bailey, J.M., and economics, A.P. Bell. 1993. Familiality of presentation outline, female and male homosexuality. Environmental Economics? Behav. Genet. 23:313-322.

Bailey, J.M., and debs papers, D.S. Benishay. 1993. Familial aggregation of female sexual orientation. Am. J. Psychiatry 1993; 150:272-277. Bailey, J.M., M.P. Dunne, and environmental, N.G. Martin. 2000. Genetic and environmental influences on to other writing an essay that required, sexual orientation and its correlates in environmental phd thesis an Australian twin sample.

J. To Other Writing An Essay That? Person Soc. Psychol. 78:524-536. Kirk, K., J. Environmental Phd Thesis? Bailey, and N. Martin. 2000. Etiology of male sexual orientation in an Australian twin sample, Psychology, Evolution Gender 2: 301–311.

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Save time! Outline your essays before writing a full draft. Applicants trust Agos Admissions Consultants to help them select the environmental, best story that fits the questions BEHIND the question. Before spending hours writing a complete essay draft that might fail to impress admissions office readers, please share all possible answers with us. In your session, you and american scholar, your consultant can discuss these options and pick the best one. Once you know that your story fits the question, please outline and write a full draft without worrying about the word limit. Cutting words from phd thesis your story comes at the END of the brainstorming and drafting process. As we read application essays, Agos Admissions Consultants ask ourselves four questions:

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Finally, please tell us how you feel about this story. What are the compared an essay assignment, pros and environmental phd thesis, cons of selecting it? List the. Pros (reasons to use this story) Cons (reasons NOT to use this story) I have compiled several frameworks that my clients use to scholar essays, structure their essay and interview answers. Use them, but do not abuse them. Once you understand the method of telling stories with a clear beginning, middle, and end, I suggest you abandon these tools and practice speaking in a natural and spontaneous way.

Remember, your interview is a conversation. Do you enjoy meeting new people? Show your interpersonal skills at the interview - you can impress your interviewer and environmental economics phd thesis, boost your chances of essay admission. PAR stands for Problem-Action-Results. First you state the problem that existed in your workplace, then you describe what you did about environmental economics it, and finally you point out the beneficial results. Here’s an example: “Transformed a disorganized, inefficient warehouse into a smooth-running operation by totally redesigning the layout; this saved the company thousands of essay childhood dollars in recovered stock.” Another example: “Improved an economics phd thesis engineering company’s obsolete filing system by developing a simple but sophisticated functional-coding system. This saved time and money by recovering valuable, previously lost, project records.” For each accomplishment, write out not only what you did (the key skills and vaccinations, actions you took), but describe the problem as well as the result. Accomplishment statements can highlight one primary action and result or may contain a few lines of information that stress additional skills and specific results. Use the Problem-Action-Result (PAR) approach for each accomplishment.

State the Problem - (The challenge, need, opportunity or goal.) Aim to state the main problem/challenge in one to two sentences. This provides the context for the actions you took. State the Key Actions Performed - (Begin each sentence with a key skill word.) This helps to target your skills to the requirements of the job. State the Result - (Quantify the result(s) when possible.) Use percentages, numbers etc. to demonstrate the significance of your actions. If you cannot quantify the economics, result, try to qualify the result by stating the type of phd thesis proposal improvement you observed. Problem (in this case a need) A large non-profit agency lacked a volunteer program. Environmental? Valuable staff time was used to perform services which volunteers could do. Action (key skills used) Researched volunteer management theories.

Interviewed volunteer coordinators. Prepared a cost/benefit analysis of paper india hiring a coordinator to recruit and environmental economics, train volunteers. Drafted and submitted a proposal. Result (quantify or qualify benefits of your actions) The organization created a full-time position that expanded the short by filipino author, agency services and maximized staff time. Expanded agency's service and maximized staff effectiveness by researching and recommending new volunteer program with a full-time volunteer coordinator. Incorporate your completed accomplishment statements into economics phd thesis the body of compared to other writing required your resume and environmental phd thesis, expand upon these accomplishments in your interview to communicate the specific skills and unique benefits you bring to the position. (found at http://www.skillscan.net/intro/Cap/Self-Promotion/SPTips.cfm; accessed 2009/10) I suggest using a modified PAR template: R-PAR. Put the result at the beginning. Situation: give an scholar example of a situation you were involved in economics, that resulted in a positive outcome Task: describe the tasks involved in that situation / what was your ultimate goal? try to define your task as narrowly as possible Action: talk about the various actions involved in eugene research, the situation’s task. Show your progress in implementing your idea / trying to reach your task.

This should include: Problems - what obstacles did you encounter that threatened your project / kept you from achieving your task? How did colleagues and/or supervisors resist your efforts? Solutions - specific actions and decisions you took to overcome the obstacles. Environmental Phd Thesis? How did you overcome the short by filipino author, resistance of others? Results: what results directly followed because of phd thesis your actions? show the impact of your success as broadly as possible Takeaways/Learnings: what did you learn from this experience? Application: when have you applied your lessons in another situation (optional in compared writing an essay assignment that required, many cases but good for brainstorming to test if your learning was real). Example of a STAR Answer. Situation: During my internship last summer, I was responsible for environmental economics phd thesis managing various events. Task: I noticed that attendance at these events had dropped by 30% over the past 3 years and wanted to do something to improve these numbers. Action: I designed a new promotional packet to go out to the local community businesses. Author? I also included a rating sheet to collect feedback on our events and organized internal round table discussions to raise awareness of the issue with our employees.

Result: We utilized some of the wonderful ideas we received from the community, made our internal systems more efficient and visible and raised attendance by 18% the first year. Problem Action Results Takeaway (what you learned) Situation Obstacle Action Result. Provide a structured framework to keep your answer clear and concise, while conveying how you effectively overcame the challenge. Situation Obstacle Failure Takeaway (what you learned) One of my writing gurus is economics phd thesis Professor John Cochrane at The University of american essays Chicago Booth School of Business. His Writing Tips for Ph.D. Students contains good advice for any writer. Here are some highlights from his article.

Use simple short words not big fancy words. “Use” not “utilize.” “Several” not “diverse”. Keep down the number of clauses in your sentences, and environmental economics phd thesis, the number of things kept hanging. Essays? Every sentence should have a subject, verb and object. No sentences like “No sentences like this.” An essay outline is probably the most important friend you will have while writing your essay. It is the scaffolding of your paper and the skeleton of your ideas.

It is the framework by which you will write a killer essay. And frankly, it is difficult to write one without an outline. An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts. There are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well.

At other times, a spatial arrangement is environmental best suited to the material. The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to finance, the specific. Environmental Phd Thesis? This means you begin with a general idea and compared to other writing assignment that required, then support it with specific examples. Thesis Statement of Summarizing Sentence. All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence.

This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject. The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and environmental, the sentence outline . In the topic outline, the headings are given in phd thesis, single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in phd thesis, complete sentences. 1. Subdivide topics by a system of writing assignment that required numbers and letters, followed by a period.

2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts. 3. Headings for environmental economics parts of the presentation outline, paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used. 4. Phd Thesis? Be consistent. Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.

Choices in College and After. Thesis : The decisions I have to make in vaccinations, choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to economics, ask myself about my life’s work. I. Two decisions described. A. Art history or chemistry. 1. Professional considerations. 2. Personal considerations. B. A third year of French? 1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language.

2. Intellectual advantages. 3. The issue of necessity. II. Definition of the problem. A. Decisions about occupation. B. Decisions about short by filipino author a kind of economics life to lead. III.

Temporary resolution of the problem. A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry. B. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French. Choices in College and After. Thesis : The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work. I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. Proposal Presentation Outline? One is whether to phd thesis, elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it.

B. Phd Thesis Proposal Presentation Outline? The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. French might be useful both in environmental phd thesis, engineering and travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. Phd Thesis Proposal Outline? My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future. A. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis? On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in phd thesis presentation, a lucrative profession. B. On the environmental phd thesis, other hand I want to lead a certain kind of that required life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of phd thesis money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry.

B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in debs research papers, another language I have already gained, by electing French. An outline breaks down the parts of environmental phd thesis your thesis in a clear, hierarchical manner. Most students find that writing an outline before beginning the paper is most helpful in organizing one's thoughts. If your outline is good, your paper should be easy to research paper, write. The basic format for environmental an outline uses an alternating series of assignments an essay required numbers and letters, indented accordingly, to indicate levels of importance. Here is an economics phd thesis example of an outline on a paper about the development of Japanese theater: I. American Scholar Essays? Thesis: Japanese theater rose from a popular to elite and then returned to a popular art form.

The thesis is stated in the first section, which is the introduction. II. Environmental? Early theatrical forms A. Bugaku B. Sarugaku C. Primitive Noh D. Research Paper? Authors and Audience III. Noh theater A. Environmental Economics? Authors B. Props 1. Masks a. women b. demons c. old men 2. Structure of Stage C. Themes 1. Buddhist influence 2. Assignment Required? The supernatural D. Kyogen interludes E. Audience IV. Kabuki A. Authors B. Props 1. Environmental Phd Thesis? make-up 2. special effects C. Themes 1. Love stories 2. Revenge D. Audience V. Debs Research Papers? Bunraku (puppet) theater A. Authors B. Props C. Themes 1. Love stories 2. Historical romances D. Audience. The body follows the introduction, and breaks down the points the author wishes to make.

Note that some section have subdivisions, others do not, depending on the demands of the paper. In this outline, II, III, IV all have similar structure, but this will not necessarily be true for all papers. Some may only phd thesis, have three major sections, others more than the five given here. Your conclusion should restate your thesis, and never introduce new material. When you begin writing an essay outline, use the following model as a guide:

II. BODY PARAGRAPH 1: III. Compared Writing Assignments An Essay Assignment? BODY PARAGRAPH II: IV. BODY PARAGRAPH III: V. BODY PARAGRAPH IV: If you use this rough guide and fill in the blanks as you are researching your essay, you will find writing the essay so simple. You have all you need in environmental, front of you.

It is researched and debs research, organized. All you have to environmental economics phd thesis, do now is fill in the blanks with transition words and smooth language. Show your essay to MBA alumni LAST, not first. They are only more qualified than me to answer one question: Why this MBA program? (Why Columbia? Why Wharton? Why Stanford?) Remember, MBA alumni are experts on their EXPERIENCE. But they do NOT know the new application essay questions, nor how to answer them them. Most of all, please please remember that the top-tier MBA admissions process, just like any highly selective sorting mechanism, is constantly changing it's algorithm. Otherwise, how else could it remain so highly competitive, especially in this age of american scholar essays over-sharing?

Information is subject to phd thesis, change. Please verify all data with the essay author, schools.

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Phd thesis environmental economics

A Guide for environmental economics Solving Your Lab Math Problems. Math is an important part of lab life, from making solutions to calculating protein concentrations, and eugene papers, miscalculations can cause mayhem for your experiments. Therefore it is important that your math is right, or you could spend weeks trying to figure out what’s going wrong in your experiments. I was hopeless at environmental economics phd thesis remembering how to do even simple calculations, so I kept a cheat sheet in assignment, the back of my lab book that I referred to on a regular basis. I want to make your life easier too, and that’s why I’ve put together some of the key (in my opinion) calculations important for a molecular biologist. Environmental! The routine chore that everyone avoids until absolutely necessary.

There are three key equations that you will need in order to make up simple solutions. 1. Calculating moles. If you need to make up a solution where you know the desired concentration (molarity) and volume then you first need to calculate the number of moles in that solution. The calculation for this is simple: That is: moles = Molarity (concentration in paper india, molar) x volume ( in litres) 2. Once you’ve got the economics moles you can then work out the mass required using the following equation: Where: mass (in grams) = moles x molecular weight ( in g mol -1 ). Eugene! 3. Environmental Economics! The two above equations will enable you to make solutions from scratch but what if you want to make a solution where you already have a stock solution of a higher concentration? Diluting stock solutions is really simple and can be achieve using the to other assignments assignment following calculation: V 1 =Volume of stock solution required. C 1 =Concentration of stock solution. V 2 =Volume of phd thesis final solution. C 2 =Concentration of final solution.

So in the case where we need to find the volume required from our stock solution we rearrange the equation so that: The units aren’t important except that the volumes and phd thesis proposal, concentrations must be in the same units. Calculating concentrations of DNA or RNA. The simplest way to economics calculate DNA or RNA concentration is using a spectrophotometer. For a 1 cm path length (this is the width of the cuvette – most cuvettes have a standard width of 1 cm) dsDNA at a concentration of 50 µg/mL and writing assignments an essay, RNA at a concentration of 40 µg/mL has an optical density of 1 at 260nm. This means by measuring the optical density of a solution of DNA or RNA at 260nm we can determine the concentration in our sample using the following calculations: ds DNA concentration (in µg/mL) = 50 x OD 260 x dilution factor. RNA concentration (in µg/mL) = 40 x OD 260 x dilution factor.

The dilution factor is the dilution of the phd thesis solution measured compared to the ‘stock’ solution of your DNA. It’s a good idea to dilute your DNA for measuring the OD for phd thesis presentation several reasons; firstly so you don’t use up all of your stock; secondly DNA can be quite viscous at high concentrations which can introduce pipetting errors and finally you want to aim for economics a OD between 0.1 and 1 in to other writing required, order to get the most accurate quantitation (this is the linear range for most spectrophotometers). As 260nm is in the UV spectrum you need to use a specialised UV cuvette. As much as we all like to feel like perfectionists in the lab, solutions of DNA and RNA contain contaminants that can affect the optical density at 260nm. Therefore it’s a good idea to economics test the purity of your DNA and RNA by american essays measuring for contaminants. The main contaminant of extracted DNA and environmental economics phd thesis, RNA is outline, proteins, which also absorb at 280nm. To check for the presence of contaminating proteins in your sample simply measure the OD at economics phd thesis 280 nm and calculate the ratio of OD 260 /OD 280 . Research Finance! Pure DNA should have a ratio of. 2 while pure RNA should have a ratio of. There are other contaminates which can also be measured at different optical densities to determine how pure your sample is, but proteins tend to be the main culprits. Sometimes it’s easy to forget how many picograms are in a gram so it is handy to economics phd thesis have a simple reference to check just to make sure. The easiest way to remember, is that the difference between most units is 10 3 ; or just check out the handy table below: So in order to convert picograms to grams you need to multiply by 10 -12 . For an optimal ligation reaction you want a 1:1 ratio of scholar essays insert to vector, although alternative ratios can be tested (such as 1:3, and environmental, 3:1).

To calculate the amount of insert required for a 1:1 ratio use the following equation: (kb insert / kb vector) x ng of vector = ng insert required. Calculating cell concentration using a haemocytometer. Seeding cells at the correct density is eugene debs, important for consistency of experiments as well as to environmental economics phd thesis maintain a healthy stock of cells. Calculating cell concentration is simple with the use of a haemocytometer. Compared To Other Writing Assignments An Essay Assignment Required! Simply apply the cell solution to the haemocytometer and count the phd thesis number of cell in a 1mm x 1mm square (made up of 5?5 small squares). Then use the following calculation: number of cells x dilution factor x 10 4 = Cells per mL. I would usually use a dilution of 1:1 with trypan blue (a vital stain that will stain any dead cells blue), but you can alter this depending on how concentrated your sample is. You want to phd thesis outline count roughly between 40 and 70 cells in order to get an environmental, accurate reading. For a quick reference guide download and print out my simple cheat sheet here to ensure all the short essay necessary calculations are easy at hand. HI, if I have v1=1ug x 10ul/500ug/ml wht will my final si unit be for the answer? sorry I#8217;m just slow in remembering simple maths protocols. Thanks a lot for the above information much helpful.

Thank you for environmental economics summarizing the important calculations. Could you also add the calculation to determine the number of molecules in a sample of DNA (plasmid and essay, PCR)? I also noticed a typo in the article above under #8220;Calculating cell concentration using a haemocytometer#8221;. I think that the formula should read 10^4, where as you have it as 10^-4.

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Examples Of Personal Ethical Dilemma Essays and Research Papers. Ethical Dilemma (Author’s name) (Institutional Affiliation) Abstract This research paper seeks to resolve a . particular case of an ethical dilemma . This has been necessitated by the fact that ethical dilemmas are a recurrent part of life. Environmental Economics. Moreover, ethical dilemmas have become a key point of argument in the field of ethics and interestingly, philosophy as well (Garsten Hernes, 2009). As an inividual, I find myself facing moral dilemma situation quite frequently which makes the essay childhood, exploration. Ethical dilemma , Ethics , Moral 1731 Words | 5 Pages. to each other in order to ensure that our individual and collective well-being is enhance?”.

Ethics is crucial not only in personal and . business but within our society and environmental phd thesis community, the business world is competitively brutal and without a set of ethics to follow it could be disastrous, not only for employees but employers as well. If a business has a sturdy set of ethical standards it could result in good business and good moral judgement in eugene research, employees while dealing with customers and colleagues. Business ethics , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 2044 Words | 6 Pages. Ethical Dilemma Ben Lennon XMGT/216 March 13, 2011 Meisel Randolph Ethical Dilemmapage 1 An . ethical dilemma is environmental phd thesis, any situation which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong (Stanford Encyclopedia of vaccinations, Philosophy: Moral Dilemmas ). Often in the work place we are faced with dilemmas all the time. Many have the choice to phd thesis do the essays, right thing or doing the economics phd thesis, wrong one. However, doing the right is the phd thesis proposal presentation, moral thing to do, but some choose the alternate. Ethical dilemma , Ethics , Friendship 734 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ethical Dilemma Derrick SUNY Empire State College Patient confidentiality has become . an integral aspect of healthcare ethical standards since the HIPPA law came into economics, being. (Erikson 2005). American Essays. According to economics phd thesis the American Nurses Association (ANA) code of ethics “the nurse has a duty to finance maintain confidentiality of all patient information” (Nursingworld, 2005). Economics. When a patient’s confidentiality is violated, his/ her wellbeing is negatively impacted.

Patient confidentiality. Autonomy , Business ethics , Duty 954 Words | 5 Pages. typographical error in all print material about debs, site effects of that drug. Marketing manager has an ethical dilemma , stop the . marketing campaign and correct the “typo”, consequently future existence of environmental economics, his company will be in jeopardy, or to take a risk and go ahead with campaign without letting anyone know about the “typo”. This essay will describe ethical dilemmas and their characteristics, continuing by ethical dilemma marketing manager are confronted with. Discussion on defensible moral judgements after that. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethical dilemma 2235 Words | 6 Pages. Ethical Dilemmas in Business Case 2: Kathryn McNeil (A) Charles Foley’s Ethical Dilemma At stake . here are several conflicting values, the concern for a fellow human being, self-preservation, success of the company and essay childhood vaccinations the pressure to perform. As VP of the division, I am under scrutiny to deliver substantial results to my president, John Edmonds, to be seen as sensitive to phd thesis my product managers needs.

Lisa Walters, Kathryn’s supervisor, has pressed me for proposal presentation outline, a resource action for economics phd thesis, boosting staff morale. Categorical imperative , Ethics , Hypothetical imperative 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Dilemma Paper TaraLyn Thoreson CJA324 Ethics in Criminal Justice October 20th, 2014 Instructor Hastings . Personal Dilemma Paper In today’s society people face some form or type of dilemma and it could either be a personal , ethical , or moral dilemma . As individual’s we encounter personal dilemmas , whether it is professional or educational and with these dilemmas there is always some type of choice that must be made and with this choice there is either a solution or resolution. Defense of Marriage Act , Ethics , Family 1693 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical dilemmas , also known as moral dilemmas , have been a problem for ethical theorists as far back . as Plato.

An ethical dilemma is essay, a situation wherein moral precepts or ethical obligations conflict in such a way that any possible resolution to environmental the dilemma is morally intolerable. In other words, an ethical dilemma is any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong. An ethical dilemma , also known as a moral dilemma , is eugene debs research papers, a situation where. Business ethics , Decision making , Decision making software 680 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ethical Dilemma Paper Octavia Perkins CJS/211 Janet Evans 2/8/15 “Political Gridlock Pushes Politicians . Ratings to Precedent-Setting Lows” As a society and individuals who commit crimes depend on the American justice system to seek the truth as well as acting in environmental, a fair and lawful manner. In examination of ethical dilemmas from a recent story in the news, comes a story about essay vaccinations, “Political Gridlock Pushes Politicians to Precedent-Setting Lows. The details surrounding this story. Aristotle , Criminal justice , Employment 967 Words | 5 Pages. Managers and Performance Evaluations: Ethical Dilemmas Performance evaluations serve the purpose “to enlighten subordinates . about what they should be doing better or differently,” (Culbert, 2012).

However, they can often become problematic and raise serious ethical issues that would threaten the well being of the employee, manager, and company in general. Economics Phd Thesis. There are several ethical issues which can present themselves in american, performance reviews which can be even further augmented by social issues. Bias , Business ethics , Employment 1256 Words | 4 Pages. ?Human rights dilemmas facing social workers The primary objective of social work is to economics improve the living conditions of human beings and help . them in meeting basic human needs, with special focus on people who are oppressed or those living in poverty. Papers. Social workers relentlessly work towards ending various form of social injustice such as discrimination, oppression and poverty through a coordinated effort that includes consultation, administration, policy, advocacy, social and political action. Arjuna , Bhagavad Gita , Brahman 1586 Words | 4 Pages.

Ethical dilemma 2 Abstract Ethical dilemmas are prevalent in all areas of life. In each . helping profession, ethical guidelines and codes require that professionals act morally and in economics phd thesis, the best interest of the client. Proposal Outline. As a prospective counseling psychologist, I would need keen judgment to recognize and professional skills to economics phd thesis handle an eugene papers ethical dilemma . This paper details my personal experience of an ethical dilemma while working as a case manger. My objective is to environmental identify the setting of. Business ethics , Ethics , ManaGeR 2118 Words | 6 Pages.

Ethical dilemmas are common issues that every businessman has to eugene research face at their working environment. It is environmental economics, not such an easy task . for businessman to have an ethical decision making, to choose what the “right” thing to do. Essay. In this following factual scenario, John also has to face some ethical dilemmas in his working environment and have difficulty to find appropriate solution. Economics Phd Thesis. After a brief summary of the facts, I will discuss some ethical dilemmas which John is confronting and short essay by filipino some approaches to ethical. Business ethics , Cognition , Deontological ethics 1453 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Dilemma International OB: Managing across Cultures. 3M tries to make a difference Russia Should 3M export its . American ethical standards to Russia? 1. If 3M doesn’t like the way things are done in Russia, it shouldn’t do business there. Explain your rationale. I do not agree with this statement. From my marketing perspective, it is a challenge of 3M in order to go worldwide, and this is a challenge they should take.

Russia is booming in oil and gas, mining, construction, IT, retail. Business , Business ethics , Ethics 1565 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical Dilemma 1) Do the phd thesis, end justify the american, means? Parties involved: Garreth Welch- Chairman and group CEO, 59 years old . Richard Deakin- President of West Coast Operations and economics CEO of phd thesis proposal presentation, Columbia Solutions Catherine Simpsons- head of Sales at Columbia Solutions Ray Wilson- Financial Controller at environmental phd thesis Columbia Solutions The Company: A medium-sized corporation which owns a number of IT and media related companies in short essay by filipino, Canada. Garreth Welch founded the corporation. Environmental Phd Thesis. His business style is to identify. Business ethics , Ethical dilemma , Ethics 1727 Words | 6 Pages. Part A (a): Ethical dilemma The ethical dilemma that Kate is faced with is whether Kate should agree . with and follow Ben’s decision to essay childhood vaccinations ignore the article about contaminated milk. Economics Phd Thesis. Ethical egoism Ethical egoism is a theory stating that the supreme principle of conduct is to author promote one’s well-being above everyone else’s Kate’s self-interest motives include that she needs the job to environmental economics pay her bills and compared to other assignments an essay assignment that required if someone gets ill she will not face any future legal actions.

Under ethical dilemma , Kate should. Deontological ethics , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Dilemma : Donna and Wilma Liberty University Abstract In this paper, you . Economics Phd Thesis. will be able to see how to apply professional values, codes of ethics, and decision-making model to the process of scholar, ethical decision-making. I chose to look at ethical dilemma number 4. Economics Phd Thesis. In this dilemma , a client’s confidentiality has been breached; due to phd thesis proposal outline her counselor. The first approach is for me to identify the economics phd thesis, problem and apply the ACA code of ethics.

I then identify the. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1593 Words | 5 Pages. Running head: Ethical Dilemma Ethical Dilemma Amber Norris . Grand Canyon University February 24th, 2013 Ethical Dilemma All healthcare professionals take the Hippocratic Oath, in american, this oath it states that, “I will respect the environmental economics, privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the american scholar essays, world may know.” (Miles, S. H. (2004) There are many different versions of this oath but the concept. Ethics , Health care , Health care provider 1117 Words | 4 Pages. electronic giant.

Tim Cook Apple’s Inc. newly appointed CEO after Steve’s job faces ethical dilemma in environmental, the company. Tim Cook had . to face ethical dilemma problem with Chinese company Foxconn, world largest electronics manufactures. Writing Assignments An Essay Assignment Required. Trevino and environmental economics phd thesis Nelson’s Eight-Step Ethical Decision Making Model 1 .Key Facts Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and develops computer software and personal computers. The company is well known for its hardware products, which are Mac line. Apple Inc. Paper. , Business ethics , Corporation 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Workplace Ethical Dilemma Workplace Ethical Dilemma Ethics--the science of conduct, . according to some philosophers--is differentiating between right and economics phd thesis wrong and then doing the american essays, right thing. Ethical problems in the workplace can include questions of pay raises and promotions, employee discrimination, disciplinary action, harassment, conflicts of interest and economics phd thesis other issues (Workplace Ethical Dilemmas | eHow.com). I have had the misfortune to required have been apart of economics phd thesis, ethical dilemmas in the. Abuse , Arizona , Business ethics 921 Words | 3 Pages. An Ethical Dilemma in proposal, the Health Care Setting Bobbi K. Environmental. Handy HCS/478 November 29, 2010 Barbara Scheibe, RNC, MSN An . Ethical Dilemma in the Health Care Setting Ethical dilemmas in the health care setting present themselves almost daily. It is american scholar essays, imperative that the economics phd thesis, health care worker be able to understand when an ethical dilemma presents itself and debs papers know how to deal with the dilemma in the best interest of all involved.

Many ethical dilemmas that health care workers face are difficult. Autonomy , Ethics , Health care 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Dilemma Essay Dan Brown ETH/316 August 5, 2013 Becky Mott Ethical Dilemma Essay In . the first ethical dilemma , I am presented with an environmental economics employee who is blogging anonymously about products our company makes. I am also presented with information from another employee who illegally hacks into the anonymous employees home computer to get proof that this individual was the anonymous blogger. Eugene Papers. In the second ethical dilemma , a disgruntled former employee broke into economics phd thesis, the development labs.

Critical thinking , Duty , Ethics 938 Words | 3 Pages. head: ANALYSIS OF AN ETHICAL DILEMMA (PART 2) An Ethical Dilemma in Global Health . Care (Part 2) The Green Team Martin Cayer, RN Merlene Clarke, RN Shine Kottathil, RN Biah Kun, RN Nubia Lomeli, RN Grand Canyon University NRS-437V Ethical Decision Making in Health Care Teresa Ortner, RNC, MSNEd May 30, 2012 An Ethical Dilemma in papers, Global Health Care. Dignity , Ethics , Health care 1524 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical Dilemma 1 Human Resource Issues There are many areas where ethical dilemmas arise. Here . are five categories of common ethical dilemmas in business: 1. Economics Phd Thesis. Human resource issues 2. Scholar Essays. Employee safety issues 3. Environmental Economics. Conflicts of interest 4. Research Paper Finance India. Customer confidence 5. Use of corporate resources We shall discuss ethical dilemmas related to human resource issues here. Human resource issues Human is the most important resource to an organization.

Issues associated with human resources occur as a result. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Employment 2080 Words | 6 Pages. Therefore, making an environmental economics phd thesis ethical decision requires an short essay by filipino individual to evaluate what is good or bad and the moral duty and obligation to society. The . good and phd thesis bad are defined by eugene debs societal norms and one’s moral duty is based upon an agreed set of rules, which govern human behavior. However, making an ethical decision often requires a much more in depth analysis of the situation and the possible outcomes. In this paper, I will examine four dilemmas in environmental economics, which decisions must be made based on essays, ethical reasoning and moral. Afghanistan , Duty , Ethics 1566 Words | 4 Pages. Ethic 232 February 27, 2013 Ethical Dilemmas in environmental economics, the Protect of Medical Privacy This ethical . dilemma paper I wanting to research finance discuss the issue that I have seen in economics, my current profession as a Nurse’s Aide. In my profession I have come across patients that have the active HIV/AIDS virus and eugene debs papers have not told their partners, husband, or wife that they have this sexual incurable disease.

Yet, because of environmental phd thesis, laws that I am to abide by such as HIPAA I cannot release that information to their significant other. AIDS , Ethics , Health care 902 Words | 3 Pages. Identify potential ethical dilemma In a small emergency department on a busy Friday night I had a patient who was intoxicated . Childhood. with a head laceration was about to leave without being treated by the doctor. My patient admitted he’s been drinking 10 to 12 beers that night. I discovered that he fell down from a large number of concrete stairs and sustained a large laceration on his forehead. He was unconscious for a period of time, and doesn’t remember much of what happened before the fall.

He was. Allied health professions , Decision making , Ethics 1244 Words | 4 Pages. ? Personal Dilemma Evan C. Acree CJA/324 February 21, 2015 Yolonda Johnson Personal Dilemma A . minimum of forty-nine push-ups within a two minute time frame, fifty-nine sit-ups within a two minute time frame, a five mile run within a forty minute time frame, and economics six pull-ups (Smith, 2015). Essay Childhood. These are the United States Army’s Ranger physical fitness test standards for environmental economics, any male who wants to attend the Army Ranger School no matter the paper, age or background of the person. These physical fitness standards.

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| Ethical Issues in HR : Week 6 | Legal and Ethical Issues | 6/10/2012 | | Table of Contents: Introduction . Economics. History of Human Resources Education Privacy Issue Employment Issues Discrimination Disciplinary Issues Summary References Introduction Human resource was developed to be a support system for employers and employees alike. A human resource department is an essay childhood important component to environmental economics any business big or small. The human resource team is responsible for research paper finance, personnel sourcing. Discrimination , Employment , Human resource management 1008 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Dilemma Case Analysis CCMH/515 December 17, 2013 The following paper will . discuss the ethical issues associated with the Ethical Dilemma Case Analysis obtained from the University of phd thesis, Phoenix. The case reveals a female client that has had a previous counseling experiences that has left her severely distraught and depressed. This paper will outline the various ethical codes which has been violated, it will also associate the legal and short essay by filipino ethical standards.

Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1514 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing Research. W7 Journal Entry 7: Ethical Dilemmas Patricia Smith Grantham University Theories amp; Research in environmental, Nursing NUR401 Kelli Reid . RN/MSN/MBA May 14, 2013 W7 Journal Entry 7: Ethical Dilemmas The need for nursing research is evident. With the evolution of evidenced based practice for nursing, only the most up to date or current best researched evidence is being used or promoted at phd thesis outline the bedside (Burns amp; Grove, 2009, p. 16). Although this need for nursing research is evident, such research.

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Clinical psychology , Ethics , Family 1652 Words | 5 Pages. ETHICAL DILEMNA’S IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY SECTOR I’ve been in the Private Security sector going on twenty three years and have held numerous . positions throughout the organizations I’ve worked for. The two ethical instances that come immediately to the front of my mind have to deal with moral integrity. Childhood. The first instance deals with leadership and “Doing the right thing” ( Ethical Leadership) and the second one is “Don’t judge a book by its cover.” This first instance I know intimately because. Constable , Ethics , Leadership 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Based on the Decision Making Model: 1. Identify the Problem: See Ethical Dilemma Handout 2. Potential Issues Involved: ? . Maria is a minor ? No signed Informed Consent ? Dual Relationship/ Neighbor ? Rape ? Underage Drinking ? Possible Pregnancy and/or STD ? Self mutilation ? Rural community, cultural differences ? Maria (client) asks not to inform parent/ legal guardian for economics phd thesis, fear of eugene debs papers, his reaction. ? Father approaches therapist in an unprofessional setting and environmental phd thesis wants to american scholar essays information regarding. Confidentiality , Ethics , Informed consent 1313 Words | 4 Pages. ? Ethical Dilemmas Michelle Moccia Empire State College Center For Distant Learning Having a career in economics, the human . services field is one of the phd thesis, most rewarding jobs. It requires compassion, a sense of urgency and environmental phd thesis an overall desire to essay vaccinations help others. But with the rewards the job comes with, it also does come with a handful of environmental economics, tough situations to come in phd thesis proposal, contact with.

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You approach him and chat with him about his odd behavior and he walks away. In working with these types of youth you let the student have his space. Ethics , Need , School counselor 1125 Words | 3 Pages. puts you in a Right-versus-Right Dilemma Robin L Heath John Brown University To steal, one takes property that does not belong . to environmental economics phd thesis them, without permission, particularly when the property is finance, taken secretly or by environmental phd thesis force (steal, n.d.). Eugene Papers. By placing the items in her backpack, and removing the items from the facility without authorization, Toni’s actions undoubtedly fit the environmental economics, definition of stealing. This is obvious unethical behavior, and Lisa has an ethical obligation to report Toni’s actions.

Business ethics , Courage , Ethics 812 Words | 3 Pages. Workplace Ethical Dilemma BSHS/322 November 26th 2012 Audra Stinson Workplace Ethical Dilemma . Compared To Other Assignments That Required. Ethical dilemmas can happen in any business. Employees can be confronted with situations that require sound ethical judgment. Ethical dilemmas can arise from environmental economics phd thesis conflicts of interest matters, how company resources are used, and staff issues as well as a result of conflict between the correct and wrong behaviors. When management ignores or does not handle ethical dilemmas properly, the dilemmas can.

Business ethics , Ethics , Lie 1214 Words | 3 Pages. • Personal Values and Ethical Standards. • • • • • • Personal Values and Ethical Standards • • XXXXXX • Instructor: XXXXX • Professional Ethics, And Legal . Issues In Human Services • XXXX Comment on the developmental aspect of your personal values and india ethics rather than on a particular position on phd thesis, any issue. Do this by defining your values, the papers, sources (people, institutions, events, etc.) that helped shape your values, and the criteria and decision-making factors you use today to revise. Culture , Ethics , Family 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Bshs 332 Ethical Dilemma in the Workplace. Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace Michele Wallace BSHS/332 July 10, 2013 Sean Jones . Economics. Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace There are many different types of finance, ethical dilemmas in environmental economics phd thesis, the workplace. For example , conducting personal business on company time, taking credit for short essay, other’s work, harassment from coworkers or management, high pressure sales and theft* I have been in the situation to economics phd thesis experience. Business ethics , Dilemma , Employment 1239 Words | 4 Pages. ?Part A: Ethical Dilemma Essay Ethical Dilemma Description British’s fourth largest mobile . operator, T-Mobile who is finance india, under E E Phone Company faced an ethical dilemma that concerned the T-Mobile company recall matter in the year end of 2008 till 2009.

The stuff in T-Mobile, United Kingdom allegedly sold customer data to economics brokers, who in turn sold it to other competing phone firms. These firms then started calling customers, whose contracts with T-Mobile were about to expire, trying to get them to. Customer , Customer service , Decision making 773 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personal Business Ethics APPENDIX I Ethical Dilemma Scenarios for Speaker Selection Notes: 1. . The following details are also located in research, the “speaker notes” of the presentation 2. Select appropriate scenarios listed below given the phd thesis, timeframe and research paper finance audience Ethical Dilemma Discussion (1) You are taking an phd thesis Algebra exam and you notice the person next to phd thesis you is cheating off of your paper. Phd Thesis. You have studied very hard for this exam because you want to maintain good. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Ethics 2120 Words | 6 Pages. Army Standards and Ethical Dilemmas. Army Standards and Ethical Dilemmas MSG Garrison, John O., 19Z United States Army Sergeants Major Academy Class 62 SGM Kelvin . Hinkle December 8, 2011 Unclassified Abstract The inconsistent application of Army standards leads to research paper unethical decisions on a daily basis. Despite an emphasis on Army values at all levels, military leaders open themselves up to make unethical decisions when they don’t adhere to set standards. Despite the Army having clear standards on height/weight, APFT, the tattoo. Adipose tissue , Army , Body fat percentage 1796 Words | 5 Pages.

Running head: ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE HEALTHCARE SETTING Ethical Dilemmas in . Healthcare Harold Ben Harris Jr. Trident University International BHS365 - Ethics in the Healthcare Setting (Mod 1 - SLP) Charles Spach November 3rd, 2012 Abstract Session Long Project: The goal of the Session Long Project is to identify and evaluate the ethical principles used in resolving ethical dilemmas , and to apply the environmental, principles to proposal specific ethical issues that may have. Ethics , Health , Health care 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Dilemmas in Workplace Personal values may conflict with ethical decision making if those . personal values are different than the organizational norms of the business or institution. Constructing, and maintaining personal ethics in the workplace rests with the individual, and how willing he or she is in assimilating to the evolving cultural dynamic of the corporate world.

Many times a person find their personal , cultural and/or organizational ethics conflicting and environmental must reconcile a course. Business ethics , Employment , Ethics 1620 Words | 6 Pages.

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Web Content Display Web Content Display. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the environmental economics phd thesis, 32nd President of the United States. Not only childhood vaccinations did he serve an unprecedented four terms in office, but he was also the first president with a significant physical disability. FDR was diagnosed with infantile paralysis, better known as polio, in 1921, at environmental, the age of compared writing assignments an essay required, 39. Phd Thesis! Although dealing with this crippling disease was difficult, many believe that his personal struggles helped shape FDR, both as a man and american scholar as a president. Coming from economics a wealthy family, FDR was privileged to enjoy his summers at the Campobello Island family cottage that was purchased by his parents in New Brunswick, Canada. It was at this site that FDR manifested the symptoms of “the insidious and deadly enemy” known as infantile paralysis. No one is short author, certain of the circumstances leading to his contraction of polio, many believe he was exposed to the virus at a Boy Scout camp in New York just prior to going to environmental economics phd thesis Campobello.

Web Content Display Web Content Display. During the summer of 1921, FDR was enjoying a day of sailing on his yacht when he suddenly fell overboard into the icy waters of the essay by filipino author, Bay of Fundy, which ironically felt paralyzing to his body. The following day, FDR complained of phd thesis, lower back pain and phd thesis went for a swim in hopes to ease the soreness. As the environmental, day progressed, he could feel his legs becoming weaker and by the third day, he could no longer hold his own weight. His skin quickly became very sensitive and short essay eventually even a slight breeze across his body caused great distress. Eleanor, who couldn’t bear to see her husband in such anguish, began to contact a handful of doctors, hoping one of them would be able to find a remedy to his unknown infirmity. One of these doctors was Dr. Keen who insisted the issue stemmed from a blood clot located in the lower spinal cord and environmental economics phd thesis recommended that he receive lumbar massages daily in order to short author help circulation. Economics! Days later, FDR was notified by Dr.

Keen that his earlier diagnosis was incorrect and instead he claimed the short essay by filipino author, distress was being caused by spinal lesion. Environmental Economics Phd Thesis! The massage therapy continued but did not prove to paper finance india be successful in curing the paralysis. On August 25, 1921, another physician, Dr. Robert Lovett, diagnosed FDR with infantile paralysis (i.e. polio). At that time, polio had no known cure and often resulted in full or partial paralysis and the erosion of one’s motor skills.

Lovett, who was an environmental economics expert on the disease, insisted Franklin stop the massages, as they were not helping the childhood vaccinations, situation and possibly making it worse; he instead suggested that he take hot baths. Both FDR and phd thesis Eleanor were surprised by this verdict, as it was uncommon for a middle aged person to contract polio. Most cases of the disease were acquired during infancy, but most children become immune to the disease by the age of four. Lovett explained that in order for eugene papers a person to combat poliomyelitis, they must be in good emotional and environmental economics physical health and have a healthy immune system. This made FDR rethink the finance, actuality of environmental, having the disease since he could recall frequently becoming ill as a young boy, but for the past few years he had been leading a stressful life in politics that may have weakened his immunity. At the young age of thirty-nine, FDR became a victim of infantile paralysis. It was during fall of 1921, when FDR made the decision to remove himself from political life in order to begin his rehabilitation process at his home in Hyde Park, New York. For several years, his main focus shifted from politics to scholar recovering from his paralysis. FDR began routinely swimming three times a week in the Astor pool and in environmental economics the pond.

He had realized that his legs could support the weight of his body in water with ease and used swimming as his main exercise. By the papers, winter of phd thesis, that year, his arms regained strength, his nervous system was functioning normally, and his stomach and lower back were getting stronger (Gallagher 23). In January 1922, FDR was fit with braces that locked in at the knee and continued the length of his leg, and by the spring of short author, that year he could stand with assistance. Environmental Phd Thesis! FDR made a plan that one day he would walk the length of his driveway, which was a quarter-mile long. Although he never accomplished the childhood, task, he used it as a training procedure, working himself to the bone in hopes that he would be able to walk again if he continued exercising. Due to his bright personality, FDR insisted that he be surrounded by “good cheer” throughout his rehab process. He was known for exercising constantly, even when he was surrounded by friends. He would often have people watch him and economics provide company as he exercised and would carry out a conversation with them despite devoting all his effort to moving. FDR also involved his children and family with his daily exercise rituals. At first, his children were heartbroken seeing their father in such a vulnerable state, struggling to move. Eventually they became comfortable around his condition and were proactive in helping him and involving themselves with his rehabilitation process.

Eleanor recalled, “The perfect naturalness with which the children accepted his limitations though they had always known him as an active person, helped him tremendously in his own acceptance of them” (Roosevelt, Autobiography 142). Web Content Display Web Content Display. Web Content Display Web Content Display. During his rehabilitation process, FDR was contacted by George Foster Peabody, a friend who knew of his recent polio attack. Peabody recently learned of an incident where a young man by the name of Louis Joseph, who was stricken by infantile paralysis, was cured by the “healing waters” of Warm Springs. After hearing of this story, he recommended the Warm Springs facility to FDR, hoping he too would become miraculously cured by an essay required, its medicinal waters. In 1924, FDR made a trip to the Georgia resort with high hopes that the phd thesis, mineral water in the springs could treat his paralysis.

The spring’s water came from Pine Mountain and was known to be rich in mineral content and extremely pure. Although the waters did not restore FDR to ultimate health, his continued visits throughout his political life resulted in an increase in the resort’s popularity and business. In 1926, Warm Springs was having financial issues. As its favorite visitor, FDR couldn’t allow the facility to close down; instead, he bought the facility for $200,000 and transformed it into presentation a rehabilitation center for economics phd thesis polio patients like himself. The following year, the Warm Springs Foundation was considered a permanent hydrotherapeutic center by the American Orthopedic Association. Above: Home movie footage of to other writing required, various scenes, circa 1928, showing areas around the treatment facility at Warm Springs, GA. Included in environmental economics phd thesis this silent footage are shots of FDR swimming, receiving therapy, and attending picnics. Web Content Display Web Content Display.

FDR made remarkable progress in Hyde Park and essay vaccinations Warm Springs, and environmental all his time was well spent during his rehabilitation period. His efforts and exercises clearly paid off, but he still remained a paraplegic. Short Essay Author! Roosevelt had such faith that one day he would be able to environmental economics walk again. His stubborn confidence resulted in a personal ultimatum: he either needed to accept the progress he had made and return to politics or give up his political dreams in hopes of breaking out of this stagnant phase of recovery. Eleanor also played a huge role in convincing FDR to resume his political career. Phd Thesis Proposal Presentation! As his wife and co-pilot, she knew he would not be happy in the end if he had decided to terminate his activity in politics. FDR’s close friend and environmental political advisor, Louis Howe, also urged FDR to participate in politics again.

Though this decision to return to the political world was supported by two people he respected, it was also looked down upon by the person he cared about the most, his mother. She became very concerned with his health and suggested that he retire completely from his hectic life as a politician. Of course if it had not been for Eleanor and Howe, America might not have had the experience of essay childhood vaccinations, having FDR in office, nor anything that stemmed from environmental economics phd thesis his presidency. (Gallagher 20) As FDR made his way back into political life, he was unsure how the public would react to his disability. Phd Thesis Presentation! Since his withdrawal from the environmental economics phd thesis, public eye, not many people knew exactly what had happened to FDR. There were many rumors concerning his health and his physical state.

All of this made it even more difficult for FDR to scholar essays stay emotionally strong and confident while making his way back into the limelight. His first attempt to regain political interest was to support New York State Governor Al Smith in the 1924 Democratic Convention. This was FDR’s first public appearance since his polio attack and everyone was curious about his condition. FDR had expected the environmental phd thesis, public to treat him like any other paraplegic at the time, with ignorance. During the 1920’s, disability was frowned upon. To Other Assignment Required! Often disabled family members were put into asylums and banished from the family.

The disabled were not employable and were often removed from society. As FDR began to move up on the political ladder, Americans were not shaken by his disability. More citizens were sympathetic to his condition rather than embarrassed. Phd Thesis! Fueled by America’s “good cheer” and acceptance, FDR gained more confidence in american scholar essays his political career and ran for governor of New York in 1928. His disability did not affect his votes and environmental phd thesis as a result, he held the governorship for two terms until he decided to run for President in presentation the 1932 election.

His political advisors often worried about how successful FDR would be in the election. They feared the environmental economics, words of childhood, his opponents and the names people often called him hoping to environmental break his stride. Despite all of this, FDR’s disability was never brought up as a problem throughout his 1932 campaign and presidency and did not affect America’s love for him. Web Content Display Web Content Display. In private, FDR used a special wheelchair he designed himself. Childhood Vaccinations! He refused to use a “regular” wheelchair because the chairs of the time were one-size-fits-all, bulky and a nuisance to get around in. Environmental Phd Thesis! Most buildings during his era were not wheelchair accessible; therefore Roosevelt needed something small, appealing, efficient, and discreet. To accomplish this, he used a dining chair and to other writing assignments an essay assignment replaced the legs with bicycle-like wheels.

The chair was small and could move around tight corners and narrow hallways with ease. His wheelchair did not call a lot of environmental economics, attention since it was made out of something people were used to seeing in their own homes. Although FDR’s disability did not directly interfere with his role as President, he was not completely comfortable being open about research finance, his situation. Masking his disability in his home was one thing, but the real challenge arose when he was asked to appear in phd thesis public or deliver a speech. Often he was required to finance india navigate to a podium or area in which he would greet listeners. Of course FDR could have simply chosen to remain in his wheelchair during public events, but he wanted to assure America that he was capable. He never wanted Americans to get the impression that he was helpless, so it was important to him to at least seem as if he could walk.

FDR devised a method of “walking” in which he used a cane and economics the arm of his son or advisor for balance. He would maneuver his hips and swing is legs forward in a swaying motion to make it appear as if he was walking. Stairs were also a challenge for FDR, he learned to support his weight with just his arms, holding himself up as if he were on parallel bars, and essay swing his way down toward the next step. FDR requested that the press avoid photographing him walking, maneuvering, or being transferred from his car. The stipulation was accepted by most reporters and photographers but periodically someone would not comply. The Secret Service was assigned to purposely interfere with anyone who tried to snap a photo of FDR in a “disabled or weak” state (Gallagher 94). Web Content Display Web Content Display. Although FDR made the choice to phd thesis put his paralysis on essay childhood, the back burner in economics order to eugene debs research return to political life, he never gave up on environmental economics, the cause. Throughout his presidency, FDR made sure that he put effort into assisting those who suffered from polio.

After ten years of setting up Warm Springs so that it became the prime place for phd thesis presentation polio patients to receive therapy, FDR faced funding issues with the foundation. The first Birthday Ball in 1934 was held in commemoration of FDR’s birthday. He urged people in his honor to make monetary donations to the facility and ended up raising one million dollars for the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation. The Birthday Balls continued in order to support both Warm Springs and FDR’s National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis which he created four years later in environmental economics phd thesis 1938. The fundraising for the National Foundation evolved into what we now know as the March of Dimes. This was a fund-raiser in childhood vaccinations which all of its proceeds went to the National Foundation for environmental Infantile Paralysis. The annual continuation of this occasion eventually funded the research for the Salk vaccine to treat polio; unfortunately FDR never lived to research paper finance india see it.

FDR’s disability was often called a “blessing in disguise” by environmental, his wife. Eleanor had a way of looking at the big picture instead of worrying over american scholar essays the small stuff. She understood that the battles her husband fought in life were often more than what they seemed. FDR’s illness threw him into a category frowned upon by most of the environmental economics phd thesis, American population. The way he viewed himself as a person, father and politician despite his limitations helped others to change the way they viewed others crippled by disease or disability. Disabled or not, FDR became a symbol of strength and perseverance to Americans, showing them that “You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in research finance india which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, ‘I have lived through this horror. Economics! I can take the next thing that comes along.’…You must do the thing you think you cannot do” (Roosevelt, You Learn by Living 29-30). Web Content Display Web Content Display. Franklin D. Roosevelt Family, Business and Personal Papers. . Franklin D. Phd Thesis Proposal Outline! Roosevelt President's Personal File. . Gallagher, Hugh Gregory.

FDR's Splendid Deception. Revised Edition ed. 1985. Arlington: Vandamere Press, 1994.. . Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor. Economics! The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt. Short Essay By Filipino Author! First Edition ed. Economics! New York: Harper Brothers Publishers, 1937.. Short Essay! . Roosevelt, Eleanor. You Learn By Living. New York: Harper Brothers Publishers, 1960.. Economics! . The Library's mission is to foster research and to other required education on environmental phd thesis, the life and times of Franklin and american Eleanor Roosevelt, and their continuing impact on contemporary life.

Our work is carried out by four major areas: Archives, Museum, Education and Public Programs.