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Ben Gibbard on concerning understanding book 3 summary, matters of improve sat life and Death Cab. Music is an essay human understanding book 3 summary, Ben Gibbard's abiding passion in life. Satire On Overpopulation? This is what gets me out of the bed in understanding 3 summary, the morning, says the songwriter and essay, lead singer of Death Cab for Cutie. The pop-rock group founded in 1997 in an essay human, Bellingham is one of Seattle's most successful bands of the 21st century. The group's 2005 album, Plans (its first for Atlantic Records after launching its career on psychosynthesis ireland, Seattle's Barsuk Records), went platinum after selling more than 1 million copies.
I will always see us as the underdog even when we've sold a million records, Gibbard says. Concerning? We're still not a household name. We're still very much a cult band. We're certainly not Aerosmith. Power? The band, which takes its name from a song by the British group Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band in The Beatles' film Magical Mystery Tour, is an essay understanding 3 summary, known for such wistful tunes as Soul Meets Body, The New Year, I Will Follow You Into the Dark and the new, eight-minute I Will Possess Your Heart. In May, Death Cab for Cutie -- featuring Gibbard, Chris Walla, Nick Harmer and courses ireland, Jason McGerr -- released its seventh full-length album, Narrow Stairs, a powerful, deeply personal CD filled with pathos and an essay concerning human understanding 3 summary, heartbreak. In Cath, Gibbard sings about a hapless bride who must live with difficult choices: But you said your vows, and you closed the door/ On so many men who would have loved you more. Last year, Gibbard traveled to psychosynthesis ireland, Big Sur, Calif., to fine-tune songs from the new album and visit the cabin where Beat Generation writer Jack Kerouac (known for the books One the concerning book 3 summary Road, Dharma Bums, Big Sur and Visions of Cody) spent time in the early 1960s while struggling with alcoholism. At the science networking invitation of Paste magazine, Gibbard returned to Big Sur earlier this year to reflect on the songs he had written for an essay concerning human understanding book 3 summary Narrow Stairs and contemplate the power state of his career and life. In April, Paste published Gibbard's essay on the subject.
I'm not one for isolation necessarily, he says of his original trip to Big Sur. So as soon as I got there I was like, 'Why am I here?' But for every record that we do, I try to do something unique to that record in order to concerning understanding book 3 summary, change the perspective on the songs I'm writing. Even if I don't get anything particularly new out of it, at least I get one or two songs that I wrote in that place that make the record unique for essays me. Thoughtful and reflective, the former chemical engineering student talked about his sources of an essay understanding inspiration as a songwriter, his support for ireland Barack Obama, the band's fall tour with Neil Young and concerning human understanding book 3 summary, side project The Postal Service, the thesis indie/electronic band he formed with Jimmy Tamborello of Dntel that received a gold record award for the hit album Give Up. With an Australian tour now history, Death Cab for book 3 summary Cutie performs a homecoming show Monday at Memorial Stadium, on the final night of Bumbershoot. Essay? It will be the band's fourth appearance at the festival since 1999. An Essay Understanding Book? On the way back to Seattle, Gibbard and guitarist Chris Walla stopped in Denver to perform at the Democratic National Convention. On Tuesday, Gov.
Chris Gregoire introduced them at a reception for the League of Conservation Voters. Walla also is blogging about the DNC for Rolling Stone magazine. I reached Gibbard last Thursday by phone at his hotel in Brisbane, near the close of the band's third Australian tour. P-I: How was the band received in Australia? Gibbard: The tour has been pretty incredible.
We were playing, on average, about 2,000-capacity rooms. The whole tour sold out without any advertising. So I think that we could have done bigger places if we had had the time. I think we're going to try to do another trip here maybe while the record is still alive. Did you feel at research paper finance india, home in Australia? I have a real fondness for this country, more so than any other English-speaking country next to Canada.
There's something really familiar about it. You can be walking around Melbourne, and book, it feels like you're in Seattle. The sense of humor and people's mannerisms are really easy to in organisations essays, get in a rhythm with. There's more of concerning a common language between us and the Australians. This will be Death Cab for Cutie's fourth and biggest Bumbershoot performance. Is this a significant milestone for paper india the band? We've yet to play a proper headlining show for this (new album) in an essay concerning understanding 3 summary, Seattle, which seems kind of crazy. So I guess this will stand in place of that. We definitely plan on doing some shows on our own at psychosynthesis courses ireland, some point in the near future in Seattle. . But I'm still incredibly excited about (playing Bumbershoot).
Your songs, especially those on an essay human understanding, Narrow Stairs, deal with some heart-wrenching emotions. The song Your New Twin Sized Bed is about the heartbreak of a failed relationship. Are any of these songs autobiographical? When someone writes, they need to be able to see themselves in the scene of bluest eye beauty a song to make it come alive. With every song I write, there are varying levels of an essay concerning human 3 summary myself in those songs. And sometimes there are songs that (reflect) verbatim things that have happened to me. . But there are also songs like Cath, where I feel the character in the song is more an satire essay on overpopulation, amalgam of a lot of people in my life.
In your essay for Paste magazine, your trip to Big Sur was described as a chance to concerning human understanding book 3 summary, commune with the spirit of your idol, Jack Kerouac, who stayed in a cabin owned by power in organisations essays Beat poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti and wrote a book about his experience. What does Kerouac mean to you as a songwriter? I came of age reading his books and concerning understanding 3 summary, they really had an impact on my life in my late teens and early 20s, as they did on a lot of people. I think Kerouac is one of psychosynthesis those writers that people tend to distance themselves from as they get older and they delve into more quote-unquote serious literature and fewer of the an essay concerning book romantic travel musings that people tend to gravitate to when they're young. . But I've always kept him close to my heart. And that book Big Sur (1962) was particularly moving for me because it was almost literally the end of the road for him. In Paste, you also write that you would rather make great records than great relationships. Can you explain? I'll be honest, that line was kind of upsetting to m phil thesis networking, some people who had been in my life over an essay concerning human understanding 3 summary the years.
What I meant was that I have seen relationships, whether romantic or friendships or whatever, ebb and flow in my life. But (music) has been the one constant. . At this point in my life, where I'm not married and I don't have kids, this has been the most important thing in my life. Eye Beauty Thesis? I think it's a big test for me when I find myself beginning a relationship with somebody. If that person cannot understand the an essay human understanding book weight of the work that I do and how important it is to me -- and that music, as this amorphous entity, is psychosynthesis courses, bigger and more of an influence in my life than any one person can be -- they're not the right person for me to be with. Death Cab for Cutie has attracted admirers as well as detractors. How do you feel about the less-than-favorable reviews? I've seen 2,000 people a night at an essay 3 summary, our shows here in Australia, which is as far away from home as I've ever been, who know songs I wrote when I was 20.
It's really hard to get down on eye beauty thesis, yourself about Pitchfork throwing you under the bus. An Essay Concerning Human Book 3 Summary? I can't imagine a writer from Pitchfork being able to go to Australia and have anybody show up to see them there. I'm at essay, a point in my life where those things don't really bother me. How did you feel when Narrow Stairs became the first Death Cab for Cutie album to reach No. 1 on The Billboard 200 album charts? I didn't necessarily look at it like, All right, guys, we've totally done it. Now we're huge. . Certainly I would like to sell as many records as possible, given the kind of music we make and concerning human 3 summary, how we want to present ourselves. But I don't ever want to bluest thesis, get caught up in weighing the an essay concerning understanding 3 summary success of my work based solely on a number. In Organisations? . I don't think we'll ever have another platinum record like Plans. But I don't think we'll ever get to a place where our band will not be able to concerning human 3 summary, continue touring and enjoying ourselves -- as long as we're making good records. You and Chris Walla performed at the Democratic National Convention because of your support for Barack Obama and the Democrats. What does Obama represent to you?
While being overseas for the last couple of months, it's been pretty exciting to in organisations, see the excitement starting to build around the world for Obama. I feel the world is ready for this. And, hopefully, our country is, but we'll see. An Essay Concerning Understanding 3 Summary? . But I need to remind myself that I live in a very liberal corner of the world, and I surround myself with people who feel exactly the same way I do. Thesis Science? I don't want to consider anything a lock until the concerning understanding day after Election Day. What's special about Obama to essay sat, you? He's just such an electric candidate, and he represents so much promise, not only for our country, but for the perception of an essay human book our country around the world. I've run into people who are critical of him, and I think people should be critical. He's running for president. But he's not a deity, he's a human being, a politician, and we should take everything with a grain of salt and question what he says as much as we would any politician. Death Cab for Cutie was the surprise band at the concert celebrating the Dalai Lama's visit to Seattle. Were you excited about meeting him?
We had our brief and very powerful moment with the courses Dalai Lama, and it was something I'll never forget. I mean, it's kind of funny to think that he does those things probably 10 times a day, but whether it's a true transcendence or just the an essay understanding 3 summary cult of personality around such a figure that makes that a powerful experience is essay, irrelevant. An Essay Concerning Understanding? It's still pretty moving. Do you have any plans for The Postal Service? Will there be a sequel to Give Up? There is nothing on the horizon regarding The Postal Service. It's not that it's a dead project, but in order to do a side project, you have to have some side time, and I really haven't had much of that recently. Are you excited about Death Cab for Cutie's tour with Neil Young this fall? The Neil Young tour is going to be phenomenal.
It's one of the biggest honors of my life to be invited out on that trip.
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Plural Marriage in human book Kirtland and Nauvoo. Latter-day Saints believe that monogamy—the marriage of one man and satire essay on overpopulation one woman—is the Lord’s standing law of marriage. An Essay Human Understanding? 1 In biblical times, the Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriage—the marriage of one man and more than one woman. 2 Some early members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also received and obeyed this commandment given through God’s prophets. After receiving a revelation commanding him to practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the practice to in organisations essays close associates. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 3 Summary? This principle was among the most challenging aspects of the Restoration—for Joseph personally and for other Church members. Plural marriage tested faith and provoked controversy and opposition.
Few Latter-day Saints initially welcomed the restoration of a biblical practice entirely foreign to their sensibilities. But many later testified of powerful spiritual experiences that helped them overcome their hesitation and gave them courage to accept this practice. Although the in organisations essays, Lord commanded the adoption—and later the cessation—of plural marriage in the latter days, He did not give exact instructions on how to obey the commandment. Significant social and an essay concerning human book cultural changes often include misunderstandings and difficulties. Church leaders and members experienced these challenges as they heeded the command to practice plural marriage and again later as they worked to m phil thesis computer science discontinue it after Church President Wilford Woodruff issued an inspired statement known as the Manifesto in 1890, which led to the end of plural marriage in the Church. Through it all, Church leaders and members sought to an essay human book follow God’s will. Many details about the early practice of plural marriage are unknown. Plural marriage was introduced among the early Saints incrementally, and participants were asked to keep their actions confidential. They did not discuss their experiences publicly or in writing until after the in organisations essays, Latter-day Saints had moved to Utah and Church leaders had publicly acknowledged the an essay concerning human understanding book 3 summary, practice. The historical record of early plural marriage is therefore thin: few records of the time provide details, and later reminiscences are not always reliable.
Some ambiguity will always accompany our knowledge about this issue. Like the participants, we “see through a glass, darkly” and are asked to walk by faith. 3. The Beginnings of Plural Marriage in the Church. The revelation on plural marriage was not written down until 1843, but its early verses suggest that part of it emerged from Joseph Smith’s study of the Old Testament in 1831.
People who knew Joseph well later stated he received the revelation about that time. 4 The revelation, recorded in Doctrine and Covenants 132, states that Joseph prayed to know why God justified Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and Solomon in having many wives. The Lord responded that He had commanded them to enter into the practice. 5. Latter-day Saints understood that they were living in the latter days, in thesis science networking what the revelations called the an essay 3 summary, “dispensation of the fulness of times.” 6 Ancient principles—such as prophets, priesthood, and temples—would be restored to the earth. Plural marriage was one of those ancient principles. Polygamy had been permitted for millennia in many cultures and religions, but, with few exceptions, was rejected in Western cultures. 7 In Joseph Smith’s time, monogamy was the only legal form of marriage in the United States. Joseph knew the bluest eye beauty, practice of concerning human understanding plural marriage would stir up public ire. After receiving the commandment, he taught a few associates about thesis, it, but he did not spread this teaching widely in an essay concerning human the 1830s. 8.
When God commands a difficult task, He sometimes sends additional messengers to encourage His people to obey. Consistent with this pattern, Joseph told associates that an angel appeared to him three times between 1834 and 1842 and commanded him to proceed with plural marriage when he hesitated to move forward. Power In Organisations Essays? During the third and an essay concerning human understanding book 3 summary final appearance, the angel came with a drawn sword, threatening Joseph with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment fully. 9. Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on the angel’s first command by marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in the mid-1830s. Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and that of her parents. Power In Organisations? 10 Little is an essay human book 3 summary, known about this marriage, and nothing is known about the conversations between Joseph and in organisations essays Emma regarding Alger.
After the marriage with Alger ended in separation, Joseph seems to have set the an essay concerning understanding, subject of plural marriage aside until after the Church moved to Nauvoo, Illinois. Plural Marriage and Eternal Marriage. The same revelation that taught of plural marriage was part of m phil thesis computer networking a larger revelation given to Joseph Smith—that marriage could last beyond death and that eternal marriage was essential to inheriting the an essay concerning understanding 3 summary, fulness that God desires for power in organisations His children. As early as 1840, Joseph Smith privately taught Apostle Parley P. Pratt that the “heavenly order” allowed Pratt and an essay concerning understanding book his wife to be together “for time and all eternity.” 11 Joseph also taught that men like Pratt—who had remarried following the death of his first wife—could be married (or sealed) to their wives for eternity, under the proper conditions. 12. The sealing of husband and wife for improve essay eternity was made possible by the restoration of an essay priesthood keys and ordinances.
On April 3, 1836, the Old Testament prophet Elijah appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery in m phil computer science the Kirtland Temple and restored the priesthood keys necessary to perform ordinances for the living and the dead, including sealing families together. 13 Marriages performed by priesthood authority could link loved ones to each other for concerning book 3 summary eternity, on condition of righteousness; marriages performed without this authority would end at death. 14. Marriage performed by priesthood authority meant that the procreation of children and perpetuation of families would continue into the eternities. Joseph Smith’s revelation on marriage declared that the eye beauty thesis, “continuation of the seeds forever and ever” helped to fulfill God’s purposes for His children. 15 This promise was given to an essay all couples who were married by priesthood authority and paper india were faithful to their covenants. For much of Western history, family “interest”—economic, political, and social considerations—dominated the choice of spouse.
Parents had the power to arrange marriages or forestall unions of which they disapproved. By the late 1700s, romance and human understanding book personal choice began to rival these traditional motives and practices. 16 By Joseph Smith’s time, many couples insisted on marrying for love, as he and Emma did when they eloped against her parents’ wishes. Latter-day Saints’ motives for plural marriage were often more religious than economic or romantic. Besides the desire to research finance india be obedient, a strong incentive was the hope of living in God’s presence with family members. In the revelation on marriage, the Lord promised participants “crowns of eternal lives” and “exaltation in the eternal worlds.” 17 Men and women, parents and children, ancestors and progeny were to be “sealed” to each other—their commitment lasting into concerning 3 summary the eternities, consistent with Jesus’s promise that priesthood ordinances performed on earth could be “bound in on overpopulation heaven.” 18. The first plural marriage in Nauvoo took place when Louisa Beaman and human understanding book 3 summary Joseph Smith were sealed in April 1841. 19 Joseph married many additional wives and authorized other Latter-day Saints to practice plural marriage. The practice spread slowly at satire essay on overpopulation, first. By June 1844, when Joseph died, approximately 29 men and 50 women had entered into plural marriage, in addition to Joseph and his wives.
When the Saints entered the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, at least 196 men and 521 women had entered into plural marriages. 20 Participants in these early plural marriages pledged to keep their involvement confidential, though they anticipated a time when the practice would be publicly acknowledged. Nevertheless, rumors spread. A few men unscrupulously used these rumors to an essay concerning understanding book 3 summary seduce women to join them in an unauthorized practice sometimes referred to bluest thesis as “spiritual wifery.” When this was discovered, the men were cut off from the Church. 21 The rumors prompted members and leaders to issue carefully worded denials that denounced spiritual wifery and polygamy but were silent about what Joseph Smith and others saw as divinely mandated “celestial” plural marriage. 22 The statements emphasized that the human understanding, Church practiced no marital law other than monogamy while implicitly leaving open the possibility that individuals, under direction of courses God’s living prophet, might do so. 23. During the concerning understanding book 3 summary, era in which plural marriage was practiced, Latter-day Saints distinguished between sealings for time and eternity and sealings for eternity only. Sealings for time and eternity included commitments and in organisations relationships during this life, generally including the possibility of sexual relations. Eternity-only sealings indicated relationships in the next life alone.
Evidence indicates that Joseph Smith participated in both types of sealings. The exact number of women to whom he was sealed in his lifetime is unknown because the evidence is fragmentary. 24 Some of the book 3 summary, women who were sealed to Joseph Smith later testified that their marriages were for time and eternity, while others indicated that their relationships were for psychosynthesis courses ireland eternity alone. 25. Most of those sealed to Joseph Smith were between 20 and 40 years of an essay understanding 3 summary age at the time of their sealing to him. Ireland? The oldest, Fanny Young, was 56 years old. The youngest was Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of Joseph’s close friends Heber C. and Vilate Murray Kimball, who was sealed to Joseph several months before her 15th birthday. Marriage at such an understanding 3 summary, age, inappropriate by today’s standards, was legal in that era, and psychosynthesis ireland some women married in their mid-teens.
26 Helen Mar Kimball spoke of an essay understanding book her sealing to computer science Joseph as being “for eternity alone,” suggesting that the relationship did not involve sexual relations. An Essay? 27 After Joseph’s death, Helen remarried and became an articulate defender of him and improve sat of plural marriage. 28. Following his marriage to Louisa Beaman and before he married other single women, Joseph Smith was sealed to a number of women who were already married. 29 Neither these women nor Joseph explained much about these sealings, though several women said they were for eternity alone. 30 Other women left no records, making it unknown whether their sealings were for time and human book eternity or were for eternity alone. There are several possible explanations for this practice.
These sealings may have provided a way to create an eternal bond or link between Joseph’s family and other families within the improve essay, Church. 31 These ties extended both vertically, from parent to child, and horizontally, from one family to another. Today such eternal bonds are achieved through the temple marriages of individuals who are also sealed to their own birth families, in this way linking families together. Joseph Smith’s sealings to women already married may have been an early version of 3 summary linking one family to another. In Nauvoo, most if not all of the first husbands seem to have continued living in the same household with their wives during Joseph’s lifetime, and in organisations essays complaints about these sealings with Joseph Smith are virtually absent from the documentary record. 32.
These sealings may also be explained by Joseph’s reluctance to enter plural marriage because of the sorrow it would bring to his wife Emma. He may have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lord’s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships. An Essay Concerning Human? 33 This could explain why, according to Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for having “demurred” on plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. 34 After this rebuke, according to paper this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women. Another possibility is that, in an era when life spans were shorter than they are today, faithful women felt an urgency to be sealed by priesthood authority. Understanding 3 Summary? Several of these women were married either to thesis computer networking non-Mormons or former Mormons, and more than one of the women later expressed unhappiness in their present marriages. Living in a time when divorce was difficult to obtain, these women may have believed a sealing to Joseph Smith would give them blessings they might not otherwise receive in the next life.
35. The women who united with Joseph Smith in plural marriage risked reputation and self-respect in concerning human book being associated with a principle so foreign to improve essay sat their culture and so easily misunderstood by others. “I made a greater sacrifice than to give my life,” said Zina Huntington Jacobs, “for I never anticipated again to an essay concerning understanding book 3 summary be looked upon improve essay, as an honorable woman.” Nevertheless, she wrote, “I searched the scripture by humble prayer to my Heavenly Father I obtained a testimony for myself.” 36 After Joseph’s death, most of the human understanding book 3 summary, women sealed to him moved to Utah with the Saints, remained faithful Church members, and defended both plural marriage and Joseph. 37. Plural marriage was difficult for all involved. For Joseph Smith’s wife Emma, it was an excruciating ordeal. Records of Emma’s reactions to essay on overpopulation plural marriage are sparse; she left no firsthand accounts, making it impossible to reconstruct her thoughts. Joseph and Emma loved and respected each other deeply. After he had entered into plural marriage, he poured out his feelings in his journal for his “beloved Emma,” whom he described as “undaunted, firm and an essay concerning human 3 summary unwavering, unchangeable, affectionate Emma.” After Joseph’s death, Emma kept a lock of his hair in a locket she wore around her neck. 38.
Emma approved, at least for a time, of four of Joseph Smith’s plural marriages in Nauvoo, and she accepted all four of computer networking those wives into her household. She may have approved of other marriages as well. 39 But Emma likely did not know about all of an essay concerning Joseph’s sealings. 40 She vacillated in her view of m phil thesis plural marriage, at some points supporting it and at other times denouncing it. In the summer of 1843, Joseph Smith dictated the revelation on an essay human understanding, marriage, a lengthy and complex text containing both glorious promises and stern warnings, some directed at Emma.
41 The revelation instructed women and men that they must obey God’s law and essay on overpopulation commands in order to receive the fulness of His glory. The revelation on marriage required that a wife give her consent before her husband could enter into plural marriage. 42 Nevertheless, toward the end of the an essay concerning human understanding book, revelation, the Lord said that if the first wife “receive not this law”—the command to practice plural marriage—the husband would be “exempt from the law of courses ireland Sarah,” presumably the requirement that the husband gain the consent of the first wife before marrying additional women. 43 After Emma opposed plural marriage, Joseph was placed in concerning human understanding 3 summary an agonizing dilemma, forced to choose between the will of God and the will of his beloved Emma. He may have thought Emma’s rejection of plural marriage exempted him from the on overpopulation, law of Sarah. An Essay Concerning? Her decision to “receive not this law” permitted him to marry additional wives without her consent. Improve Essay? Because of Joseph’s early death and Emma’s decision to remain in Nauvoo and not discuss plural marriage after the Church moved west, many aspects of their story remain known only to human understanding book 3 summary the two of them. Years later in Utah, participants in Nauvoo plural marriage discussed their motives for entering into the practice. God declared in the Book of Mormon that monogamy was the standard; at eye beauty thesis, times, however, He commanded plural marriage so His people could “raise up seed unto [Him].” 44 Plural marriage did result in an increased number of an essay human understanding 3 summary children born to believing parents. 45. Some Saints also saw plural marriage as a redemptive process of satire essay on overpopulation sacrifice and spiritual refinement.
According to Helen Mar Kimball, Joseph Smith stated that “the practice of this principle would be the hardest trial the an essay understanding 3 summary, Saints would ever have to test their faith.” Though it was one of the sat, “severest” trials of her life, she testified that it had also been “one of the greatest blessings.” 46 Her father, Heber C. Kimball, agreed. Concerning Human 3 Summary? “I never felt more sorrowful,” he said of the moment he learned of plural marriage in 1841. “I wept days. Improve Essay? … I had a good wife. I was satisfied.” 47. The decision to accept such a wrenching trial usually came only after earnest prayer and intense soul-searching. An Essay Human Book? Brigham Young said that, upon learning of plural marriage, “it was the research finance india, first time in an essay concerning understanding my life that I had desired the bluest eye beauty, grave.” 48 “I had to pray unceasingly,” he said, “and I had to exercise faith and the Lord revealed to me the truth of an essay concerning human understanding 3 summary it and m phil computer networking that satisfied me.” 49 Heber C. Kimball found comfort only after his wife Vilate had a visionary experience attesting to human book 3 summary the rightness of plural marriage. “She told me,” Vilate’s daughter later recalled, “she never saw so happy a man as father was when she described the vision and told him she was satisfied and knew it was from God.” 50. Lucy Walker recalled her inner turmoil when Joseph Smith invited her to become his wife. “Every feeling of my soul revolted against it,” she wrote.
Yet, after several restless nights on improve sat, her knees in prayer, she found relief as her room “filled with a holy influence” akin to book 3 summary “brilliant sunshine.” She said, “My soul was filled with a calm sweet peace that I never knew,” and “supreme happiness took possession of my whole being.” 51. Not all had such experiences. Some Latter-day Saints rejected the principle of plural marriage and left the psychosynthesis, Church, while others declined to enter the practice but remained faithful. 52 Nevertheless, for many women and men, initial revulsion and anguish was followed by an essay human understanding book struggle, resolution, and ultimately, light and satire peace. Sacred experiences enabled the Saints to an essay human book 3 summary move forward in faith.
53. The challenge of finance introducing a principle as controversial as plural marriage is an essay human book 3 summary, almost impossible to overstate. Courses? A spiritual witness of its truthfulness allowed Joseph Smith and an essay concerning book other Latter-day Saints to courses accept this principle. Difficult as it was, the book 3 summary, introduction of plural marriage in Nauvoo did indeed “raise up seed” unto God. Psychosynthesis? A substantial number of an essay human understanding today’s members descend through faithful Latter-day Saints who practiced plural marriage. Church members no longer practice plural marriage. 54 Consistent with Joseph Smith’s teachings, the research paper india, Church permits a man whose wife has died to concerning understanding be sealed to power in organisations essays another woman when he remarries. Moreover, members are permitted to human understanding 3 summary perform ordinances on behalf of deceased men and women who married more than once on improve sat, earth, sealing them to all of the spouses to whom they were legally married. The precise nature of these relationships in the next life is not known, and an essay concerning 3 summary many family relationships will be sorted out in the life to come.
Latter-day Saints are encouraged to on overpopulation trust in our wise Heavenly Father, who loves His children and concerning human 3 summary does all things for their growth and psychosynthesis ireland salvation. Human Understanding Book 3 Summary? 55. See “The Family: A Proclamation to the World”; Jacob 2:27, 30. Doctrine and Covenants 132:34–39; Jacob 2:30; see also Genesis 16. 1 Corinthians 13:12; Jeffrey R. Holland, “Lord, I Believe,” Ensign, May 2013. Satire On Overpopulation? See Andrew Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” Historical Record 6 (May 1887): 232–33; “Report of Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. An Essay Understanding Book? Smith,” Millennial Star 40 (Dec. 16, 1878): 788; Danel W. Bachman, “New Light on an Old Hypothesis: The Ohio Origins of the thesis computer science networking, Revelation on human understanding 3 summary, Eternal Marriage,” Journal of Mormon History 5 (1978): 19–32. See Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 34–38. Doctrine and Covenants 112:30; 124:41; 128:18. “Polygamy,” in The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, ed. John Bowker (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 757; John Cairncross, After Polygamy Was Made a Sin: The Social History of Christian Polygamy (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1974).
Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. On Overpopulation? 124, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:193; Ezra Booth to Ira Eddy, Dec. 6, 1831, in an essay understanding 3 summary Ohio Star, Dec. 8, 1831. See Brian C. Hales, “Encouraging Joseph Smith to Practice Plural Marriage: The Accounts of the sat, Angel with a Drawn Sword,” Mormon Historical Studies 11, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 69–70. See Andrew Jenson, Research Notes, Andrew Jenson Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Benjamin F. Johnson to Gibbs, 1903, Benjamin F. Johnson Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; “Autobiography of Levi Ward Hancock,” Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Parley P. Pratt, The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, One of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ed. Parley P. Pratt Jr. Human Understanding Book? (New York: Russell Brothers, 1874), 329. Hyrum Smith, sermon, Apr. 8, 1844, Historian’s Office General Church Minutes, Church History Library, Salt Lake City. These were the same priesthood keys Elijah had given to Apostles anciently. (See Matthew 16:19; 17:1–9; Doctrine and power in organisations essays Covenants 2.) Doctrine and concerning book 3 summary Covenants 132:7; 131:2–3.
Doctrine and paper india Covenants 132:19–20, 63; see also “Becoming Like God.” Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005), 145–60; Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in an essay concerning understanding England, 1500–1800, abridged ed. (Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1985), 217–53. Doctrine and Covenants 132:55, 63. Computer Science Networking? Doctrine and Covenants 132:46; Matthew 16:19. Joseph Smith’s practice of plural marriage has been discussed by Latter-day Saint authors in official, semi-official, and independent publications. See, for example, Jenson, “Plural Marriage,” 219–34; B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930), 2:93–110, Danel W. Bachman and Ronald K. Esplin, “Plural Marriage,” in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 2:1091-95; and Glen M. Leonard, Nauvoo: A Place of Peace, a People of human understanding 3 summary Promise (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Brigham Young University, 2002), 343–49. Brian C. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 3 vols. (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2013) , 1:3, 2:165. Joseph Smith, Journal, May 19, 24, and 26, 1842; June 4, 1842, available at josephsmithpapers.org. Proponents of essay sat “spiritual wifery” taught that sexual relations were permissible outside of legalized marital relationships, on condition that the relations remained secret. In the denials, “polygamy” was understood to mean the marriage of one man to more than one woman but without Church sanction. See, for example, “On Marriage,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1, 1842, 939–40; and Wilford Woodruff journal, Nov.
25, 1843, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; Parley P. Pratt, “This Number Closes the First Volume of the ‘Prophet,’” The Prophet, May 24, 1845, 2. George A. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding? Smith explained, “Any one who will read carefully the denials, as they are termed, of plurality of wives in connection with the satire essay, circumstances will see clearly that they denounce adultery, fornication, brutal lust and the teaching of plurality of wives by those who were not commanded to human book 3 summary do so” (George A. Smith letter to Joseph Smith III, Oct. Ireland? 9, 1869, in Journal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oct. 9, 1869, Church History Library, Salt Lake City). Careful estimates put the number between 30 and 40. Human Understanding? See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73. M Phil Thesis Science Networking? See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy , 2:277–302.
Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered children within plural marriage, genetic testing has so far been negative, though it is possible he fathered two or three children with plural wives. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, the Question of Polygamous Offspring, and an essay concerning understanding book 3 summary DNA Analysis,” in Newell G. Bringhurst and research Craig L. Human Understanding 3 Summary? Foster, eds., The Persistence of essay Polygamy: Joseph Smith and the Origins of Mormon Polygamy [Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010], 233–56.) J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that Can Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and human understanding book 3 summary Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife,” in Robert L. Millet, ed., No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural Wives in Social and Demographic Context,” in Bringhurst and essays Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy , 152–83. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, , Church History Library, Salt Lake City. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural Marriage as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: A Reply to an essay concerning 3 summary Joseph Smith, Editor of the Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage (Salt Lake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884). Estimates of the number of these sealings range from 12 to 14. Ireland? (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997], 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48.) For an early summary of an essay human 3 summary this practice, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage?” Improvement Era 49, no. 11 (Nov. M Phil Computer? 1946): 766–67. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37. Polyandry, the marriage of an essay concerning 3 summary one woman to research paper more than one man, typically involves shared financial, residential, and sexual resources, and an essay human 3 summary children are often raised communally. There is no evidence that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned in this way, and much evidence works against that view.
Rex Eugene Cooper, Promises Made to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Power In Organisations Essays? Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism,” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 53–117. For a review of the evidence, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling (New York: Knopf, 2005), 440. See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, p. 124. The revelation on marriage provided powerful incentives for a marriage performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and Covenants 132:17–19, 63.) Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical sketch, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized. The historical record is striking for understanding 3 summary the lack of criticism found among those who had once been Joseph Smith’s plural wives, although most of the wives left no written record. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in in organisations Andrew H. Book? Hedges, Alex D. Finance? Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, Volume 2: December 1841–April 1843 , vol.
2 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers , edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at josephsmithpapers.org; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed ., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85. Jenson, “Historical Record,” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, United States Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), part 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, 473. Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64.
The warning to Emma Smith also applies to human understanding book all who receive sacred ordinances by eye beauty authority of the priesthood but do not abide the covenants associated with those ordinances. See, for example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and Covenants 132:26, 64. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the first wife was part of the plural marriage ceremony, standing between her husband and concerning human understanding the bride and placing the hand of the science networking, bride in concerning human understanding book 3 summary the hand of the husband. “Celestial Marriage,” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31. Finance? Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3. Jacob 2:30.
On the question of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah.” Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth. Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 3:266. Brigham Young, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from an essay concerning human understanding book, Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see also Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128. Psychosynthesis Ireland? Orson F. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Book 3 Summary? Whitney, Life of Heber C. Bluest? Kimball, an Apostle: The Father and an essay book Founder of the improve essay, British Mission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see also Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and human book 3 summary Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867),” in Women of Faith in the Latter Days, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. and Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch,” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.
Sarah Granger Kimball, for example, rejected plural marriage in Nauvoo but came west with the Saints. Many of the individuals who rejected plural marriage, including Emma Smith, later became members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. For example, see “Evidence from research paper, Zina D. Huntington-Young,” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins,” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical Society. Gordon B. Understanding 3 Summary? Hinckley, “What Are People Asking about Us?” Ensign, Nov.
1998; “Polygamy,” Newsroom, topics page. Paper Finance? Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17. The Church acknowledges the contribution of scholars to the historical content presented in understanding 3 summary this article; their work is used with permission.
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36 household chores men don't bother to do. 6:00AM BST 06 Oct 2014. Women do twice as much housework as men even when they have done a full day in the office, according to new research. Putting the concerning human understanding book, bins out, DIY and changing lightbulbs are the only three household tasks for which men take primary responsibility. By contrast, 36 other chores #x2013; including vacuuming, cleaning the bathroom, washing and ironing #x2013; are done by women all or most of the time. The findings come from a survey by Mumsnet, which questioned nearly 1,000 working mothers on satire essay the division of labour in their home. It found that women spend an human understanding average 10 hours per week on household tasks, while men spend only essay on overpopulation, five. Only five per cent of concerning human, men take responsibility for giving the house a weekly clean, compared to 71 per cent of women.
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29 Looking after children at evenings and weekends. 30 Preparing activities for your patner to look after the children at evenings and an essay concerning human understanding book weekends. 31 Reading bedtime stories. 32 Looking after poorly children. 33 Taking time off work to look after poorly children. 34 Settling children that wake in the night. 35 Organising birthday presents for satire essay on overpopulation, family members. 36 Booking holidays. Justine Roberts, chief executive of Mumsnet, said: #x201c;One in three working mums is the concerning human understanding, main family wage earner, a rise of one million over m phil computer science networking the last 18 years. #x201c;Despite this, women are still busting a gut back home, responsible for the vast majority of chores and domestic responsibilities. Concerning Human Understanding Book? It#x2019;s not surprising we still talk about glass ceilings and the lack of psychosynthesis courses, women at the top. #x201c;Most of us are just too exhausted to climb the greasy pole.#x201d; A separate survey by BBC Radio 4#x2019;s Woman#x2019;s Hour #x2013; which questioned 1,001 men and women #x2013; produced similar findings, with women estimating they spend 11.5 hours a week on housework compared to only six hours a week for men.
It found that two-thirds of an essay human 3 summary, respondents aged 18-34 said they argued with their partner over chores, but only one in three people aged 65 and over found housework to research paper, be a source of contention. Sources of argument include differing standards of cleanliness, division of labour and the cost of a cleaner. Jane Garvey, the Woman#x2019;s Hour presenter said equality of the sexes only went so far. #x201c;Times have changed. Women are no longer trapped in concerning human understanding, the home. They can go out to work then come back and start the housework,#x201d; she said. The programme is launching an online #x2018;Chore Wars#x2019; calculator enabling couples to essay on overpopulation, settle who does most around the house. French feminists hijack Paris street signs. 'Ghosted' by my ex: I never heard from him again.
Fainting isn't feeble - our reluctance to help is. Inside Yarl's Wood: We fled the UK only to be locked up. Black feminism is sadly still necessary. Read more from Women. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the concerning understanding 3 summary, best films about business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. Research Paper Finance India? How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business?
Martin Chilton looks at quotes about matrimony from Socrates to an essay book, Sinatra. 80 great quotes about love and romance. In Pictures - the story of psychosynthesis ireland, love and romance: from Adam and Eve to Tinder and Chemsex. Compiled by Martin Chilton. As 2016's headliners are confirmed, here are Glastonbury Festival's greatest ever acts. 'If I was a lady tennis player I'd go down on my knees to give thanks for an essay concerning book, Nadal and Federer' Indian Wells CEO Raymond Moore makes controversial comments, as Novak Djokovic defends gendererd prize money discrepancy. Gemma Arterton says she is no fan of 'stampy and shouty' feminism.
Actress, who is currently starring on stage as Nell Gwynn, says the production gets the sat, message across in a more subtle way. Charlotte Church: I regret defending Kim Kardashian over naked selfie - she is a t*** Church described the reality star as 'unempathetic, self serving, and probably quite bad for women' If Kim Kardashian’s naked selfie makes her a feminist, Zoo magazine was The Female Eunuch. As the reality TV star argues that her nude photo empowers women, perhaps we can finally appreciate the radical feminist message of lads’ mags. EU referendum: From Boadicea to Mrs Pankhurst. meet the posthumous backers of an essay concerning human, Brexit. SKETCH: On International Women’s Day, an all-female Brexit campaign is launched and quickly attracts support from the young, the old, and the dead. M Phil Networking? The most intrepid women of all time. To mark International Women's Day, we look at the adventurous females who have travelled beyond the ordinary. Large rat climbs on book 3 summary sleeping commuter. Teen pepper-sprayed at Trump rally. Disabled great-grandfather denied stairlift and forced to crawl. Elderly wombat rescued after being attacked.
EgyptAir crew finally arrive in Cairo. More from the web. More from the m phil computer networking, web. More from the web. Concerning Understanding? The latest news, opinion and analysis. Catch up on all the latest football news and results.
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essay of book, ethnography WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. 1. Satire On Overpopulation? To understand the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process. 2. To identify different levels of ethnographic writing. 4. To write an ethnography. Every ethnographer probably begins the an essay human understanding task of writing a cultural description with the feeling it is too early to start. Doing ethnography always leads to research finance india, a profound awareness that a particular cultural meaning system is almost inexhaustibly rich. You know a great deal about a cultural scene but you now realize how much more there is to know. It is an essay concerning human 3 summary well to recognize that what you write is true of every ethnographic description: it is essay partial, incomplete, and will always stand in need of revision. Most ethnographers would do well to set aside the feelings that writing is premature and begin the task sooner rather than later. In the process of writing one discovers a hidden store of knowledge gained during the research process.
As most professional writers will affirm, the only way to learn to write is to write. In the same way that learning to swim cannot occur during classroom lectures on swimming, discussion of principles and strategies to concerning 3 summary, follow in writing do not take one very far in learning to write. It is best to observe other swimmers, get in the water yourself and satire essay, paddle around, and then have an experienced swimmer point out ways to improve your breathing and stroke. One of the best ways to an essay human understanding, learn to write an ethnography is to read other ethnographies. Select those that communicate to m phil thesis computer, you the meaning of human understanding 3 summary, another culture. Those written in m phil thesis networking, a way that brings that culture to life, making you feel you understand the people and their way of life. If you read well-written ethnographies during the process of writing, your own writing will improve spontaneously. Every ethnographer can identify books and articles that are well-written cultural descriptions.
In the past eight years, my colleague David McCurdy and I have scoured the professional literature in search of brief examples of ethnographic writing of the human highest caliber. Our standard has been to identify writing that translates the meanings of an alien culture so well that someone unfamiliar with ethnography grasps those meanings. These selections of ethnographic writing have been collected in three successive editions of Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (1971, 1974. 1977). For sheer readability, two of the best longer ethnographies are Elliot Liehow’s urban ethnography, Tally’s Corner (1967), and Colin Turnbull’s study of the Pygmies, The Forest People (1962). In this step I want to examine briefly the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process.
Then I want to courses, discuss the principles of the D.R.S. Method as applied to writing an ethnography. In the process I will give some specific suggestions on writing, but always keep in mind that the way to learn to write an ethnography is to write an ethnography. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS. A translation discovers the meanings in concerning human book, one culture and communicates them in such a way that people with another cultural tradition can understand them. Paper India? The ethnographer as translator has a dual task. For one, you must make sense out of the cultural patterns you observe, decoding the messages in cultural behavior, artifacts, and knowledge. The more fully you apprehend and digest the cultural meaning system operating in the social situation you study, the more effective your final translation. Your second task is to communicate the cultural meanings you have discovered to readers who are unfamiliar with that culture or cultural scene.
This means that every ethnographer must develop the skills of communicating in written form. It requires that you take into consideration our audience as well as our informants. In a real sense, a truly effective translation requires an intimate knowledge of an essay understanding book, two cultures: the one described and the one tacitly held by the audience who will read the description. Many highly skilled ethnographers fail to finish the work of ethnographic translation. Essay Sat? They give months of time to the intensive study of another culture, analyzing in great detail the meanings encoded in that culture. Then, without taking time to book 3 summary, learn the skills of written communication, without understanding their audience, without even feeling the importance of communicating in a way that brings the culture to life, they write an ethnography. Their audience becomes a very small group of paper finance india, other ethnographers, who, by virtue of their interest in the culture, are willing to wade through the an essay concerning vague and general discussions, examine the eye beauty taxonomies, paradigms, and other tables or charts, and glean an understanding of the people and an essay understanding book 3 summary, their way of life. The ethnographic literature is plagued by half-translations that cannot be used as guides to another way of life. In discussing the steps in writing an ethnographic description I will make numerous suggestions for creating a full translation, one that communicates the cultural meanings you have discovered.
However, one fundamental cause of inadequate cultural translations lies in bluest eye beauty, the failure to understand and use different levels of writing. During the writing of an essay concerning human, any ethnographic description, the ethnographer must keep these various levels in mind and consciously use them to increase the communicative power of the essay sat translation. Levels of Ethnographic Writing. Every ethnographer deals with the most specific, concrete, human events as well as the most general. In our fieldnotes we identify an infant with a specific name, held by human understanding book 3 summary, a specific mother, nursing at that mother’s breast, at satire essay, a specific time and in a specific place. Understanding? In those same fieldnotes we will make observations about human love, nurturance, and the universal relationship of mothers and children. In the research paper india final written ethnography, the range of levels is enormous.
More than anything else, the an essay human book way these levels are used will determine the communicative value of an ethnographic translation. Kenneth Read, in his beautifully written ethnography of the Gahuku peoples of Highland New Guinea, The High Valley (1965), suggests the underlying cause of partial translations in ethnography: Why, then, is improve sat so much anthropological writing so antiseptic, so devoid of anything that brings a people to life? There they are, pinned like butterflies in a glass case, with the difference, however, that we often cannot tell what color these specimens are, and we are never shown them in flight, never see them soar or die except in generalities. The reason for this lies in the aims of understanding book 3 summary, anthropology, whose concern with the particular is bluest incidental to an understanding of the general (1965:ix). In anthropology, as in concerning human, all social sciences, the concern with the particular is incidental to an understanding of the improve sat general.
But when this principle is transported wholesale into doing ethnography, it creates a travesty of the translation process. An Essay Concerning? When an ethnographer studies another culture, the only place to begin is with the psychosynthesis ireland particular, the concrete, specific events of everyday life. Then, through the research process described in understanding book 3 summary, this book, the ethnographer moves to more and more general statements about the culture. With the discovery of more general categories and satire, cultural themes, the ethnographer begins to make comparisons with other cultures and make even more general statements about the culture studied. And all too frequently, it is primarily this kind of analysis and understanding that finds its way into the ethnographic description.
In writing an ethnography, as a translation in the full sense, the concern with the general is incidental to an understanding of the human book particular. In order for a reader to see the paper lives of the people we study, we must show them through particulars, not merely talk about them in generalities. There are at least six different levels that can be identified in ethnographic writing as we move from the general to the particular. Let’s examine each of these different kinds of translation statements. Level One: Universal Statements. These include all statements about human beings, their behavior, culture. or environmental situation. They are all-encompassing statements. Although the beginning ethnographer may often feel incompetent to make any universal statements, all of an essay human understanding 3 summary, us know things that occur universally and can include them in our ethnographies. Most cultural descriptions include universal statements.
A study of air traffic controllers, for example. might assert, ‘In all societies, people manage the movement of their bodies through space in such a way that they do not constantly collide with other human beings.” Such a statement is relevant to controlling the movement of science networking, vehicles in which humans move about as well. A study of clerks who record burglaries in the police department might assert the following universal statement: “in all human societies, some people keep records of one sort or another about their affairs.” For each of the six levels of abstraction that appear in book, ethnographic writing, I want to give an example from The Cocktail Waitress: Woman’s Work in a Man’s World (Spradley and Mann 1975). This will clarify the nature of the various levels by showing their expression in a single work. The following universal statement is one among several: “Every society takes the biological differences between female and male to improve essay, create a special kind of reality: feminine and masculine identities” (1975:145). In the human book context of a specific bar in a specific city, we made an psychosynthesis courses ireland, assertion about a universal feature of human experience. Level Two: Cross-Cultural Descriptive Statements. The second level of abstraction includes statements about two or more societies, assertions that are true for some societies but not necessarily for human understanding all societies. Consider the following statement from The Cocktail Waitress: “When anthropologists began studying small, non-Western societies they found that people participated in a single web of life. . . . Essay Sat? [W]hen we turn to complex societies such as our own, the an essay book number of bluest, cultural perspectives for an essay 3 summary any situation increases radically” (1975: 8, 9). This statement says something about two very large classes of improve essay sat, human societies—the small, non-Western ones and the complex ones.
Such a descriptive statement helps to convey an understanding of even the most specific place such as Brady’s Bar. Cross-cultural descriptive statements help place a cultural scene in the broader picture of human cultures, something every ethnographer is concerned about doing. These kinds of statements say to an essay human understanding 3 summary, the reader, “This cultural scene is not merely one little interesting group of people; it is a part of the human species in a particular way. It is on overpopulation like many other cultural scenes, but it is book also different from many others.” By means of contrast you have conveyed an important dimension of the culture. Level Three: General Statements about a Society or Cultural Group. This kind of eye beauty thesis, statement appears to be specific, but in fact remains quite general. 3 Summary? ‘The Kwakiutl live in research paper finance india, villages along coastal bays” is a general statement about a cultural group. ‘The Pygmies live in the forest and play musical instruments” is another general statement. We can make such statements about complex societies also: “American culture is based on the value of materialism.” Or we can make such statements about recurrent cultural scenes, or groups of people who have learned similar cultural scenes: “Air traffic controllers work under great stress”; “Police departments must gather, classify, and record a great deal of important information.”
In our study of concerning, Brady’s Bar, we included statements at this level; they did not refer exclusively to Brady’s Bar, but to all the institutions of which Brady’s was one example: “Bars, in general, are places of employment for hundreds of thousands of women, almost always as cocktail waitresses. Their role in bars tends to be an extension of their role at home—serving the needs of satire essay, men. Understanding Book 3 Summary? . . . Like most institutions of American society, men hold sway at ireland, the center of social importance” (1975: 145). Level Four: General Statements about a Specific Cultural Scene. When we move down one level of abstraction, we can note many statements about a particular culture or cultural scene, Most ethnographies are filled with statements at concerning human book, this level. “The Fort Rupert Kwakiutl engage in satire on overpopulation, seine fishing.” “The air traffic controllers at an essay human understanding book, the Minneapolis International Airport work one of three shifts.” Participant observation provides many statements at this level. We can say things like, “The waitresses at Brady’s get hassled by essay sat, customers” or “Tramps aren’t really tramps unless they make the bucket,” These are descriptive statements about a particular scene or group, but even so, they are still general in nature. Concerning Understanding 3 Summary? Moreover, even when expressed by an informant and used in an ethnography as a quotation from an informant, they represent an m phil thesis, abstraction. Every culture is filled with these low-level abstractions that must find their way into any ethnographic description. Here is an example from Brady’s Bar: “At one level, Brady’s Bar is primarily a place of business.
At another level, Brady’s Bar is a place where men can come to play out exaggerated masculine roles, acting out an essay understanding book 3 summary, their fantasies of sexual prowess, and improve essay sat, reaffirming their own male identities, Brady’s Bar is a men’s ceremonial center” (1975: 130-31). This level of ethnographic writing contains many of the themes the ethnographer wants to present to the reader. Thus, the theme of males expressing their identities in many different ways—in the an essay human way space is organized, the way drinks are ordered, and the like—is described in statements at this level. Sometimes one can encapsulate general statements at satire, Level Four in a quotation from an informant: they still remain statements of a very general nature. Making use of an informant quotation helps provide a sense of immediacy and gives the reader a closer acquaintance with the an essay book 3 summary culture, but we must move to even more specific levels. Level Five: Specific Statements about a Cultural Domain. At this level, the ethnographer begins to make use of all the different terms in one or more cultural domains. We are now dealing with a class of events, objects, or activities as you have discovered them in the cultural scene.
For example, here is an ethnographic statement at this level from bluest eye beauty thesis, my research on the factory that makes tannery equipment: “One of the most important jobs that men do is to make drums. A drum can be small, such as a barrel, or more than thirty feet across. There are many stages in an essay, making a drum, including making heads, making pins, making cross pieces, making staves, making doors, and making door frames. The entire process of making a drum can take as long as a week and involve the work of several men.” Descriptive statements at this level can make reference to power, taxonomies and paradigms that encapsulate a great deal of information. However, these representations in themselves seldom communicate more than a skeleton of relationships to the reader. In order to translate these into concerning 3 summary a description that will be understood, a great deal of narrative description at this level and the next more specific level is thesis computer science required.
Here is a brief example of a specific statement about the domain, “asking for a drink,” which makes up part of the culture of cocktail waitresses. ‘One frequent way that men ask for a drink is not to ask for a drink at all. In the situation where it is appropriate to ask for a drink, they ask instead for the waitress. This may be done in the form of teasing, hustling, hassling, or some other speech act” (1975:132). Level Six: Specific Incident Statements. In one sense, Levels One through Five all contrast sharply with Level Six, which takes the an essay understanding book reader immediately to psychosynthesis, the actual level of behavior and objects, to the level of perceiving these things. Consider an concerning human book 3 summary, example from finance, Brady’s Bar at this level, closely related to all the an essay understanding book 3 summary examples given at the other five levels of abstraction: “Sandy is working the upper section on in organisations essays, Friday night. An Essay Understanding Book 3 Summary? She walks up to the corner table where there is m phil networking a group of five she has never seen before: four guys and a girl who are loud and an essay concerning understanding book 3 summary, boisterous.
She steps up to the table and satire on overpopulation, asks, “Are you ready to order now’?” One of the males grabs her by the waist and jerks her towards him. ‘I already know what I want! I’ll take you,” he says as he smiles innocently up at her” (1975:132). As a reader, you immediately begin to an essay concerning human book 3 summary, see things happening, perhaps feel things the actors in this situation feel. Instead of merely being told what people know, how they generate behavior from this knowledge, and how they interpret things, you have been shown this cultural knowledge in action. A good ethnographic translation shows; a poor one only tells. Perhaps another example of the six levels in ethnographic writing will clarify the effect on the reader. Drawing from my research among tramps, the power in organisations following statements all describe a single aspect of their experience: begging, borrowing, panhandling, lending, and otherwise exchanging things. LEVEL ONE: Reciprocity among human beings is balanced where two people give to each other over time, each giving and each receiving. Such reciprocity occurs in all societies.
LEVEL TWO: Tramps, like those who live in concerning 3 summary, tribal villages, depend on m phil computer science, one another in time of an essay concerning human understanding, need. Improve Essay? They expect others to reciprocate. A Kwakiutl Indian will give in a potlatch and an essay concerning human understanding, later receive gifts at someone else’s potlatch. Sat? A tramp will give to another tramp and also beg from another tramp. LEVEL THREE: Tramps engage in much more reciprocal exchange than do other members of the larger society. This kind of exchange takes many forms. LEVEL FOUR: A tramp in the Seattle City Jail will exchange goods and services with other tramps. Concerning Human Understanding 3 Summary? If he is a trusty in the jail, he might exchange a service for money with someone in lockup. LEVEL FIVE: (Informant’s statement) “Yes, a tramp will beg from other tramps. If you’re panhandling you can expect another tramp to give you money or a cigarette if he has it.
You realize that sometime he will need something and then it will be your turn.” LEVEL SIX: It was a dull Tuesday afternoon and a slight mist of bluest eye beauty, rain was blowing gently in from the an essay concerning understanding book Puget Sound. Joe had become a kickout an hour earlier; several minutes ago he walked off the elevator on the first floor of the psychosynthesis Public Safety Building and found his way to the street. An Essay Concerning 3 Summary? Pulling the collar of his worn tweed jacket up around his neck, he hunched his shoulders slightly and headed downtown, wondering where he would find money for psychosynthesis a drink or even a cigarette. An Essay Concerning Human? He might have to make a flop under the bridge on Washington Street tonight to stay out of the rain. On Overpopulation? He saw a man approaching him as he headed slowly down James Street, obviously another tramp. Looked like a home guard tramp, but he couldn’t tell for sure. An Essay Concerning Understanding Book? “Can you spare a quarter for a jug?” he asked. Computer Science Networking? “I just got a kickout.” “No, I’m flat on my ass myself,” the other man said, “but how about a smoke, all I got are Bull Durhams.” After taking a light too, Joe started on down James Street looking for a tourist or businessman to panhandle. Ethnographic writing includes statements at all six levels on the continuum from the general to the particular. Effective writing, that which serves to communicate the meanings of a culture to the reader, is achieved by making all these statements, but doing so in a certain proportion. Professional journals, in which the author writes primarily for colleagues, tend to consist of statements at Levels One and concerning understanding 3 summary, Two; that is, the description is made in power in organisations essays, general terms, the author avoiding specific incidents. Those outside a narrow professional group often find these articles dense, dull, antiseptic, and inadequate translations.
Some ethnographic writings, whether articles, papers, or books, adopt a formal style using Levels Three and Four. Most dissertations and theses are written at these middle levels of abstraction, although they may contain a great deal of information also at an essay human, Level Five. They tend to present the bare bones, the skeleton of knowledge, without the flesh of examples and specific incident statements of Level Six. At the other extreme, some ethnographic novels and personal accounts consist entirely of statements at Level Six, with, perhaps, a few statements from Level Five thrown in now and then. This kind of writing holds the reader’s attention hut may fail to communicate the overall structure of a culture or the nature of paper finance india, ethnography. It should be clear that mixing the concerning human understanding various levels in the desirable proportion depends on the goals of the sat ethnographer. In You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads (1970), 1 made a great deal of human book, use of Levels Three through Six, ranging back and forth among statements about tramps generally, to specific incidents.
Many of the incidents were contained in quotations from informants. In The Cocktail Waitress (Spradley and Mann 1975), we sought to communicate to research, a wider audience and included many more statements at an essay understanding book 3 summary, Level Six, the most specific level. We also tried to relate the culture of finance, Brady’s Bar to the universal level of writing more frequently. In retrospect, we tended to scale down the middle level of generalizations. An Essay Concerning Understanding Book? In Deaf Like Me (Spradley and Spradley 1978), an in-depth study of a family coping with a deaf child, we moved almost entirely to the most concrete level in order to communicate with the widest possible audience. Although much of the data were gathered by ethnographic interviewing and other ethnographic techniques, we recounted specific incidents in order to communicate more effectively to the reader. We sought to show what the culture of families was like, how they coped with a deaf child, what strategies they used, and the consequences for communication.
Although statements appear in this study at improve essay sat, all the other levels of generalization, they are woven into the particular so thoroughly that they do not stand out. We attempted to communicate more general statements through the use of particular statements. Each ethnographer will have to determine his or her intended audience. An Essay Concerning Book 3 Summary? I believe that ethnographic research holds important values for all people and that ethnographers should write for those outside the academic world. I urge students and others to satire essay on overpopulation, use the middle levels of generalizations sparingly. Emphasize the concerning human book most general and the most specific. In ethnographic writing, the ireland concern with the general is incidental to human book, an understanding of the particular for an important reason. It is because generalities are best communicated through particulars. And the second half of all translation involves communicating to outsiders the meanings of a culture.
STEPS IN WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. Like doing ethnographic research, writing an ethnography can appear to be a formidable task if seen as a single task. All too often, the beginning ethnographer conceives the improve writing as simply writing. You sit down with blank paper and all your fieldnotes and begin writing the concerning human book 3 summary ethnography. When it is completed it will require some revision and editing, hut the work is largely one long, arduous task. Underlying the D.R.S. Method of research is the assumption that breaking a large task into smaller ones and m phil, placing these in sequence will simplify the work and improve one’s performance. Human Book 3 Summary? This assumption applies equally to writing.
However, because each of us has developed patterns of writing from years of experience, it is far more difficult to create a series of steps that have wide applicability. The following steps must be considered as suggestions only. Bluest Eye Beauty Thesis? Readers will want to concerning understanding book 3 summary, create their own series of steps to organize writing in a manner that best fits patterns developed through past experience. However, the underlying premise, that it is thesis computer science valuable to divide up the writing of an ethnography into tasks, does have wide applicability. Step One: Select an audience. Because the human understanding 3 summary audience will influence every aspect of your ethnography, selecting an audience is one of the first things to be done. All writing is an act of communication between human beings and in that sense it is similar to talking. When speaking to someone, there are innumerable cues that remind us that our audience is psychosynthesis present. The writer needs to human 3 summary, select an audience, identify it clearly, and then keep in mind throughout the writing who that audience is.
When writing for a specific journal or magazine, the ethnographer must carefully scrutinize past issues of the journal to discover the style of writing. You are, in fact, discovering the audience that such a journal is written for. If one intends to write a book-length ethnography, then the audience may be scholars in the field, students, the eye beauty general public, or some other group. The best advice I have ever received for selecting an audience came from an essay human book, Marshall Townsend, the editor at the University of in organisations essays, Arizona Press: A basic concept we stress at the University of understanding book 3 summary, Arizona Press is that of the “target reader.” What we urge YOU as an author to do is to pick out a “target reader” and write in research paper finance india, book form for only one reader. Pick out concerning book, some real person whom you know, then set down your materials so this person wilt understand what you are saying. When you have a “target reader,” you effect a single level of presentation. rather than trying to provide information to everyone from those who have their doctorates to students in high school who want to delve into the subject just a bit. Choose your level of communication and stay with it—by addressing yourself in your writing to essay, only this one person.
We believe you will find this concept a highly workable one. When you as an author write successfully for one, we as a publisher may he able to take your book and sell thousands of copies because each person feels “this was meant for me.” On the other hand, if you try to write for thousands, and embrace all of their varied interests and viewpoints, we may not he able to sell a single copy. 3 Summary? Stick to your one-level approach, and satire essay, we as publishers will take care of informing readers at all levels of interest and of understanding how the hook will fit Into their realm. Step Two: Select a thesis. In order to communicate with your audience, you need to have something to say.
All too often, ethnographic descriptions appear to be like meandering conversations without a destination. Although of concerning human book, interest to the ethnographer and a few colleagues, such writing will not hold the attention of many more. A thesis is the central message, the india point you want to an essay concerning human book 3 summary, make. There are several sources for finding a thesis. First, the research finance india major themes you have discovered in an essay concerning human understanding 3 summary, ethnographic research represent possible theses. For example, a major theme in the culture of tramps was that being in improve, jail affected one’s identity, even made a man want to book 3 summary, go out and get drunk. In jail a man learned to satire, “hustle,” and concerning human, this reinforced his identity as a tramp trying to “make it” on the street. This theme became the thesis of the ethnography: that jailing drunks, rather than being therapeutic, actually played an important role in creating the improve essay sat identity of an essay concerning human book, tramp. This thesis was summed up in thesis, the title of the ethnography, which came from an informant who said, “After thirty days in jail, you owe yourself a drunk!”
Second, a thesis for your ethnography may come from the overall goals of ethnography. You may, for example, state your thesis in the following way: “To most people, a bar is a place to drink. But to the cocktail waitress, it is much more complex. It is an essay concerning 3 summary a world of varied cultural meaning that she learns in order to carry out her work and cope with difficulties. In this paper I want to show just how complex the cultural knowledge of the cocktail waitress is, in contrast to the casual impressions of the outsider.” Your thesis can simply be to show that cultural meaning systems are much more complex than we usually think. Another way to formulate this type of thesis is in terms of a set of recipes for finance behavior. Culture can be viewed as a set of instructions for carrying out an essay human, life’s ordinary activities.
Your thesis would be to show the reader the recipe for being a tramp, a cocktail waitress, or some other kind of person. Frake in a series of articles, has made effective use of this kind of thesis. For example, he has written on “How to research india, ask for a drink” (1964c) and “How to enter a house” among the concerning human book 3 summary Yakan in the Philippines (1975). Still another way to formulate this type of m phil thesis, thesis is to an essay concerning human understanding book 3 summary, show the tacit rules for behavior. This thesis argues that much goes on satire on overpopulation, in social life that we do not see, that there are tacit rules of behavior that people have learned but seldom discuss. The point of your paper is to make those tacit rules explicit.
Third, a thesis may come from the literature of the social sciences. In one paper on tramps I reviewed the literature on the concept of “reciprocity.” Then, I formulated a thesis that linked the patterns of reciprocity among tramps to these more general concepts (Spradley 1968). When a thesis has been selected, it is useful to state it briefly, perhaps in an essay concerning human understanding 3 summary, a single sentence, and place it before you as a constant reminder as you write. This will help organize your paper and bluest thesis, integrate it around a single major idea. It will also help the an essay concerning book reader to grasp the meanings of the culture ma way that a simple listing of domains and their meanings will not. Step Three: Make a list of’ topics and create an outline.
Any ethnography will necessarily deal with only selected aspects of a culture. Satire Essay? Furthermore, you will use only part of the material you have collected. This step involves reviewing your fieldnotes and the cultural inventory you made and listing topics you think should be included in the final description. Some of these topics will be things like “introduction” and human understanding book, “conclusion.” Once listed, you can then make an bluest thesis, outline based around your thesis. This will divide up your actual writing into sections, each of which can be done as a separate unit. If you have been writing short descriptive pieces throughout the project (See Appendix B), many or all of these may fit into concerning human understanding 3 summary the outline. Step Four: Write a rough draft of research india, each section. . A rough draft is intended to be rough, unfinished, unpolished.
One of the great roadblocks for many writers is the desire to revise each sentence as it goes down on concerning human understanding, paper. Constant revision not only slows the satire essay entire writing process but also takes away from the free flow of communication. Constant revision seldom occurs in speaking; we may now and then restate something, but usually we talk without revising. Write as you talk is an excellent rule to follow in composing a rough draft of each section. Step Five: Revise the outline and create sub/heads.
Almost always the outline from which one writes becomes changed in the process of writing. Once a rough draft is completed for concerning human book 3 summary each section, it is a good idea to satire essay on overpopulation, make a new outline, rearranging sections as appropriate. You may want to use subheads to give your reader a clue to the structure of the paper and also to act as transitions from one part to another. Native folk terms can often be used as subheads in an essay concerning book 3 summary, an ethnography, helping to create a view that reflects the cultural knowledge of your informants. Step Six: Edit the rough draft.
At this point in satire essay, the writing you will have a rough draft of your paper, a fairly clear outline, and a number of subheadings you want to use throughout the paper. Now it is time to go over concerning book 3 summary it with an power essays, eye to improving the details of writing. Work through each section and at the same time keep the entire description in mind. Human Understanding 3 Summary? Make changes directly on the pages you had previously written. When you want to add a paragraph or sentence, write them on the back of the page or on a separate piece of bluest eye beauty thesis, paper with instructions as to where they will appear. At this stage, it is often useful to ask a friend to read over an essay human understanding book the manuscript and make general comments. An outside perspective is especially useful for making improvements that will enhance the communicative power of the description. Step Seven: Write the introduction and conclusion . By now the description has taken on substantial form and you can write these two parts of the paper in a more effective manner. Some writers find that they write better if they write a rough introduction at the start of the writing but save the conclusion until the end.
In either case, now is the time to review both the introduction and satire essay, conclusion and revise them to fit the paper. Step Eight: Reread your manuscript for examples . Examples involve writing at the lowest level of abstraction. Because of their importance in communication, a special reading of the paper to see if you have used enough examples is highly desirable. Look for places where general statements have made your writing too “dense” and see if you can insert a brief or extended example at those places. Step Nine: Write the final draft . In some cases this will merely involve typing the an essay human paper or turning it over to someone else to type. In other cases. M Phil Science Networking? you will need to go carefully over the manuscript again, making the human understanding book final editorial changes. Bluest Eye Beauty Thesis? Using steps such as this means you have been over concerning human the entire manuscript numerous times during the course of writing. Instead of a single, first-draft-as-final-draft, your paper has gone through a series of developmental stages. In this chapter we have discussed ethnographic writing as a part of the translation process. Writing is a skill learned slowly and one that shows great variation from one person to improve sat, another.
The suggestions in this chapter are offered only as general guidelines, not as hard-and-fast rules that every writer should try to follow.