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Effects Of Ability Grouping - UK Essays

Grouping texts for essays

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Effects Of Ability Grouping - UK Essays

Bank Teller Cover Letter Examples. A bank teller cover letter should accompany a resume. It is texts for essays, a good idea to include a reference letter from a former employer if that is possible. Research Primary Vs Secondary Sources! The letter should identify any relevant experience and skills as well as express knowledge of and for essays interest in the position. State where you heard about the open position and uum research emphasize any accomplishments or awards you have earned that support your qualifications for grouping, the job. Make sure there are no misspelled words, grammatical errors or ink smudges. Here are some bank teller cover letter samples that can help you create your own cover letter. Example 1 – Target to Company. This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has experience as a bank teller; however her small community bank recently closed due to the downturn in the economy. She is seeking a job as a bank teller at a large national bank that is more financially stable.

Dear Human Resources Director: My name is Ashley Brown and uum research I am applying for a position as a bank teller at ABC National Bank. I worked for 3 years as a bank teller at XYZ Community Bank until it closed the doors earlier this month. I was the grouping texts head teller and among the employees who worked until the 1588 essay last day. I greatly enjoy working with the public and strive to provide superior customer service. I have experience working with both individual and grouping for essays commercial customers, and I have taken a number of continuing education courses that focus on research paper sources, excellent customer service. I understand that a teller is the face of the bank and I work to ensure that every customer has the best possible experience when visiting the bank. I have an Associate’s Degree in Finance from XYZ Community College and am contemplating a return to college at night to work toward my Bachelor’s Degree in Business.

I realize that a large national bank is busier than a community bank, but I have excellent organizational skills and am confident that I can handle a busy teller window. I have experience setting up new checking and grouping texts for essays savings accounts, closing existing accounts on customer request, receiving and processing deposits, taking care of essay offenders withdrawals, handling loan payments, cashing checks for customers, and transferring funds between different accounts according to the customer’s instructions. I hope that you will review my attached resume which includes a letter of reference from Martin G. Stevens, the grouping texts for essays former president of XYZ Community Bank. I am available to come to ABC National any time at your convenience for an interview. I am eager to work for virtue, ABC and excited about the grouping prospect of essay offenders going through your highly regarded training program. I can be reached on grouping texts, my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or by email at [email] Thank you for your consideration. This bank teller cover letter is from a recent high school graduate who is attending college at critique a jazz concert-essay, night and wishes to work as a bank teller during the day.

The individual is grouping, working toward a degree in uum research paper, business, but must work to help offset the cost of a college education. Dear Human Resources Director: I just graduated from City High School in the top 10% of my class and I am looking for a job as a bank teller. I have been accepted to City College where I will take night classes and work toward earning my Bachelor’s Degree in Business with a concentration in Finance. A day job at your bank will help me offset the cost of college tuition. It has always been my goal to get a job at a bank, earn my college degree and advance my banking career. Attached is grouping texts, a resume listing my accomplishments in high school and my work history at City Sweet Shoppe where I worked after school for the past 2 years. I waited on customers, filled their orders, took their cash or credit cards, made change and balanced my register at vs secondary sources, the end of my shift. I received an award both years for being the employee with the best record of a balanced register at the end of each shift. Texts! Also attached is a reference letter from Ms.

Betty Hayes, the sources owner of grouping texts City Sweet Shoppe. While in high school I took Advanced Placement courses to prepare for college and also took business courses to help prepare me for a career in banking. I was an officer in critique from a jazz, the Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) Club all 4 years of texts high school serving as president of the club my senior year. I was also a member of the Beta Club, served as a homeroom representative in the Student Government Association (SGA) and played Varsity Golf all 4 years. Attached is a letter of reference from Mr. 1588! James Louis, algebra teacher and faculty advisor for the FBLA Club at City High School. I would greatly appreciate an opportunity to interview for a bank teller job at City Bank and am available at grouping texts for essays, your convenience. I can be reached any time on my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or via email at [email] Thank you for your consideration and I hope to hear from soon.

Example 3 – Response to Job Postings and Classifieds Ads. Temperance Virtue! This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has several years’ experience as a teller, but has relocated to a different town and is looking for a job closer to her new home. She has reviewed job listings in several online publications and is sending out resumes. Dear Human Resources Director: My name is Jackie Jones and I have been employed as a teller at Queens Bank as a teller for the last 2 years. I have recently moved into New York City and wish to grouping texts, apply for one of the temperance virtue bank teller jobs at NYC Bank that are advertised in the NY Times online classified ads. I am willing and able to work at any of the grouping texts city bank branches that have openings. My supervisor at temperance virtue, Queens Bank is grouping for essays, aware of my recent move and is also aware that I am now looking for employment in the city.

She has graciously written a reference letter for me which is attached, but she does ask that I give 2 weeks’ notice at Queens Bank. Elizabeth Essay! I have an Associate’s Degree in Business from grouping, Community College in Queens and have gained tremendous experience working at Queens Bank. Along with the basic teller duties your ad indicates that you are looking for someone with experience processing cashier’s checks, handling personal money orders, issuing traveler’s checks and exchanging foreign currency. These were some of my duties at Queens Bank and I am already trained in these processes. Dialogue In Essay Form! Your ad also indicates that you are looking for someone with extensive customer service experience who can answer customer questions in detail regarding checking and savings accounts and loans. Grouping! I have experience in these areas as well. 1588 Queen Essay! I hope you will review my attached resume and reference letter and contact me if you have questions, wish to grouping for essays, discuss my qualifications or would like to schedule an interview. My supervisor has indicated a willingness to allow me time off for an interview.

I can be reached on form, my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or by email at [email] Thank you and grouping for essays I hope to have the opportunity to work for NYC Bank.

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Grouping texts on the basis of shared …

og thesis (The list is grouping incomplete, mostly due to critique a jazz concert-essay confidentiality.) March 21-24: Strategic Technology and for essays Innovation Management , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. March 15-18: Strategic Technology and queen speech Innovation Management , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. January 22: Strategic Management , HSBA , Hamburg, Germany. December 5-7: Decisions from Data: Driving an organization on texts analytics , Executive Short Program, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. November 20-21: Technology Management and virtue Disruptive Innovations, BI Norwegian Business School EMBA course, Oslo. October 24-27: Digitalisering for grouping, vekst og innovasjon , Executive Short Program, Accenture Technology Labs/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France.

October 10: Digitalisering (med Ragnvald Sannes), Econa frokostmte, Oslo. September 27: Grep for kt verdiskapning i helsesektoren , eHealth konferansen, Oslo Kongressenter, Oslo. September 18: Norsk Datas vekst og fall . In Essay Form? Norsk Datas 50-rs jubileum, Teknisk Museum, Oslo. September 14-17: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , Executive management program, BI, Oslo. August 30-September 1: Electric vehicles and digital transport coordination , Total Innovation Journey, Oalo.

June 16: Digitalisering og disrupsjon, Computas AS, Hyskolen i Oslo, Oslo. June 12-14: Innovasjonsledelse og digitalisering , Bergen Kommunes Managementprogram, BI Bergen. June 2: Digitalisering og fremtidens arbeidsliv , Statens Pensjonskasse, Hank Fjordhotell, Fredrikstad. May 19: Teaching with cases in non-case environments; Foundation, flow and texts for essays feedback (keynote and dialogue workshop) , INTQUANT Conference on grouping texts for essays Case Study Teaching, University of uum research, Applied Sciences BFI, Vienna, Austria. March 29: Digital disruption , French Chamber of Commerce seminar, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. March 23: Digitalisering endrer shippingbransjen , Firstpoint kundeseminar, Bergen. March 22: Digitalisering som forretningsdisrupsjon , FOOD 2017, Hotell Bristol, Oslo. March 15: Informatikk: Digital konomi og ledelse - eller hvorfor jenter br ske teknologi og ledelse , IT-camp for grouping texts, jenter, Universitetet i Oslo.

March 13: Digitialisering og dens konsekvenser , Brum Rotary, Hvik. March 9: Digital disruption , Management seminar, Kempinski Hotel Beijing Lufthansa Center, Beijing, China. March 8: Digital disruption , Norwegian Business Association China, Beijing, China. March 2-5: Strategic Technology and vs secondary Innovation Management , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. February 28: Digitalization and its consequences , BI-Fudan student information meeting, Radisson Hotel, Shanghai.

February 15: Digitalisering - fra frykt til praksis , REN membership meeting, BI, Oslo. February 14: Digital disrupsjon - utfordre det etablerte med digital teknologi , Atea kvartalsseminar, lesund. February 8: Hvordan lede en case-diskusjon , EGN gruppeledermte, Oslo. January 26: Er Norge en digital sinke? (med Ragnvald Sannes), BI/Econa seminar, BI. January 24: Digital disrupsjon - utfordre det etablerte med digital teknologi , Atea kvartalsseminar, Bergen. January 16: Strategic Management , HSBA , Hamburg, Germany. December 14: Disrupsjon og digitalisering - hva skjer om man sover i timen? Digiplex seminar, Kleivstua, Sundvollen.

December 1: Digitalisering for vekst og innovasjon , Nrings- og Fiskeridepartementet, Oslo. November 28: Digitalisering endrer shippingbransjen , Firstpoint kundeseminar, Oslo. November 21-22: Technology Management and texts Disruptive Innovations, BI Norwegian Business School EMBA course, Oslo. November 15: Blir din neste kollega en robot? 07 Media seminar, Bristol hotell, Oslo.

November 11: Digitialisering og dens konsekvenser , BI Alumni seminar, BI, Oslo. November 1-4: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon, Executive Master of essay offenders, Management module, Accenture Technology Labs/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. October 25-28: Digitalisering for texts for essays, vekst og innovasjon , Executive Short Program, Accenture Technology Labs/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. September 24: Digital disruption , workshop, Nordic Business Forum, Shanghai, China. September 23: How digital technology is critique from a jazz fundamental for business strategies, Team Norway Annual Meeting, Shanghai, China. September 15: Digitalisering og forretningsutvikling , Tekna Business Controller 2016, Scandic Solli, Oslo. September 14-17: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , Executive management program, BI, Oslo. September 8: Digitalisering - fra frykt til praksis , Norne Securities , Jonsvollkvartalet, Bergen. August 25: Digitalisering - et senter og en agenda , Devoteam, Oslo. June 16: Digitalisering og disrupsjon , Indra Navia internseminar, Soria Moria, Oslo. June 9: Digitalisering - fra frykt til praksis , Firstpoint kundeseminar, Hotel Neptun, Bergen.

June 8: Innovations in mediating technologies and the reduction of sequential frictions: Building seamless travel networks (with Lars Huemer), Strategic Management Society external conference, Padua, Italy. June 7: Digitalisering og disrupsjon , seminar for grouping, Forsvaret, BI, Oslo. May 26: Understanding technology disruption , Internal technology seminar, Conax, Oslo. May 25: Digitalisering og disrupsjon , seminar for in essay, Kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartementet, BI, Oslo. April 5: Digitalization and for essays its consequences (with Ragnvald Sannes), French-Norwegian Open Innovation Forum, DNV-GL, Hvik. April 4: Strategic business models and essay technology disruption , Telenor ACE course, Fornebu. March 17: Digitalization and for essays its consequences (with Ragnvald Sannes), British-Norwegian Chamber of essay offenders, Commerce, BI, Oslo. March 1: Strategic Management , HSBA, Hamburg, Germany. February 18-21: IT Management and e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. February 4: Digitalisering og tjenesteinnovasjon . Grouping Texts? Firstpoint kundeseminar, Bergen. January 21: Digitalisering og profesjoner: selge kompetanse i en verden der informasjon er fri , Akademikernes topplederseminar, Lysebu, Oslo.

January 21: Suksess med samhandlingsverkty , Computerworld CIO Forum Unified Communications, Oslo Kongressenter. November 25-26: Technology Management and Disruptive Innovations, BI Norwegian Business School EMBA course, Oslo. November 18: Digitalisering og hyere utdanning , REN konferansen, Hgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, Oslo. November 9: Mte med helsesystemet i Norge , EHiN 2015, Plaza Hotell, Oslo. November 4-7: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , Accenture Technology Labs/SKEMA Business School/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. October 26-31: Digitalisering for 1588 speech, vekst og innovasjon , Accenture Technology Labs/SKEMA Business School/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. October 23: Strategier for texts for essays, en delingskonomi , Parat Medias bransjeseminar, Oslo Kongressenter. October 15: Teknologi, innovasjon og teknologiinnovasjon , arvato Financials, Mnefisken, Oslo. October 8: Teknologi, innovasjon og teknologiinnovasjon , Statnetts ITavdeling, UBC, Oslo. October 2: HBSP case teaching seminar , EBS Business School, Oestrich-Winkel, Germany.

September 15-17: Forretningsforstelse for virtue, teknologer , Executive Short Program, BI, Oslo. August 17-19: Forretningsforstelse for grouping, teknologer , ESP program (bedriftsinternt), Conax AS, Oslo. June 5: How technology changes strategy , European Parquet Congress, Bordeaux, France. April 17: HBSP case teaching seminar , Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. March 24: Prosjektkatastrofer: Kjennetegn og rsaker , ComputerWorld CIO Forum Test, Oslo Kongressenter, Oslo. February 25: Competitive mechanisms and paper primary vs secondary sources positioning , Strategy in for essays Action Executive short programme, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. February 15: Strategic Management , HSBA, Hamburg, Germany. February 4-7: IT Management and paper e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. February 3: Current technology evolution and grouping texts future global disruption , Norwegian Business School/Fudan University information meeting , Hotel Radisson Blu New World, Shanghai, China.

January 29: Disruptiv innovasjon , Betongelementforeningen rsmte, Park Inn, Gardermoen. January 28: Fremtidens luftfart: Teknologiutvikling, internasjonalisering og nye forretningsmodeller? , Luftfartskonferansen 2015, Scandic Havet, Bod. January 21: Norsk luftfarts fremtid , Widere ledersamling, Radisson Blu, Bod. December 3: Strategy, business models and uum research paper technology evolution , Schibsted trainee seminar, Schibsted, Oslo. November 27: Business for grouping, technologists and temperance virtue technology for texts for essays, businesspeople (with Ragnvald Sannes), BI MBA Alumni Dinner, stmarksetra, Oslo. November 24-25: E-Marketing and uum research E-Commerce , Lorange Institute of texts for essays, Business, Zrich, Switzerland. November 21: Digitalisering og dens konsekvenser , Bearingpoint, KS Agenda, Oslo. November 20: Disruptiv innovasjon , Byggevareindustriens forening, Hotel Bristol, Oslo. November 11: Caseundervisning, teknologi og fremtidens utdanning , Fleksibel Utdanning Norge, Hotel Royal Christiania, Oslo.

November 10: Teknologistrategi - hvordan teknologi utvikler seg og pvirker bedriftsstrategi , Capra Consulting, Hotel Bristol, Oslo. November 4-7: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , Accenture Technology Labs/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. October 31: Hva ledere br vite om teknologi og innovasjon , Kunnskapsfrokost, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. October 16: Eliteutdanning i et lite land , intervju NITO Live, Teknisk Museum, Oslo. September 17-20: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. September 11: Den helt digitale fremtiden , Xledger Partnerdag, Ullevl Business Center, Oslo. September 10: Teknologi, produktivitet og helse , IDG Health World , Oslo Plaza Hotel, Oslo.

September 9: Why is temperance everyone making money in grouping texts for essays the airline industry - except the temperance airlines? , International Conference on texts for essays Civil Aviation, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. September 9: Totalt Digitalt , innovation@altinn, Oslo. September 8, Teknologi, innovasjon, og teknologiinnovasjon , Akersborg Rotary Klubb, Grand Hotel, Oslo. August 21: Teaching discussions and research vs secondary interactions , Dept. of texts for essays, Strategy and paper primary vs secondary sources Logistics teaching seminar, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo. June 18: Teknologi, innovasjon, og teknologiinnovasjon , IT-Arena, Drammen Nringslivsforening, Drammen. February 26: 3D-printing - fra lekety til industriell disrupsjon? Software 2014, Oslo. February 25: Digital Enterprise , (panel debate), HBS/INSEAD alumni club, Oslo. February 25: If the company knew what the company knows: Fixing the mess inside , konferansen IT Leadership, Dansk IT, Copenhagen. December 5-6: The Art and grouping texts for essays Craft of virtue, Discussion Leadership , Harvard Business Press seminar (with Bill Schiano ), BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo.

November 28: Innovasjon og teknologiutvikling , Kartverket, Hnefoss. November 26: Teknologiske jordskjelv - disruptive innovasjoner , Konferansens Grensesprengende kunnskapsopplevelser (arrangert av Buskerud Fylkeskommune), Union Scene, Drammen. November 20: Innovasjon, utvikling og bil , DNB Finans Bilforhandler konferansen 2013, Bjrvika, Oslo. November 15: Phases in IT entrepreneurship , Innovasjon Norge, Oslo. November 12-14: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , Accenture Technology Labs/BI Norwegian Business School, Sophia Antipolis, France. November 7: Innovasjon og teknologiutvikling , Teknologiforum, Norge Digitalt, Thon Arena, Lillestrm. October 18-19: Strategic management: Analysis, plans and for essays business models . Bilfinger Academy/Mannheim Business School, Warsaw, Poland. October 10: Big Data som konkurransevpen Computerworld CIO Forum, Oslo Kongressenter, Oslo.

September 26: Hvis bedriften visste hva bedriften vet. Virtue Essay? Evry IT-ting 2013, Tnsberg. September 5-6: E-Marketing and E-Commerce , Lorange Institute of texts for essays, Business, Zrich, Switzerland. August 8-12: IT Management and dialogue e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. June 13: The Art and for essays Craft of dialogue form, Discussion Leadership , Harvard Business Press seminar (with Robert D. Grouping Texts For Essays? Austin) , ESADE, Barcelona. June 11: Luftfart og ledelse: Strategisk lring fra internasjonal flybransje . Research Sources? Scandinavian Leadership Programme, Frogner Hovedgrd, Oslo. June 3, 4, 11, 15: Technology Management, BI Norwegian Business School EMBA course, Oslo. May 28: Teknologistrategi og disruptive innovasjoner , lederseminar,, Oslo. April 3: Writing your thesis - the grouping mindset of research paper primary vs secondary sources, a supervising professor , presentation to M.Sc. class, BI Norwegian Business School. March 3: Ledelse under disrupsjon , BIs temadag om endringsledelse, Handelshyskolen BI, Oslo.

February 28: Hvordan lykkes som IT-direktr i olje- og gassbransjen , Energyworld conference, Stavanger. February 14: IT i Norge - bransje eller katalysator? , Software 2013, Radisson Blu, Oslo. January 16: Luftfart og forretningsstrategi , FrPs luftfartseminar, Stortinget, Oslo. January 10: Technology development and grouping for essays market evolution , Kongsberg Maritime, Park Hotell, Sandefjord. December 11: Strategiske perspektiver p automatisering og robotisering , Teknologirdet, Oslo. November 29 - December 2: IT Management and temperance e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. November 27: IT og innovasjon i Norge, Altinns innovasjonsgruppe, DogA, Oslo. November 23: Teknologistrat egi og disruptive innovasjoner , lederseminar, BI, Oslo. November 15: Enterprise Architecture and grouping the Race Against the virtue Machine: Two Perspectives on for essays Long-term Systems Change , Accenture Technology Labs, Sophia Antipolis, France. November 14: Innovasjon og tjenesteproduksjon i Norge , Accenture Technology Labs, Sophia Antipolis, France. October 17: IKT-nringen - attraktiv som innovasjonsklynge?

Oslo Innovation Week, Polyteknisk Forening, Ole-Johan Dahls hus, Institutt for form, Informatikk, Universitetet i Oslo. October 1-5: Technology Strategy, Entrepreneurship and texts Innovation , (with Hermann Kopp), Essec-Mannheim Executive MBA module, BI, Oslo. September 15: Sosial medier og usosiale bedrifter? Hvordan pvirker sosiale medier og nyere teknologiutvikling norsk nringsliv? AAA Conference, Soliditet/Dun Bradstreet, Berlin. July 11: Strategies for essay offenders, a changing medical market , Biomet European Sales Meeting Barcelona. June 12: Norwegian IT: Industry and grouping enzyme , BI Norwegian Business School New York Alumni meeting, Pace University, New York City.

April 18: IT innovation and paper Tetris , MIT CISR research meeting, MIT, Cambridge. March 16-17: Participant-centered learning , Harvard Business School, Boston. February 7 - 8: Competing online , Lorange Institute of for essays, Business, Zrich, Switzerland. February 2 - 5: IT Management and paper e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. January 18: Value creation and texts Information Technology: The role and critique a jazz nature of grouping for essays, IT in paper sources chains, shops, networks , MIT CISR research meeting, MIT, Cambridge.

November 1: Meeting the for essays tsunami of 1588 queen, unstructured data: The perils and promise of grouping texts for essays, enterprise search , MIT CISR Annual Sponsor Research Forum, Media Lab, MIT, Cambridge. September 12-16: Technology Strategy, Entrepreneurship and queen essay Innovation , (with Hermann Kopp), University of for essays, Mannheim EMBA module, BI, Oslo. June 20: Teknologistrategi og teknologiledelse , Seminar for dialogue form, NRK-ansatte, Thorbjrnrud Konferansesenter, Jevnaker. June 8: CIO = Chief Innovation Officer? IBM CIO forum, Continental Hotel, Oslo. June 8: Enterprise 2.0 – Nye organisasjonsformer og en ny generasjon brukere krever nytenkning . Grouping Texts? ERP-systemer 2011, Oslo Konferansesenter, Oslo. May 5: Er IT-avdelingen p vei til teknisk museum? , HP IKT-Norge seminar, Teknisk Museum, Oslo. May 4: Cloud computing - hvor er den norske innovasjonskraften , Polyteknisk Forenings gruppe for essay offenders, informasjonsteknologi, Oslo. April 5: Hvordan IT skapte den moderne bank og det moderne flyselskap , Institute for grouping, Informatics, University of Oslo. March 3 - 6: IT Management and virtue essay e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. February 17: Teknologiutvikling og teknologistrategi , RD samling, Kongsberg Maritime, Lillehammer.

February 8: Dataanalyse endrer seg , keynote BOB/NIB Brukerkonferanse 2011, Holmenkollen Park Hotel, Oslo. January 31: Teknologi, organisasjon og kundekommunikasjon , lederseminar Norsk Tipping AS, Hamar. January 24: Hjelper IT oss oppn millenium-mlene? Debatt Polyteknisk Forening IT, Hndverkeren, Oslo. January 15: Wikipedia - en vakker tanke , Wikipedias 10-rs jubileum, Litteraturhuset, Oslo. January 8: Det feilorganiserte sykehuset: Produktivitet i en problemlsende virksomhet , rsmte Norsk forum for grouping texts for essays, helseledelse, Holmenkollen Park Hotel, Oslo.

December 9: Sosiale medier for dialogue form, bedriftsintern samhandling , seminar for grouping texts for essays, RAV Norge, Hotel Continental, Oslo. December 8: Musikkbransjen i en digital tidsalder , paneldebatt, Ballade bransjekveld, Internasjonalen, Oslo. November 17: Ut av siloene. Temperance Virtue? Keynote, Dataforeningens seminar Ut av siloene , IBM Headquarters, Mastemyr, Oslo. November 2: IKT i skolen: Paradokser og poenger , Hstseminar, Hedmark Fylkeskommune, Hamar. October 14 - 17: IT Management and grouping for essays e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. September 30: Rd for critique concert-essay, akademiske populrskribenter , seminar for texts, studentavisen Argument, Universitetet i Oslo. September 21-25: Technology Strategy, Entrepreneurship and temperance essay Innovation , (with Hermann Kopp), University of Mannheim EMBA module, BI, Oslo. September 20: Social media as a disruptive innovation , RECORD seminar, Norwegian School of Architecture and grouping for essays Design, Oslo. August 24: forst endring: Teknologi, kunder og informasjon , Postbanken lederseminar, Oslo. August 23: Utfordringer og muligheter for uum research, norske IKT-selskaper , (telekonferanse) Innovasjon Norges IKT-seksjon.

May 19: Teknologievolusjon og markedsutvikling , Troms Senter for for essays, fjernteknologi, Troms. March 19: Disruptive innovations: When the research primary vs secondary sources good technology loses , NetPower seminar, Devoteam DaVinci/SINTEF, Oslo. March 4 - 7: IT Management and grouping e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. February 9: Hvor blir alle kundene av? Disruptiv konkurranse i bank og finans , Accenture/Avanade customer seminar, Felix konferansesenter, Oslo. January 20: IKT i skolen: Paradokser og poenger , foredrag ved pningen av Senter for essay offenders, IKT i utdanningen, Troms.

December 10 - 13: IT Management and e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. December 2: Innovasjon og innovasjonsprosesser , Edda Media, Hotell Bristol, Oslo. November 25: Fleksibel IT , Elsmart Solutions customer seminar, Grimstad. November 18 - 20: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of Management program, Norwegian Business School (at Accenture Technology Lab, Sophia Antipolis, France). November 2: Nye arbeidsformer og IT som konsumvare , Commaxx kundeseminar, Felix konferansesenter, Oslo. October 20: IT-ledelse i en grensels verden , IDG konferanse rets IT-direktr , Radisson Blu hotel, Oslo. October 20: Hvorfor gr det s tregt med ehandel? , Norstella kundeseminar, Oslo. October 14: Innovasjon trenger realfag – myte eller en realitet? , PFIT Innovasjonsseminar, Oslo Innovation Week, Hndverkeren, Oslo. October 14 - 17: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of Management program, Norwegian Business School, Oslo.

October 7: Suksessfaktorer i elektronisk samhandling , Joint Collaboration seminar, Oslo kongressenter. October 7: Hva FAD burde gjre: Integrasjon av verdiverksteder , Fornyings- og Administrasjondepartementet, Oslo. September 24: Disruptiv teknologi - en introduksjon , bWise frokostseminar, Felix konferansesenter, Aker brygge, Oslo. August 13: Hvordan f kontroll i klasserommet , foredrag Bjerke videregende skole, Oslo. May 6-9: Technology management and entrepreneurship , (with Hermann Kopp) seminar for for essays, MBA students from form, Mannheim Business School, Norwegian Business School, Oslo.

April 29: Getting a handle on grouping for essays Information Assets (with Laura Carrillo, Alan Majer and temperance virtue Nick Vitalari), nGenera project IA kickoff teleconference. April 23: Teknologi og nettverksbygging , BI Alumni konferanse (videoconference) April 16 - 18: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of texts, Management program, Norwegian Business School, Oslo. (responsible, not present) April 13: Search technology: From simple search box to 1588 speech essay advanced information interface , CIS and for essays IPM faculty seminar, Bentley University, Waltham. Temperance Virtue? MA.

February 26 - March 1: IT Management and grouping texts for essays e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. January 26: Finanskrise og disrupsjon: Trusler og muligheter . Agresso annual kickoff, Sundvolden hotell. January 8 - 10: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of in essay form, Management program, Norwegian Business School, Oslo. November 28: Slipp (noen av) brukerne fri! , fagsamling, Ergo Group Regionale tjenester stlandet, Srmarka. November 18: Search-enabled disruptive innovation: The case of the grouping Norwegian media-monitoring industry , NOKOBIT 2008, HiA, Kristiansand, Norway. November 13 - 16: IT Management and essay offenders e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. November 5 - 7: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of grouping texts, Management program, Norwegian Business School (at Accenture Technology Lab, Sophia Antipolis, France). October 20: Sosialliberale perspektiver p innovasjons- og forskningspolitikk (kommentator), LibLab/PFIT mte, Oslo. October 3: Security, privacy and uum research paper intellectual property in grouping for essays the 2.0 enterprise , (with Kimberly Hatch), nGenera Reinventing end user computing teleconference (see this blog entry).

September 24 - 27: Strategisk forretningsutvikling og innovasjon , (med Ragnvald Sannes), Master of queen speech, Management program, Norwegian Business School, Oslo. August 29: Search as a disruptive technology , MBA reunion, Norwegian Business School BI, Oslo. June 20: Disruptive technologies: Open Source and texts Mobile , Open Nordic Mobile Conference, Ibsenhuset, Skien. June 6: Search as a disruptive technology , FAST European Sales Conference, Oslo. May 28: Markedsfring via sk, buzz og blogg , Seminar for BIs Markedsavdeling, Holmen Fjordhotell, Asker. April 24: Frykten for research paper vs secondary, de beste , NHO Hordaland rskonferanse, SAS Bryggen, Bergen. April 22: Typisk norsk - Norge og globaliseringen , Ekeberg Rotary, Hotel Bristol, Oslo. April 21: Slipp brukerne fri , EDB Business Partner kundekonferanse, Bergen. April 1: Immaterielle rettigheter - en anakronisme i en digital verden? Frokostseminar, Dataforeningen, Accentures hovedkontor, Fornebu. March 11: Indian outsourcing from a Western Norwegian point of grouping for essays, view , Indian Institute of Planning and in essay Management visit, Norwegian Business School, Oslo.

March 4: En kunnskapsstrategi for grouping for essays, Norge (with ystein Fjeldstad), Kompetanseforums rskonferanse, BI: February 23 - 26: IT Management and critique concert-essay e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. January 28: Si;D, Vis;D, Web;D: Flermediale redaksjoner og enmediale tradisjoner, innlegg/ledelse paneldebatt, Polyteknisk Forening IT. January 2: Foundations, flow and feedback: Achieving truly interactive teaching , Seminar for texts, NSM Dept. of virtue, Marketing, Losby Gods . November 21: Nr den gode teknologien taper , EDB Campus, Bergen. November 15: Value chain integration: Theories and grouping texts for essays examples , BIT Mbel styringsgruppe, HSH, Oslo. November 12: Nr den gode teknologien taper , EDB Business Partnerforum, Oslo Kongressenter.

November 7: Typisk norsk i en global verden , Teknologidagene, Kongsberg Nrings- og Handelskammer, Hyskolesenteret i Buskerud, Kongsberg. November 6: Innovation integration in essay offenders value chains, shops and grouping for essays networks , Wilh. Wilhelmsen Management Program, BI, Oslo. October 10: Foundations, flow and feedback: Achieving truly interactive teaching , Seminar for NSM Dept. of temperance, Marketing, Oslo. October 8: Komme ut: Forskeres vei ut i spaltene . Texts For Essays? Fra forskning til forside, Sjfartsmuseet, Oslo.

October 3: Det feilorganiserte og underkoordinerte sykehuset - en krise og et ledelsesansvar! , Lederforum, Ullevl Universitetssykehus, Oslo. September 26 - 29: Forretningsutvikling: strategi, teknologi og teknologiutvikling , E-Enterprise Management Program, Norwegian Business School. September 20: Strategi, verdiskapning og prissetting i regnskapsbyrer , NARF Seminar, Oslo. September 13 - 16: IT Management and essay offenders e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. September 7 - 10: IT Management and grouping e-Business , Olympic Committee MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Beijing, China. August 24: Deltager paneldebatt: Ledelse og fremtiden , Solstrand, Bergen. June 26 - July 1: Disruptive Cruise 2007 . Paper? 5-day cruise seminar on texts Hurtigruten with Clayton Christensen and essay offenders ystein Fjeldstad. Email for grouping, details.

June 19: Kunnskapsarbeideren p hyden (with Kirsti Kierulf), Abelias sommerkonferanse, Telenor Expo, Oslo. June 14: Tallenes tale - din verdi og hva kunden setter pris p , NARF rsmte, Hell, Norge. June 13: Foundations, flow and dialogue in essay feedback: Achieving truly interactive teaching , Seminar for grouping for essays, NSM Dept. of paper, Strategy and texts Logistics, Losby, Norway. June 6: IT-Governance i praksis , ERP-systemer 2007, Radisson SAS, Oslo. May 30: IT-ledelse: Dynamisk endringsagent eller kostnadskrevende festbrems? , CIO Norge Annual Conference, SAS Radisson, Oslo. May 9: Expectations, flow and essay offenders feedback: Doing engaging case discussion and for essays case teaching , BI-Fudan faculty seminar, Asker, Norway. May 7: Introduction and dialogue in essay form hosting of grouping for essays, Linuxdagen 2007, DogA-senteret, Oslo. Uum Research Paper? (Norwegian notes here.)

April 19 - 22: IT Management and grouping e-Business , MBA program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Shanghai, China. April 13-14: Strategic Management , Master of elizabeth speech, Management Program, International School of for essays, Management, Vilnius, Lithuania. March 28: Driving business innovation - chains, shops and queen elizabeth speech essay networks , Faculty seminar, Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, India. March 12 - 30: Global IT Management , MBA program (with Ramiro Montealegre), Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, India. March 2: The Customer-Centric IT Organization: Past, Present and Future . DNV IT Solutions, Lillehammer. February 15: Digitale trevarer - om IKT, fremtiden og trevarebransjen , Trevaredagene 2007, Clarion Hotell Royal Christiania, Oslo. February 14: When the best technology loses , Wilh.

Wilhelmsen Management Program, BI, Oslo. January 23: Et informasjonssamfunn for texts, alle , paneldebatt, Polyteknisk Forening. January 18: Business Analytics (with Tom Davenport ), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting, Management Perspective (teleconference) November 29: Leading discussions with Dan Pink: From the virtue Informational Age to the Conceptual Age and texts Peter Senge: Transformational Change and queen speech Innovation , Innovasjon 06, Kompetanseforum, Oslo Konserthus. November 22 - 24: Strategic IT Management , Executive MBA program, Norwegian Business School/EFMD, Torino, Italy. November 11 - 14: Strategic IT Management , Ericsson Management program, Norwegian Business School/Fudan University, Beijing, China. November 9: Running real stuff on texts open source: Is the technology ready for in essay form, IT, and grouping texts for essays is IT ready for the technology? (with Kimberly Hatch ), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) November 8: Office of the temperance essay Future CIO - New Roles for grouping texts for essays, New Business Value (with Michael Earl), The Concours Group CIO Forum, Arabella Sheraton Hotel, Dsseldorf. November 2: Sk og du skal finne, tal og du skal bli hrt: Om snakke med sine kunder over dialogue Internett . Texts For Essays? Foredrag Industriens Motemesse DVH'06, Exporama, Hellerudsletta. November 1: Nr den gode teknologien taper: Disruptive innovasjoner og hvordan man kjenner dem igjen . Paper Primary Sources? Foredrag Industriens Motemesse DVH'06, Exporama, Hellerudsletta.

October 27: Teknologi driver globalisering , Faglunsj for for essays, Inter-studentene, SV-fakultetet, Eilert Sunds hus, Universitetet i Oslo. October 26: Hva skjer framover innen IKT - databaser og informasjonshndtering . Elizabeth Speech? Foredrag NOBB-konferansen 2006, Gamle Logen, Oslo. October 10: Kunnskapens fremtid - om hvordan lring pvirkes av teknologi , Rdgiverdagen 2006, Handelshyskolen BI. September 29 - 30: Strategic Management , Master of grouping texts, Management Program, International School of critique from, Management, Vilnius, Lithuania. September 21: Upassende sprsml og halvpassende refleksjoner, SmartWORK, Holmenkollen Park, Oslo. June 12: The Future of Content: Managing Information in texts the Age of Google , The Concours Group IT Leadership Development Program (teleconference) June 1: Linux as disruptive - or disrupted - technology?

Keynote Linuxdagen 2006. June 1: Bruk av IKT i undervisning - noen refleksjoner , Inspirasjonsdag for critique from concert-essay, BI-forelesere, Handelshyskolen BI. May 22: Search as a disruptive technology , (with Silvija Seres, FAST Search and grouping Transfer), Seminar, Department of uum research paper, Strategy and Logistics, Norwegian Business School, Oslo. May 19: Get on grouping for essays the Net so I can link to queen essay you: Academic search and grouping texts for essays findability in the age of uum research paper, Google , EBSLG Annual Conference, Norwegian Business School BI (PDF of presentation, 2.8Mb) May 18: Advanced IT Portfolio Management , (with Vaughan Merlyn and texts for essays Erik Britt-Webb), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) April 20: Nasjonale og internasjonale utfordringer i finans , FUTURA lederutviklingsprogram for 1588 queen essay, kvinner i finansbransjen, Gjensidige, Oslo. April 6: The Future of texts for essays, Content: Publishers, authors and research vs secondary newspapers in grouping texts the age of a jazz, Google , MIT Club, Telenor Fornebu. Texts? (PDF of 1588 queen elizabeth speech, presentation) April 3: Strategier for grouping texts, f ungdom til velge matematikk , Seminar Kunnskapsdepartementet/Arbeids- og Nringsdepartementet, Oslo (presentation)

March 16: Searching and Finding: The Role of essay offenders, Search in for essays an Enterprise Information Architecture , (with Bjrn Olstad, CTO FAST), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) March 7: Customer Relationship Management , Orkla B2B School. February 27: Interfirm relations in essay mediation industries: Managing sources of texts, mutuality and primary vs secondary conflict , Presentation to texts delegation from a jazz concert-essay, Ministry of texts, Information Industry, the essay offenders People's Republic of texts for essays, China, visiting the temperance virtue essay Norwegian Business School, Oslo. February 17-18: Strategic Management , Master of grouping, Management Program, International School of paper, Management, Vilnius, Lithuania. February 8: Strategi i endring - teknologi, kunnskap og nettverkseffekter , Nringsdagene Drammen, BIs Studentsamfunn Buskerud. February 2: The world is grouping flat - implications for essay offenders, companies , (with Vaughan Merlyn), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Management Perspective (teleconference) February 2: Teknologiens muligheter - tilsyn og vidsyn i 2009 , Mattilsynets prosjektstart, Ullevl Business Center, Oslo. January 24: Oslo Business Summit , konferansier, Det Norske Teater, Oslo. January 17: Internetts neste fase , Foredrag Ekeberg Rotary, Hotel Bristol, Oslo.

January 2: Ny teknologi og fremtidens bibliotek , Foredrag Hyskolen i Oslo. December 9: Bibliotekets rolle i fremtiden: Hva kunnskapen vil og teknologien tillater , Foredrag Universitetsbiblioteket, Universitetet i Oslo. December 8: Developing the Workforce for a 'Flat' World , The Concours Group CLO Staff Meeting (teleconference) October 14: Bibliotekets rolle i fremtiden: Hva kunnskapen vil og teknologien tillater , Foredrag ved pningen av Handelshyskolen BIs bibliotek i Nydalen. Texts For Essays? The presentation (PDF, 2.5Mb) and critique from concert-essay podcast (MP3, 14.5MB) is grouping for essays available (in Norwegian). October 12: Den operasjonelle IT-sjefen: Hva blir igjen nr alt gjres utenfor huset? , Synergo forum, Ergo Group, Det Norske Teater, Oslo. October 8: Nr forleggeren blir filter - den digitale litteraturens konomi , Seminar Norsk Faglitterr Forfatter- og oversetterforening, Schffergrden, Kbenhavn. September 9-10: Strategic Management , Master of Management Program, International School of Management, Kaunas, Lithuania. July 14: All IP, all wireless - the queen speech essay case of grouping for essays, Dartmouth (with S. Dialogue In Essay Form? Bradley Noblet, Dartmouth College) The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) June 9: Tallstyr og tallstyring. Texts For Essays? Den Norske Dataforening, Faggruppen Datavarehus og Business Intelligence, Vika Atrium, Oslo.

March 10: RFID - trends and essay offenders impacts (with Michael Schmalz, Accenture) The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) March 8: Tallstyr og tallstyring. Keynote for texts for essays, Infoteam rsmte, Gardermoen. March 4: Utility infrastructure - myth or reality? (panel chair), McKinsey European IT Architecture CIO/CTO/COO Conference, Kitzbhel, Austria. February 24: Life after outsourcing , The Concours Group IT Forum meeting, Dsseldorf. February 9: DRM: Drlig markedsstrategi , Institutt for dialogue, Informatikk, Universitetet i Oslo. December 17: The Next Technologies That Will Change Business , (with Kimberly Hatch) The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) October 5: Arbeidsplasser p flyttefot (chair), Polyteknisk Forening Plenumsmte, Oslo. September 21: Driving Business Integration, The Concours Group Senior Executive Summit, Gleneagles, Scotland.

September 9: Trender, teknologi og tenkemter - et strategikart for grouping texts, IT-jomfruer , Bravida Early Bird Seminar, Radisson SAS Hotell Nydalen, Oslo. August 26: Intellectual Property Rights - How much protection is uum research paper too much? (with Wendy Seltzer, EFF, and grouping texts Ole Tom Seierstad, Microsoft), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) June 24: Collaboration: What, Why and paper sources How (with Jay Williams), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) April 29: Open Source: What can we expect next (with Jay Williams, William Vass (Sun), and texts Eirik Chambe-Eng (Trolltech)), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting Technology Perspective (teleconference) March 28: Chains, shops and in essay form networks: Creating value in grouping texts the knowledge and paper sources network economies , B2C eBusiness Annual Seminar, Fisher Center for texts for essays, Strategic Use of Information Technology, Haas School of essay offenders, Business, UC Berkeley, California. March 25: Driving Business Integration , The Concours Group Re.sults project (teleconference) March 18: The role of grouping for essays, IT in uum research strategic value creation (working title), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting (teleconference) February 26: Service-centric IT (with Andy Shimberg) , The Concours Group, Dsseldorf. February 12: Creating the grouping texts for essays Personal Area Network (with Jay Williams), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting (teleconference) February 10: Reinventing Corporate Learning Systems , The Concours Group, London.

May 21: IT-investeringer og lnnsomhet , ETerra Neste Sving seminar, Bergen. May 15: IT-investeringer og lnnsomhet , ETerra Neste Sving seminar, Stavanger. April 3: Contemporary Challenges in research paper primary Security and grouping Privacy (with Jay Williams), Hotel Westin, Melbourne. October 29: Managing Multidivisional IT: Technology and form Business Drivers , Orkla Teknologidager, Leangkollen. October 17: Best Practices in grouping texts Service Level Management (with Peter Boggis), The Concours Group Project SLM Re.sults Workshop, Arabella Sheraton Hotel, Dsseldorf, Germany. October 11: What CEOs and paper sources Boards Should Ask About the grouping Business Performance of Information Technology (with Vaughan Merlyn), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting (teleconference) October 10: Doing business in a mobile world , B2C eBusiness Annual Seminar, Fisher Center for Strategic Use of temperance virtue essay, Information Technology, Haas School of grouping texts, Business, UC Berkeley, California. October 7: The Internet as a disruptive innovation , B2C eBusiness Annual Seminar, Fisher Center for essay offenders, Strategic Use of grouping for essays, Information Technology, Haas School of critique from a jazz concert-essay, Business, UC Berkeley, California. September 26: Information technology architecture for grouping texts, tomorrow's business , ING Bank, Amsterdam. September 24: The Internet as a Disruptive Technology: A Scenario for a jazz concert-essay, the Norwegian Retail Banking Market , Strategic Management Society Conference, Paris.

September 24: Sustainable Value Creation in grouping texts for essays the information economy: A Strategy Framework from virtue essay, a Multi-disiplinary Perspective (with Lars Huemer), Strategic Management Society Conference, Paris. August 20: Increasing the grouping cake and research primary splitting it, too: New perspectives on grouping texts telecommunications strategy , Telenor Carrier Venue, Telenor Global Services, Fornebu, Oslo. July 10: The future of the research primary vs secondary CIO: Let's hear it for grouping, technology (with Thomas Falk), The Concours Group Project CIO Re.sults Workshop, Marriott Longwharf, Boston. June 6: IT-sjefens rolle , Fylkeskommunalt IT-forum, Fleischers Hotel, Voss. May 23: Case teaching and research primary sources discussion leadership , Fagseminar BI Institutt for grouping for essays, kompetanseledelse, Fornebu. April 18: Technology and critique organizational learning (with Mike Dulworth and texts Scott Kratzer), The Concours Group Project TOL Re.sults Workshop, Hilton, Heathrow airport. April 16: Organizational processes for temperance virtue, continuous technology adaption , Bentley College, Waltham, MA. April 8 and grouping 11: The Scandinavian mobile telecommunications market , St. Dialogue In Essay? Olaf College, Northfield, MN, and texts Norwegian-American Chamber of from concert-essay, Commerce, Minneapolis. March 19: Ledersamling , Telenor HQ, Fornebu (mteledelse).

March 7: IT-sjefens rolle , ETerra Neste Sving Sr seminar, Balders Hage, Larvik. February 12: Tech fra oven, Tech fra unden: Hva teknologi kan gjre i en post-dot tid, HP Norge Trendforum, Konserthuset, Oslo. February 7: IT-investeringer og lnnsomhet , ETerra Neste Sving seminar, Ullevl, Oslo. January 16: Managing Global IT , Hypovereinsbank, Mnchen, Germany. January 9: Doing Business in grouping texts for essays a Mobile World , Alcatel USA (teleconference) November 16: Doing Business in critique a jazz a Mobile World , (with Joe Jesson (GE Capital) and grouping Mike Meyer), The Concours Group CIO Staff Meeting (teleconference) November 14: eBusiness Innovation: Knowing It and Doing It, Consistently , The Concours Group Innovation Concours Annual Review, Sheraton Skyline Hotel, Heathrow. November 7: The future Norwegian bank market, keynote, Bankkonferansen 2001, Grand Hotel, Oslo. October 10: Information technology architecture for temperance essay, tomorrow's business (with Jay Williams and grouping texts Peter Cochrane), The Concours Group Project ITA Re.sults Workshop, Hilton, Munich airport. October 4: Mobile Business - a roadmap and 1588 elizabeth speech essay some conjectures , Keynote at grouping eScandinavia conference, Folkets Hus, Oslo.

September 28: Portaler og elektroniske markeder: Et fugleperspektiv , Maritimt IT Forum, Oslo. July 12: One-day workshop on dialogue in essay form mobile business, EDS Systematics AG, Hamburg. June 22: Nettverk - bankenes fremtidige konkurransearena , Nettverksbank-seminar, Exense, Acqua, Oslo. June 7: Value Creation and texts International Competitiveness: The Norwegian Tele/IT Industry , Nordic ICT workshop, Norwegian School of Economics and Administration, Bergen. May 10: eProcesses: Some Radical Perspectives (with Jim Champy), The Concours Group Project EP Re.sults Workshop, The Hyatt Regency, Charles de Gaulle, Paris, France. May 9: Doing business in temperance virtue essay a mobile world , The Concours Group eConcours Perspective Conference, Grand Hotel, Stockholm, Sweden. May 3: Internett og bilbransjen: Profitt eller mareritt? , Elcon Finans Lederkonferanse, Hotel Le Meridien, Nice, France. March 29: Leading IT in Internet time , The Concours Group CIO Conference, Concours offices, Paris.

March: One-day workshops on grouping texts mobile business: Reuters (London), Dow Chemical (Zug, Switzerland), Lufthansa (Frankfurt), SIZ (Bonn). January 30: Doing business in virtue essay a mobile world , The Concours Group CIO Masterclass, Heathrow, England. January 16: Does an texts eBusiness Need ePeople? ING Corporate IT conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. December 15: Doing business in research paper primary vs secondary a mobile world , The Concours Group research conference, Sydney, Australia.

December 13: Banking in texts an electronic world , ANZ Bank Executive seminar, Melbourne, Australia. December 12: Doing business in essay offenders a mobile world , The Concours Group research conference, Melbourne, Australia. December 11: Value Creation in grouping texts a Digital World , National Australia Bank workshop, Melbourne, Australia. December 5: Doing business in dialogue in essay a mobile world , The Concours Group Re.sults workshop, Dallas, Texas. November 30: Doing business in a mobile world , The Concours Group Re.sults workshop, Stockholm, Sweden. November 11: Doing IT in grouping texts education: A view from the paper primary field , Keynote Address, NICE Conference, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.

November 8: Bank + Tele = sant: Kundedrevet innovasjon eller parringslek for for essays, dinosaurer? Bankkonferansen 2000, Holmenkollen Park Hotel, Oslo. October 17: Leading IT in form Internet time , Electricit de France, Paris. August 17: Internett og bilbransjen: Profitt eller mareritt? , Dagbladets bilseminar, Hotel Continental, Oslo. June 15 : Using Video Conferencing for grouping texts, Transatlantic Electronic Business Education: Experiences and Opinions , World Bank seminar on paper ICT use, Norwegian Business School, Norway. May 11: eCRM: Electronic Customer Relationship Management (with Ed Roche), The Concours Group Re.sults Workshop, Concours offices, London.

May 6: Forming and performing a Digital Business Strategy , Guest lecture Geelmuyden-Kiese MM program, Norwegian Business School, Oslo. May 4: Forming and texts for essays performing a Digital Business Strategy , Guest lecture Civilekonom class, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm. May 2: Business for essay offenders, business and grouping IT for virtue, IT: The IS-business interface in grouping texts a digital world , Telenor forretnings- og IT-konferanse, Losby gods. April 25: E-commerce in Europe -- Status and 1588 essay directions , Guest lecture MBA class led by prof. For Essays? Ramiro Montealegre, University of 1588 elizabeth essay, Colorado Boulder (video conference).

April 13: Silicon Ghosts -- arven etter SIMULA (with ystein Fjeldstad and for essays Knut Haans), Polyteknisk Forening IT, Oslo. April 11: Using Information and essay offenders Communications Technology in grouping texts for essays a Business School , Presentation for HM Queen Rania of a jazz concert-essay, Jordan and HM Queen Sonja of grouping texts, Norway, Norwegian Business School, Norway. April 7: Making IT a center of uum research, business innovation (with Tony DiRomualdo) , The Concours Group Re.sults Workshop, University Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts. April 5: Et verdiskapende Norge -- resultater fra Tele/IT (with ystein Fjeldstad and grouping texts Marie Viken), Hyskolesenteret i Buskerud, Kongsberg. April 3: Implementing an paper HR scorecard , The Concours Group Re.sults Workshop, Concours offices, Paris. March 29: Making sense of the grouping digital world or How come everyone is essay offenders getting rich but me? , Karl Johan Fonds seminar on grouping for essays e-Business, Bristol hotel, Oslo. March 28: Cookies, Clusters and primary sources Components: The IS-business interface in grouping a digital world , The Concours Group IT Leadership forum, Kiawah Island, South Carolina. March 20: Focusing IT professionals on essay offenders business results, RVS Versecherungen, Nederland. March 10: Understanding the texts world of concert-essay, electronic procurement or Whatever happened to texts those free lunches? , Executive education program, Telenor, Jeloya, Norway. February 21: Forankring av e-Handel i forretningsstrategi, Forum for temperance virtue, teknologiledelse, BI-Ekeberg, Oslo. January 24: Er norske brsnoterte selskap p nett? , Norske Finansanalytikeres Forening, Grand Hotell, Oslo.

November 22: Digital strategi: Fra strategisk fordel til operasjonell ndvendighet , Norske Sivilkonomers Forening, SAS Plaza Hotell, Oslo. October 4: Cookies, Clusters and texts for essays Components: The IS-business interface in essay a digital world , CSC Research Services Executive Forum, Csar Park Penha Longa, Portugal. September 27: Internett og min bedrift: Postordre i en digital verden , Norsk Postordreforening, Voksensen hotell, Oslo. July 27: Cookies, Clusters and grouping texts for essays Components: The IS-business interface in critique concert-essay a digital world , CSC Research Services Executive Forum. May 27: Internett og min bedrift: Livet i den digitale verden , Postbankens Verdipapirfond, Oslo (in Norwegian) April 27: Swarms of gadgets: Managing organizational infrastructure in for essays an age of uum research paper, rampant consumerization , (with prof. Benn Konsynski, Gouzieta Business School, Emory University), CSC Research Services Technology Forum, St. Texts For Essays? Andrews, Scotland. April 21: Innovation processes in a digital world- or, what do you mean, game theory? Studio Apertura, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. CEOs are from Mars, CIOs are from critique from a jazz concert-essay, Pluto: Enhancing the IS-Business Relationship.

CSC Research Services Strategic Innovation Working Session: March 1: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA March 5: London, UK March 9: Den Haag, Netherlands March 26: Dublin, Ireland April 23: Frankfurt, Germany February 10: Swarms of for essays, gadgets: Managing organizational infrastructure in primary vs secondary sources an age of rampant consumerization , (with prof. Grouping? Benn Konsynski, Gouzieta Business School, Emory University), CSC Research Services Technology Forum, Disney Institute, Orlando, Florida. December 17: Innovation processes in essay offenders a digital world - TNT Post Group, Den Haag, Netherlands. December 16: CEO-CIO relationships: CSC Research Services CIO Roundtable (videoconference) November 16: IT and texts value configurations (with prof. Essay Offenders? ystein Fjeldstad, Norwegian Business School), Polyteknisk Forening IT, Oslo. November 10: Explicit Management of the for essays Knowledge Asset , CSC Research Services Best Practices Forum, Royal Garden Hotel, London. October 13: Datakrisen r 2000-hvor bekymret br man vre? , Plenumsmte, Polyteknisk Forening, Oslo (organizer, keynote and research vs secondary panel chair). Grouping Texts For Essays? (in Norwegian) September 17: Elektronisk handel - konsekvenser for konsument og nringsliv , Forskningsdagene, Handelshyskolen BI, Sandvika, Norway.

September 8: Out of uum research, office-the new mobile work , CSC Customer conference, Farnborough, England. September 7: Explicit Management of the for essays Knowledge Asset , ING IT conference, Antwerpen, Belgium. September 3: Chains, Shops and essay offenders Networks: The Role of grouping for essays, IS in New Models of Value Creation (with Professor Charles B. Essay Offenders? Stabell, Norwegian Business School), CSC Research Services Norwegian Research Seminar, Norsk Hydro, Oslo, Norway. August 31: Explicit Management of the texts Knowledge Asset , CSC Ploenzke Orienterungskonferenz '98, Kiedrich, Germany. August 27: Explicit Management of the paper primary sources Knowledge Asset , IT conference, Saga Petroleum, Norway. June 18: Knowledge Management - Mantra, Mantle or Method? , Keynote Address, NOKOBIT (Norwegian Conference on grouping texts for essays Organizational Use of essay offenders, IT), Norwegian Business School, Norway. May 27: Det papirlse kontor , BI-Alumni conference, Norwegian Business School, Norway (in Norwegian) April 20: Den digitale forretningsverden , BI-Partners conference, Norwegian Business School, Norway (in Norwegian) April 20: Innovation Processes in grouping a Digital World , Eurostudent conference, Norwegian Business School, Norway.

Managing the uum research paper Knowledge Asset , CSC Research Services Foundation Research Review: March 1: London, UK March 5: Kastell den Wijtenburg, Wassenaar, The Netherlands March 11: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA March 16: Gteborg, Sweden March 17: Oslo, Norway March 19: Dublin, Ireland March 20: Belfast, Northern Ireland March 23: FIAT Training Center, Torino, Italy March 24: Frankfurt, Germany March 25: Paris, France February 10: Knowledge Management , CSC Research Services Technology Summit, Barton Creek, Austin, Texas, USA. December 12: Managing Network Infrastructure , CSC Research Services Research Review, Stockholm. November 17: Digital Strategy Processes , CSC Research Services Director's Forum, Mnchen, Germany. October 30: Den digitale forretningsverden , fellesmte Nasjonalkonomisk Gruppe og Gruppe for Informasjonsteknologi, Polyteknisk Forening, Oslo, Norway (in Norwegian) October 8: Digital Business Strategy , Strategic Management Society's 17th Annual Conference, Barcelona, Spain.

May 28: Forming and grouping for essays Performing the research primary sources Digital Business Strategy , Norwegian Business School MBA Alumni Update, SAS Park Royal Hotell, Oslo, Norway. May 13: Going on texts for essays the Internet: Strategic and critique from a jazz concert-essay Operational Considerations , Norsk Harvard Club, Holmenkollen Park Hotell, Oslo, Norway. Forming and Performing the Digital Business Strategy , CSC Research Services Foundation Research Review: March 3: Auckland, New Zealand March 5: Melbourne, Australia March 7: Sydney, Australia March 10: Singapore March 12: Hong Kong March 14: Bangkok, Thailand April 7: Oslo, Norway April 8: Gteborg, Sweden April 9: Frankfurt, Germany April 10: Wassenaar, The Netherlands April 15: London, UK January 28: Commerce on grouping for essays the Internet: Categories, Cases and essay offenders Conclusions , Keynote address, UK Post Office Connect to grouping for essays Electronic Commerce Conference, London, UK. January 27: putte en bedrift p Internett: Strategiske og operasjonelle endringer , Polyteknisk Forening IT, Oslo. November 8: The New Business Connectivity , Keynote address, Philips conference for critique from a jazz, IT managers, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. April 17: Objects and the Internet: The New Development Paradigm? Keynote address, Index Summit Object Action Group, Boston, MA.

Internet and for essays the New Business Connectivity , Index Foundation Research Review. January 29: Los Angeles, CA January 31: Dallas, TX February 2: Short Hills, NJ January 26: Internet and temperance the New Business Connectivity , University of grouping texts for essays, California (Executive course, video-conference), Irvine, CA. December 7: Managing the essay Internet connection , Index Centrum conference, Boston, MA. November 15: Internet and grouping the new business connectivity , Index Summit Conference, Cambridge, MA. November 6-7: Internet and the new business connectivity , Index Foundation Research Conference, Cambridge, MA. August 22: Organizations' IT Competence: The limiting factor? (panel discussion), IFIP WG8.1 Conference, Trondheim, Norway.

Implementing Business Objects , Foundation Research Conference. September 17: Cambridge, MA September 9: Oslo, Norway September 8: Stockholm, Sweden June 19: Auckland, New Zealand June 21: Sidney, Australia June 23: Melbourne, Australia, June 26: Singapore June 28: Hong Kong May 12: Implementing Client-Server Strategy , Index Foundation Research Conference, Cambridge, MA. May 9: Implementing Client-Server Strategy , Index Foundation Research Conference, Houston, TX. March 15: Using the Internet to dialogue conduct business , Novell Corporation Internet Seminar, Needham, Massachusetts. February 2: The future of the grouping for essays mainframe , UK Spring Research Conference, Index Foundation, London.

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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. Grouping Texts For Essays! They are responsible for creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in dialogue form, the behavior and social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. Grouping Texts! There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for essay offenders citations allows readers to texts understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to essay offenders organize and grouping texts for essays, structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and also how to essay offenders properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations.

We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is grouping texts for essays important to give acknowledgement to from that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. Texts! To learn more about citations, check out this page on uum research crediting work. Click here to learn more on how to grouping for essays be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in APA. Temperance Virtue! In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work.

Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at grouping for essays the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in dialogue, a project. Depending on the types of sources that you used for your project, the format you use for your citations is grouping for essays different for each source type. Queen Elizabeth Speech! There is a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and grouping texts for essays, so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources. Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and reference citations.

To learn more about in essay form APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on grouping texts this link for 1588 elizabeth speech further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an for essays, in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the essay offenders, section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the texts for essays, last part of a project.

The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to from a jazz concert-essay see examples of grouping texts some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Location of Publisher: Publisher.

Retrieved from URL. To determine the temperance essay, exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to grouping texts for essays the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for dialogue in essay an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily. Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in texts for essays, which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets.

Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. Uum Research Paper! [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title. When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. Texts! See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to Structure Publication Dates in APA:

Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the uum research, author. For periodicals, include the texts for essays, month and day as well. In Essay Form! If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the grouping, first word in the title and uum research paper, the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period.

Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the grouping, first word in the title and dialogue in essay form, the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. Grouping Texts For Essays! End it with a period. Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in elizabeth speech essay, standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe.

If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the title. Only capitalize the grouping, first letter. New World Punx. (2014, February 15). 1588 Queen Speech! A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from

How to Structure Publication Information in texts for essays, APA: For books and queen essay, sources that are not periodicals: Give the city and state (or city and grouping for essays, country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers.

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers. How to Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is concert-essay shown on the source. Grouping Texts! Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name.

Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period. Little Brown and Company would be placed in critique from, the APA citation as Little Brown. Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press.

For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Grouping! Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. 1588 Queen! This stands for Direct Object Identifier. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is texts static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Research Paper Sources! Do not place a period after the DOI number.

If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to grouping type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Research Sources! Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Grouping For Essays! Mashable . Retrieved from concert-essay, Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. Grouping Texts For Essays! (2016 April-June). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945.

APA Citations Format and temperance essay, Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Grouping Texts For Essays! Title of book . Saenz, B.A. Temperance Virtue! (2012). Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and easily. Citations for E-Books found online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of book . Retrieved from URL.

Colwin, L. Grouping Texts! (2014). Happy all the time. . Uum Research Paper! Retrieved from Notice that for grouping texts for essays e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation. Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of chapter. Paper! In F.M. Grouping Texts! Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx.

Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from Editor, A.A. Essay Offenders! (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003).

Remote sensing geology . Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published).

Title of texts for essays article. Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the paper, resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily! Our free APA citation maker is simple to grouping for essays use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Essay Offenders! Title of article. Title of grouping for essays Newspaper . Retrieved from URL.

Khullar, D. From A Jazz! (2017, February 22). Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from Looking for grouping texts for essays an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine! Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily.

In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of APA in temperance essay, text and parenthetical citations is to for essays give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in research primary vs secondary, the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the texts for essays, full citation for the source in 1588 speech essay, the APA reference list, which is usually the grouping texts for essays, last item in a project.

In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the temperance virtue essay, page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from grouping for essays, another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to in essay direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to grouping texts for essays create paper, but it was only grown and available in virtue essay, mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001).

How to Format In Text and texts for essays, Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of essay offenders your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the grouping for essays, other identifying pieces of information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al.

1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the speech essay, first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Grouping! Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation.

In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017) 2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the dialogue in essay, option to for essays create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the from a jazz concert-essay, last page or part of a project.

Included in this reference list are sources you used to gather research and other information. In APA format, it is not necessary to texts for essays include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. Research Paper Sources! These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. Grouping! (1998).

The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House. Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle.

New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title. Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information.

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. Uum Research! The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on texts for essays your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order: Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head?

In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head. Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and elizabeth, many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you!

If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography. Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. Grouping For Essays! APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources.

Today, there are close to 118,000 APA members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Dialogue Form! Some of texts for essays their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about uum research all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation.

You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Texts! Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on dialogue in essay how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for texts, manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is critique concert-essay, complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by women,;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. Grouping Texts For Essays! The PDF templates come filled in with example information for temperance, small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to grouping texts be left with a template that works for any business venture.

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essay on being rude This essay originally appeared in Steven J. Bartlett and Peter Suber (eds.), Self-Reference: Reflections on Reflexivity , Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, pp. 41-66. Copyright 1987, Peter Suber. In March 2000, and again in January 2002, I corrected a small number of typographical errors. Consider the following exchanges: 1. Gerda: So you believe that all belief is the product of grouping for essays custom and circumstance (or: childhood buffets, class struggle. Dialogue In Essay Form? ). Isn't that position self-limiting? Mustn't you see yourself as reflecting only a single complex of grouping circumstances?

Grobian: Your objection is inapplicable, for it is merely the product of blind forces. Moreover, your childhood buffets were pernicious and regrettable, for they have set you against this truth. 2. Gerda: So you believe that all knowledge comes from vs secondary sources God in proportion to our virtue or worth, and that all ignorance, error, and uncertainty come from the Devil in proportion to our vices. May I ask what evidence you have for this remarkable thesis? Grobian: I pity you infinitely for your sins. 3. Gerda: Doctor Grobian, I am not crazy! I stole the bread because my children were hungry. Why do you assume that every crime is grouping caused by illness? Grobian: Why do you deny it? Gerda: I am not playing a game. I really want an answer to my question.

Grobian: Obviously your ego cannot cope with the truth and you display this inadequacy in hostility to your doctor. I will not recommend your release. Grobian: It's a mystery. If I could understand it, I wouldn't believe it. I can't help it if it's the truth. One day perhaps you'll see the light too. In each of these cases something has gone wrong with the process of debate. In his self-insulating replies Grobian has raised the ire of more open and virtue essay, more dogged inquirers. We are put off, perhaps indignant or angry.

What's more, we feel justified in taking offense. We may concede for the sake of argument that Grobian's positions are strong candidates for truth on their merits, and that he has only good faith to motivate his use and defense of them. Yet we feel that strength on grouping for essays, the merits and good faith do not justify his responses. We wish he would, like us, concede the strength and good faith of essay offenders his opponents, if only for the sake of argument. But must he do this to be called rational, or merely to be called polite? Does our sense of for essays justified indignation derive from principles that we are willing to defend in the open? Or are we merely offended by seeing our side lose an exchange? Has Grobian committed any sort of fallacy that might be generalized and generally proscribed? Or does his offense lie simply in hurting our feelings? Or in his maneuvering to escape criticism or disagreement?

Can we complain if a theory can evade refutation? Is that a sign or truth, or merely a source of friction? May we say that a theory that authorizes its proponents to use such arguments in temperance self-defense is therefore false? Inadequately defended? Undebatable? If Grobian has violated norms of debate, might it be because debate is one game and he has chosen to play another? I will call Grobian's offense logical rudeness. Specifying its nature will not be as difficult as explaining why it is objectionable and discovering whether it is unavoidable.

I deliberately use the alogical term rudeness to avoid prejudicing the question of grouping for essays its logical status. 1588 Elizabeth? Logical rudeness may not be fallacious. But at grouping texts for essays, least it is offensive. Rudeness captures this sense of impropriety. The word derives from the same root as erudite, which literally means not rude in the original sense, not rudimentary or rough-hewn. The question of paper this essay is whether erudition can always be achieved, or rudeness avoided, by honest, logical, good faith inquirers for truth.

The informality of the grouping, term should not hide the fact that the topic is the queen speech, ethics of grouping for essays argument. In the dialogue in essay, final section I ask what our disdain for rudeness reveals about the activities we cherish under the names of reasoned inquiry and debate. 2. Preliminary Description of Rudeness. Logical rudeness resembles a bald petitio principii , but the resemblance is imperfect. For Essays? Rude replies presuppose the 1588 elizabeth speech essay, truth of the theory being rudely defended, like a petitio . But rudeness is usually a defensive weapon only. It is a form of self-defense that turns away all objections, or at least all objections of a certain kind. Unlike a petitio , it does not purport to texts justify a conclusion or belief ; it purports to justify believers in disregarding criticism of their beliefs as if such criticism were inapplicable, irrelevant, or symptomatic of error. This is not self-justification in the manner of essay offenders a petitio , in which assumed premises can validly imply the disputed conclusion.

It is self-justification for the human proponent of the conclusion, who finds a license, authority, or justification in his theory itself for refusing to answer objections. Grouping? Its success at insulating the believer and the belief of which it is a part seems independent of the merits or truth-value of the theory. That is one of the rudest jolts. It strikes us that theories that are false or implausible could use a rude defense as well as true or plausible theories. For this reason we suspect that the license to brush off objections is not a sign of truth or even a supporting argument. It is a gimmick, a piece of insolence that civilized and reasonable people will not stoop to use. A related reflexivity is the self-licensing of debating behavior by the theory being debated. Uum Research Paper? Rudeness highlights the sense in which beliefs authorize believers to texts act in certain ways, solely by virtue of the content of the paper, beliefs and the mechanics of good faith and loyalty. Grouping? If I believe that fast talkers are usually liars, then that belief will guide my responses to a fast-talking critic. But this is merely a psychological or descriptive observation.

Normatively, we tend to want it this way. We want people to have freedom of inquiry and belief; and when people come to conclusions, we want them to be free (within limits) to act accordingly. Such a free society is a society of self-licensed actors. If we respect freedom of conscience in our laws and in our own minds, then these self-licensed actors are genuinely licensed; what good faith belief authorizes, we believe, is authorized #151;at least until it conflicts with a higher rule. In cases of logical rudeness, belief in certain theories authorizes believers to be incredibly smug. Critique Concert-essay? Is this a price, or an abuse, of freedom? If the consequences of grouping texts a bad belief are intolerable to vs secondary public order, we may deal with it through the criminal law, as when we prohibit polygamous marriages while permitting, indeed protecting, the texts, freedom of Mormons to advocate the religious obligation to marry polygamously. But if the consequences of a rude belief are inimical only to conversation or reasoned persuasion with the believer, then how shall we deal with it? We cannot revoke or refute the believer's license to be rude, say, by converting him from his iniquitous faith, for a barrier of rudeness prevents our arguments from virtue having any effect. As inquirers we may deal with the rude believer's belief without dealing with the rude believer; but we admit that this is to abandon a valuable practice that is valued for its contribution to inquiry #151;debate.

The most common form of for essays rude theory is that which contains an explanation of error that fits certain kinds #151;perhaps all kinds#151; of dialogue form critics and dissenters. The theory is especially rude, but also especially implausible, if it directly equates error and disagreement (more on this in Section 4). But it may more plausibly equate error with certain states of mind or symptoms of belief, when it (not accidentally) happens that these states characterize the doubters and disbelievers. In the second example in Section 1 above, which may be called the demon theory of error, Grobian easily applies his theory of texts error to Gerda. In that case it seems that he could as easily have refrained, and offered any evidence he possessed. But suppose he did offer evidence and it failed to persuade Gerda (which is the likely result). Then is it as apparent that he could refrain from his rude explanation of Gerda's failure to temperance virtue agree? A faithful believer of the grouping texts for essays, demon theory of error must apply it to Gerda sooner or later, silently or aloud. A recurring reflexive feature of logical rudeness is the application of a theory to the context of its own defense. This is unobjectionable if the theory's subject matter includes truth and falsehood, validity and invalidity, meaning and nonsense, or other parameters of debate or demonstration.

In this way, rudeness hangs in the air most around theories about theorizing or meta-theories about meta-theorizing. But when the application of the theory to the context of its own defense justifies the theory's proponent in speech ignoring critics, then something objectionable has entered the picture. For example, a certain sort of disciple of Wittgenstein might put forth the theory that there is no such thing as mind as traditionally conceived, although there is a word mind that is used in grouping texts certain ways. The theorist might also claim, more radically, that all questions of existence are meaningless or reducible to questions of word usage. Critique A Jazz Concert-essay? A critic might begin by asserting that both of them have minds, and offer reasons or evidence. The proponent might deflect such criticism by grouping saying, yes, the word mind is properly used as the critic has used it. Essay Offenders? All further criticism could be deflected in a similar way.

The theorist clearly is applying her theory to its own proper subject matter, and texts for essays, is striving to preserve her theory's consistency and her own good faith as a believer in its truth. Yet these virtues add up to in essay form the vice of treating the critic rudely and disserving inquiry by leaving the critic unanswered. If a philosopher had a nervous tick that was triggered every time inquiry threatened to interfere with belief, and if he (not coincidentally) held the theory that inquiry creates nervous anxiety, then we could not engage that philosopher on grouping texts, the merits of the anxiety theory of inquiry without causing him anxiety. This whimsical case is an easy way to raise a serious question: in temperance the name of cooperative truth-seeking, can we expect believers to put aside their beliefs or compromise their loyalty? Some theories do not obviously apply to grouping the context of virtue essay their debate. Grouping? Grobian may believe p and add that all error is queen elizabeth speech caused by the confusion brought about by grouping texts for essays pain. Gerda may object that pain-free inquirers may commit errors, and that pained inquirers may speak the truth. If Grobian is satisfied that Gerda is not suffering physical pain as she speaks, he will be obliged (by logical courtesy or erudition) to answer the objection as best he can.

Logical rudeness is closed to dialogue in essay form him unless he can believe the objection is raised under the duress of pain; but in that case he is licensed by his beliefs to explain the objection away rather than answer it. When the theory on the defensive may or may not apply to the context of grouping texts its own debate, further inquiry or bald presumptions are required before the proponent can defend it rudely. The point of the uum research paper, examples so far is that rudeness follows from unobjectionable, even praiseworthy, features of believers and their beliefs. For Essays? True as well as false theories, if believed true with good faith, will be applied to all relevant contexts and will not be compromised to salve the paper, feelings of dissenters or to serve their ideas of inquiry. Even if the texts for essays, tenacious good faith that leads to this result is not praiseworthy (explored in Section 5), it might be found in a believer of a true theory.

Because even true theories might be believed in this way, and perhaps ought to dialogue be, we cannot automatically infer falsehood from rudeness. But if rudeness does not imply falsehood, how do we evaluate theories that are rudely defended? It seems that they cannot be debated, at least with their proponents. If we abandon debate and examine such theories in silence or apart from their proponents, we feel that we have abandoned a valuable practice, perhaps a practice indispensable to texts reliable inquiry. Moreover, we may feel that a negative judgment not tested in debate with the defendants will be rude in essay offenders its own way. Finally, even in the isolated inquiry at texts, our desks we may fail to get around the theory's rudeness if our method requires us to 1588 speech imagine and anser the likely responses of the good faith believer. Then we replicate in drama what we were spared in history.

Rudeness will be possible, as noted, for any theory that properly applies to virtually any aspect of debate or demonstration, such as the truth or knowability of theories, the validity of arguments, the meaning of for essays statements, the uum research paper, sincerity of believers, or the methods of inquiry. This is disturbing because it shows that most philosophical theories will be capable of rudeness in this way. And note that this rudeness is legitimate in the sense that it is permitted by the content of the grouping texts for essays, theory being defended and the good faith of the believer. It is not like telling critics to shut up, even though this too is always possible. More generally as well as more precisely, a theory may be rude if it treats any sub-activity of theorizing or debating and critique concert-essay, identifies any sort of flaw, fallacy, foible, or fault that could justify a theorist in grouping texts for essays dismissing an objection as false, flawed, fallacious, irrelevant, or inapplicable. Call any such theory a theory of vs secondary sources justified dismissal.

Examples are theories of error, illogic, or nonsense. To explain and evaluate rudeness we need not reach the question when dismissal is really justified. If a theory permits dismissal of competing theories when they are consistent with the for essays, writings of Karl Marx, or might lead to primary vs secondary disrespect for law if generally affirmed, or are unintelligible to five year old children, then that theory can be rude whenever a critic's contending theory fits the fatal mold. Any attempt to judge the theory of justified dismissal could be deflected as just another attempt to texts pierce the shield of rudeness. Speech? Judging the theory of justified dismissal may be done, of course, but not in debate.

If a believer dismisses theories that are consistent with Marxism, then an objection to that theory will probably be dismissed as consistent with Marxism. Texts For Essays? This kind of self-applicability arises not from praiseworthy good faith and consistency alone, but also from belief in a theory of justified dismissal. But holding a theory of justified dismissal also seems harmless. In fact, in philosophy it is almost obligatory. Our problem as civilized inquirers is that we want philosophies complete enough to explain error, illogic, nonsense, and other grounds of justified dismissal; we expect believers to apply their beliefs with consistency and good faith to all the relevant contexts of temperance essay life; and grouping texts for essays, yet we do not want them to apply their grounds of justified dismissal to the critics and primary vs secondary sources, dissenters in the realm of debate who help us decide the theory's truth. Texts For Essays? Are we asking too much?

Are we demanding inconsistent tasks of our opponents? Is debate a privileged process in which beliefs can be examined without the distortions introduced by believing, or (from the believer's standpoint) is it a damnable realm in which one is expected to elizabeth speech essay give up one's faith to defend it? (Note that I use belief and faith in a weak sense. Any claims to truth will be called beliefs or faith, even if the proponent also considers them to constitute knowledge.) A theory may explain away the criticism or disagreement of critics descriptively or normatively. The first example in Section 1 above is descriptive, the second normative. If the critic's disagreement is put down to an unfortunate series of grouping for essays childhood buffets or to any other source independent of the merits or truth-value of the theory he criticized, then he is rudely treated.

He is dialogue form not answered, but reduced to ineffectual squealing from the texts, standpoint of the speech, proponent. Grouping? Once stigmatized as suffering from the defect ascribed to him, a defect well-explained by the theory, the critic is put out of court. The well of discourse is poisoned. Nothing he says afterward can affect the theory, at least in the judgment of the proponent. If the temperance virtue essay, critic's disagreement is put down to vice, sin, or a normative weakness, then he is equally not answered and relegated to limbo #151;a limbo either of well-explained incompetency or of grouping texts well-explained ineligibility for our attention and answers. Descriptive rudeness imputes a foible, prescriptive rudeness a fault, to critics or dissenters. The authority to from be rude consists in texts for essays heeding the temperance virtue, terms of the grouping texts for essays, theory that describe the foible or fault and queen elizabeth, that describe who deserves to be branded with it. The terms of the theory may be false or implausible, but it is futile to hope to persuade the rude proponent that that is so when our attempts only feed self-righteousness. Rudeness of this type makes debate much like an for essays unnamed childhood game I recall with pleasure and frustration. One player asks yes-or-no questions, and the other answers yes or no according to a secret algorithm. The object of the game is to guess the algorithm.

It might be, answer 'yes' whenever the research vs secondary, question begins with a vowel or ends with a two-syllable word; otherwise answer 'no'. (One must always anser yes and capitulate when the correct algorithm is proposed.) In such a game the words yes and no are not used with their ordinary meanings. Hence the questioner will be seriously misled if she asks, does the algorithm concern syllabification? and takes the grouping texts for essays, yes or no answer in its ordinary sense. In the game, which I will call Noyes for convenience (for the pun on no-yes and the homonym of noise), yes and no are tokens of exchange, not signs of affirmation and negation. The questioner cannot begin to play meta -Noyes by asking, seriously , is syllabification involved? The questioner cannot get traditional yes and essay offenders, no answers as long as the oracle maintains his role and texts, plays the in essay, game. The analogy to logical rudeness is that the critic cannot get the believer to give up his good faith for the purposes of debate, and perhaps should not want to. It is equivalent to asking the grouping texts, Noyes oracle to primary vs secondary sources give up his algorithm for the sake of play. Because the believer is ruled by his beliefs in selecting responses in debate, as the Noyes oracle is ruled by his algorithm, the questioner is texts apt to find her questions and objections translated from the genre of criticism to the genre of noise, and dealt with as input to an unknown algorithm. The difference of course is queen elizabeth essay that Noyes is plainly a game, and grouping texts for essays, the refusal of the oracle to play meta-Noyes is part of his role in queen speech playing Noyes.

Is debate equally a game, and are some believers equally bound to refuse to grouping texts for essays play meta-debate? Noyes makes play out of what can be a serious problem. Consider the case of a rapist who believes that no means yes and that struggle indicates pleasure. Recent law in England has allowed rape defendants to argue good faith (that is, sincere) belief in the no-yes equation, and a few rapists have won acquittal with that defense. Paper Primary? The effect is to equate a woman's consent with a man's belief in a woman's consent. The result is nothing short of for essays evil in practice, though it rests on the slender theoretical reed that people are ruled, not by critique from a jazz concert-essay what is real, but by their belief about what is real. This is one case in which the authority one receives from grouping good faith belief leads to intolerable consequences and should be barred by the criminal law. The Anglo-American criminal law occasionally (but rarely) excuses conduct or mitigates punishment for crimes performed in good faith error of the facts. But to prevent good faith rape and similar abuses, usually an objectivity requirement is added that the belief be reasonable.

The peculiarity of the temperance essay, English law is that good faith belief, no matter how unreasonable under the circumstances, suffices to acquit. Grouping Texts For Essays? (This astonishing doctrine was first asserted in Director of Public Prosecutions v. Paper Primary Vs Secondary? Morgan et al. , 61 Crim. App. Reports 136 (1975).) Some political regimes may be Noyes games writ large. Suppose one is in a despotic state where the officials act according to rules which ordinary citizens are not allowed to know or to criticize. These meta-rules about criticism are sometimes enforced against critics with imprisonment and other forms of grouping for essays violence, but for most people most of the time they are enforced by social pressure. If one engages one's neighbor in conversation on the wisdom of such policies, one will be surprised that one's very desire to examine the wisdom of the policies is considered suspect and criminal.

If the topic of conversation shifts (it is not much of a shift) to the desirability of form open discussion of every question, one will be more surprised to texts for essays hear one diagnosed as bourgeois or reactionary or (from the other end of the ideological spectrum) as anarchical. One may be aware of theories of government according to which free discussion is inimical to good order, revolutionary initiatives, or reeducation; but one would at in essay form, least like to debate the merits of such theories of government. Grouping For Essays? The loyal proponents of such positions, however, like most loyal proponents, apply their beliefs to the context of their debate, as they apply their beliefs to all the contexts of history. From their own point of view this is temperance virtue essay only good faith and consistency. One cannot get such proponents to jump out texts, of the critique from concert-essay, system for the time and labor of grouping for essays a joint inquiry into the merits of their beliefs; and one should not expect to research paper vs secondary sources be able to. Much like the questioner in a game of Noyes or the victim of texts a rapist who believes that no means yes, one's criticism of a rude state policy will be interpreted in that state as something other than a criticism to be answered as criticism. In this case it will be interpreted as a violation, and one's attempt to reach a meta-level at critique a jazz, which one could discuss the propriety of such an interpretation will be interpreted as another violation. Like the critic of the demon theory of error, or the hapless victim of the grouping texts, tarbaby, one's struggles to escape the verdict of one's opponent only confirm his confidence in essay offenders one's miserable fate. The rude regime raises important issues of political theory, particularly the question whether commitments to principles or results should supersede commitments to method or process.

This and related issues of procedural democracy will be explored to grouping texts for essays some extent in paper primary vs secondary Section 5. The Noyes regime and rapist suggest a closely related species of grouping rudeness: the temperance essay, tactic of the proponent in disregarding the logical or illative dimension of the critic's words and treating them solely as behavior to be explained by for essays his theory. The same effect is research achieved when criticism is interpreted as a symptom of historical, economic, or psychological forces, or as ideology. In many ways this is texts for essays merely a different perspective on the same species of rudeness considered above. If the proponent's theory contains an explanation of behavior (which we also expect a good philosophy or social science to in essay have), then the critic may find herself unable to escape the object-language of the theory she is attacking and reach its meta-language. All criticism and disagreement may be seen as behavior, and to that extent fall into grouping texts, the arena of the subject-matter of the theory. Like birdsong or ritualistic dancing, they are colorful bits of the 1588 elizabeth speech essay, explanandum, logically subordinate to the explanation and incapable of grouping refuting it except as counter-examples or anomalies. The difference between disagreement as behavior to essay offenders be explained and as criticism to be answered is at least partly a matter of perspective within the discretion of the proponent. Again we encounter the question whether his choice is ever fixed by grouping for essays the content of the beliefs he is defending and his general commitments to consistency and good faith. And again, we are reluctant to close off any option by normative force. Just as explanations of error are desirable, so are explanations of paper primary behavior.

Even behavior with a logical or illative dimension is worth studying merely as behavior to such disciplines as anthropology, the sociology of knowledge, psycho-history, and the descriptive parts of comparative jurisprudence. But we want to discourage the sort of rudeness that studies critics as specimens to the exclusion of (rather than in addition to) hearing their criticism. Religious belief has been studied as a psychological condition and social phenomenon. Some schools of linguistics study verbal behavior. There is no epistemological or scientific reason why a social science could not study argumentative or critical behavior. The theories of such a social science would be fraught with great potential, from birth, to grouping license their proponents to treat their critics rudely. Such a science might use the term refutationary behavior to refer to arguments, refutations, criticisms, and polemics intended to demonstrate falsehood. Refutationary behavior is fascinating. From A Jazz Concert-essay? People thrust and parry, advance and retreat, concede small points and lay traps on large ones, take disagreement personally, get angry, resort to ad hominem attacks, decoy the for essays, opponent with false camaraderie or uncertainty, sting in the heel with irony, trip up with sophisms and paradoxes, fall back on definitions, and refuse to fall back on definitions. In our large universe, any theory of refutationary behavior, like theories of critique from other kinds, will encounter disagreement. If a sociologist of polemics proposes that refutationary behavior is motivated by class interests, then a critic may be as erudite as can be, but the proponent can study the proffered criticism as another example of refutationary behavior, perhaps as one that confirms the theory.

Rudeness that views arguments only grouping, as a special class of behavior for empirical study highlights a feature of all rudeness, which is that the rude believer is not summoned or elicited to speech be rude until criticism is expounded or uttered or made into behavior. Grouping For Essays? A theory may be refuted in abstracto , in silence, in thought, in ideality, or in private at one's desk, but this kind of refutation does not put the rude proponent on the defensive or call on him to use his rude defenses. The necessity of expounded criticism to trigger logical rudeness in turn highlights another feature of all rudeness, which is concert-essay that the theory may really be refuted while the proponent is justifiably unconverted. Rudeness insulates believers, not beliefs. Rudeness suggests the presence of logical perspective : even sound refutations, those that might work at one's desk or in the journals, might fail to convert the proponent, and grouping, the proponent may have a sufficient warrant from this theory for his theory for this intractability. If good faith belief in a theory suffices to warrant the believer to act under its terms (a political, not a logical, principle), then the 1588 queen elizabeth speech essay, believer is really justified in disregarding the sound refutation. Rudeness drives a wedge in between logical argument and rhetorical persuasion, preventing the power of the former from aiding the grouping texts for essays, power of the latter. The rude, insulated believer need not be illogical to be protected by the mantle of elizabeth speech rudeness; he must believe a theory of a certain kind, with the sort of texts good faith devotion that seeks to preserve the theory's consistency and to apply it to all explananda within its domain. Uum Research Paper? This also disturbing, for it suggests that generally praiseworthy traits of inquirers may make argumentation, on its logical side (as opposed to its personal or political side), nugatory. We might be tempted to say that it is always rude to grouping interpret criticism as unwitting confirmation of one's theory.

A good example is the theory that the subtlest, and therefore most likely, action of the devil would be to deny his own existence and cause others to deny it. Opponents who doubt the existence of devils are hopelessly trapped; no objection can fail to confirm the believer in his belief. When this tactic is rude, it is like the empirical study of refutationary behavior in primary vs secondary refusing to see a meta-level in the critic's criticism. We should be careful here, however. Some criticism does confirm the grouping, theory being criticized, in which case a response by retortion is appropriate.

Critics may resent this sort of research paper primary sources intellectual judo, but we may not call it logically rude unless the critic is deprived of a response on the merits, or cannot have his criticism taken as criticism, although perhaps it is also taken as symptom, behavior, or confirming instance. Suppose a disciple of David Hume adapted Grobian's buffet theory of belief (example 1 in Section 1), and claimed that all belief was based on local custom and habit. Grouping Texts For Essays? This theory might have met comparatively warm approval in late eighteenth century Britain. But contemporaneous Germans would have denied it in unison. The Humean could interpret the German choir as simple corroboration: their consensus and their Teutonism would explain one another. Like the student of refutationary behavior, such a Humean would be guilty of little more than applying her theory to essay its subject matter, which happens to texts include the context of its own debate.

And that, by itself, is not blameworthy. But in temperance essay each case we feel that such application is hasty. Before the critic is for essays used against himself, he should be told why he is paper wrong. But while the student of refutationary behavior is clearly failing to explain the errors of his critics, the Humean is not. The former merely says, That's about what I'd expect from a middle-class white male, while the Humean has found a putative cause of the opponents' error in Germanic national character. Rudeness which twists objections into confirmations highlights a feature of all rudeness, which is that the proponent of a theory must struggle to avoid perceiving criticism as applicable to him or his theories, qua criticism.

The proponent must see criticism as false, non-cognitive, meaningless, irrelevant, unwitting confirmation, undebatable, unknowable, self-contradictory, or generally inapplicable, ripe for justified dismissal. Both the proponent of the class theory of refutationary behavior and the proponent of the custom theory of belief have traced the beliefs of their opponents to their supposed sources. Grouping For Essays? The difference is that the proponent of the class theory of refutationary behavior does not (necessarily) believe that such a genealogy is equivalent to a refutation, while the Humean does. The former is constantly, even professionally, tracing refutationary behavior to dialogue form its source. One may pursue such a course and still believe that the truth-value of grouping for essays ideas is not affected by their origin. No empirical study is per se guilty of the genetic fallacy.

But the Humean relativizes any belief that she succeeds in essay offenders tracing to its source; if the belief is not already self-consciously relativistic (as eighteenth century German philosophy typically was not), then it is subjected to grouping for essays a supposed refutation. A rude slap has been added to the initial reductionism. But is not the Humean's own claim about custom relativized by itself? The Humean may evade this consequence by making the custom theory of belief an exception to its own tenets; the exception may be hard to justify, but at least to claim it avoids paradox. 1588 Queen Elizabeth? Initially she would resemble Arcesilas, Carneades, and the other skeptics of the new Academy who claimed that all was uncertain. They were urged by Antipater to texts for essays make an exception for their very claim that all (else) was uncertain; but in 1588 elizabeth speech fear of implausibility or in pursuit of mischief they refused.

This paradox and texts, its avoidance raise an important point. Some kinds of rudeness are fallacious, and the inference of falsehood or inconsistency is justified. Form? For example, the verificationist theory of meaning is meaningless by its own criterion. However, any objection along these lines is also meaningless by that criterion. Hence, the proponent of the theory may seem able to sit smugly on his criterion and refuse to allow any objection to enter his realm of debate.

But that would commit a fallacy. The weapon raised by for essays the verification theorist to slay his opponent slays himself. Paper? This is not always so with rude defenses, but it is texts so here and for the Humean proponent of the custom theory of belief, as well as for Grobian's buffet theory of belief in a jazz Section 1 (example 1). Texts? The verificationist apparently has two choices in the face of the charge of self-referential inconsistency: He may make his theory an exception to its own tenets, which would be odd and implausible but consistent, or he may try to fend off the objection by classifying it meaningless ab initio , which his theory apparently entitles him to do. But the latter choice is research paper sources not really open, or it does not really preserve the theory's consistency in the face of the objection.

If the theory is not excepted from its own standards, then it must suffer the very fate contemplated for the opponent. We may generalize. Texts For Essays? Normally one may not infer falsehood from rudeness. But one may do so with rude theories whose grounds of justified dismissal properly apply to the theories themselves. One may at least infer the presence of a fallacious defense, beyond a merely rude one, and the presence of self-referential inconsistency. The proponent of the custom theory of research paper primary vs secondary sources belief is rude; if she does not make her theory an exception to itself, then she will be fallaciously rude. Her condition should be distinguished from that of another kind of debater who likes to trace criticism to its source. If a religious fundamentalist objects to the theory of for essays evolution, a biologist may say, Ah, that is because he believes in the account in in essay Genesis, and takes it literally. This would be rude only if the texts, imputation of the cause of the objection is considered an elliptical refutation, shorthand for 1588 speech essay, the claim that is false because it derives from grouping texts for essays a system of superstition long disproved.

But it need not be rude in this sense; it may be shorthand a more complex evasion. The biologist may believe that the uum research, origin of ideas is irrelevant to their truth-value; she is not rude if her statement is merely an elliptical way of postponing or deferring an answer on the merits. Discovering that an objection to one's theories originated in a religious belief, or from any source other than the objectionable character of one's theories, is grouping for essays not a refutation; if it is not used as a refutation, then it is not rude to point out the discovery. For example, objections to certain theories of astronomy from astrology are often tossed aside because of their origin. From Concert-essay? This may or may not be rude. It is not rude if the astronomer is saying, Astrology has been answered before; if I don't take this astrologer seriously it is only because the reasons are shared by all the members of my profession, and even if those reasons are inadequate, obsolete, or subject to the criticism before me now, they can go without saying. To subsume an objection under the larger faith that gave rise to it, however accurately, does not help a bit in answering or disarming the objection. It is pure postponement.

It serves communication, not refutation. In context it usually informs all interested parties of one's position, and grouping texts for essays, even the source of one's counter-evidence and counter-arguments. But it does not actually answer the criticism or refute the body of beliefs that gave rise to it. Even when it is shorthand for in essay form, a definitive refutation, it does not recapitulate the grouping texts, reasons against in essay form, the position, but only alludes to them, and only indirectly, by alluding to the faith which is presumed to be long refuted. Logical courtesy (erudition) demands that the texts, objection be answered on its merits, although no logics themselves demand it. To allude to a supposed definitive refutation without restating it is on the face of it nothing more than a weak display of disagreement.

But to uum research subsume a belief under a larger system as if that constituted refutation begs the question, and worse. It is like any other reductio ad absurdum in which the absurdum is not a contradiction but simply unacceptable or unheard of. One is not acting with the texts, courage of conviction, which believes that truth is demonstrable, but only with the complacency of conviction, which believes that dissenters are pitifully benighted. This discussion brings us back to the beginning. For a theory of justified dismissal may focus on a fault or foible of the critique, believer, or on grouping, the body of beliefs which gave rise to the objectionable theory. Both can be rude; but the second can also be mere postponement. Paper? Both involve the explanation of the objection . If we explain the criticism of critics in a way that justified dismissal, then we have treated the critic rudely.

But if we explain the objection as originating in a possible flaw in our own theories, then we are as polite as can be. We are then granting for the sake of argument that our beliefs might be objectionable or false. Another type of rudeness arises when a proponent feels authorized in holding a theory independent of the authority that comes from correctness. Many government officials are guilty of this kind of rudeness, and seem to believe that their ideas are sufficiently authorized by the election results and thereafter need not be defended or debated. When critics or reporters ask why a course of grouping texts action was not taken (requesting a reason), many officials will answer, We decided it would not be appropriate at this time. Virtue? This could be translated as, I don't have to grouping explain or defend myself as long as the virtue, people let me stay in office. Grobian's fourth response in Section 1 is of this type: he felt authorized in his faith, not by grouping texts for essays shareable evidence and critique, reasons, but by a private inner light. There are certainly many other kinds of grouping texts for essays logical rudeness. Elizabeth Speech? I do not mean to grouping give an exhaustive taxonomy. One final type, similar to 1588 essay the government official's, may be mentioned. Suppose someone believes that (1) ESP exists, (2) only grouping texts for essays, some people possess it, (3) it may be acquired but that doubt is an obstacle to its acquisition, and (4) it cannot be displayed in the presence of hostile or unbelieving witnesses.

This theory is rude in two novel ways. First, it is unfalsifiable. All negative results from experiments may be answered with the essay offenders, all-purpose subterfuge, The researchers must have doubted. Any unfalsifiable theory may be called rude in a weak or attenuated sense. Critics are teased, because they may disagree all they want, but no applicable or decisive refutation may be found. For ordinary empirical theories, amassing contrary evidence is never a conclusive refutation, but at least the strength of a negative inference mounts; amassing contrary evidence to such an ESP theory would not even strengthen a negative inference in grouping texts the judgment of the uum research paper, proponent.

A stronger sense of rudeness derives from the first. A critic who denies that ESP exists can be told, I guess you just don't have it. This reply makes the ESP theory a case of a more general type. Max Scheler's theory of value and value-blindness is another case. Probably the most infuriating case may be called the blessing theory of truth #151;the theory that knowledge is a gift from a god, that only some receive it, and that those receiving it know it when they see it by grouping unmistakable internal signs. I suppose it is optional for a proponent of a blessing theory of truth to claim that the blessing theory itself is knowable only virtue essay, as part of texts such a gift. The general feature shared by rude theories of this type is the belief that some valued capacity, relevant to truth-seeking or knowing, is either present or absent in one, and that possessors know they are possessors and nonpossessors do not (or sometimes cannot) know that the race divides into 1588 queen speech essay, possessors and nonpossessors. This general type of theory takes two equally rude forms: (1) the grouping for essays, born loser theories, according to which nonpossessors of the virtue essay, gift are doomed to remain nonpossessors, and grouping texts for essays, therefore ignorant, and (2) the one path or trust me theories, according to which nonpossessors may become possessors only by following a regimen set for them by self-proclaimed possessors. The regimen may include a code of conduct as well as of faith, all of which must be taken on faith or without evidence in the beginning.

Proof comes only to those who take the path to the end. A cross between the born-loser and the one-path theories may hold that the gift falls on possessors gratuitously. The general type may be called boon theories. We are all familiar with boon theories of knowledge, wisdom, virtue, and salvation. The first ESP example was a one-path boon theory. Max Scheler's view that some people see values rightly and others are value-blind is a one-path boon theory. A social Darwinist theory that held that males and whites deserve their privileged positions simply because they have acquired them is a born-loser boon theory. Note that in research paper primary sources boon theories in which the boon is not gratuitous, nonpossession is grouping texts a stigma. In Essay Form? Hence the critic is not only excluded from grace and ignorant, but is blameworthy. The smugness of rude proponents and grouping for essays, the rude immunity to conversion are thereby justified all the more. 3. What Sort of Delict is critique from concert-essay Logical Rudeness?

Let me summarize the species of rudeness sketched in Section 2. Grouping Texts For Essays? The primary type is probably the application of a theory of justified dismissal, such as a theory of error or insanity, to critics and dissenters. Another major type is the interpretation of critique from a jazz criticism as behavior to be explained rather than answered. This is closely connected to the type that refuses to grouping for essays see a meta-level in the critic's criticism, and will not allow critics to escape the object-language of the theory. A rude theory may reinterpret criticism as a special kind of noise, or as unwitting corroboration. A theory may evade criticism without rudeness by postponing as answer or referring the critic to the answer of another. The abuse of postponement may be rude, however, as when the motions of postponement are made shorthand for paper vs secondary sources, dismissal, or when the subsumption of an objection under a larger system of belief is made shorthand for texts, refutation. A rude theory may be held for reasons other than its correctness, such as the support for the believer shown by in essay form voters or grant-giving agencies. A weak sort of rudeness lies in any unfalsifiable theory, and a strong sort lies in boon theories which identify critics as nonpossessors of a special boon. The theories of justified dismissal and the boon theories tell critics that they are disqualified from knowing truth or even deserving answers because of some well-explained foible or fault in grouping texts for essays themselves. All the types have in common an evasion of a responsibility to answer criticism on the merits, when that evasion is 1588 elizabeth authorized by the theory criticized.

All types are triggered only by grouping texts for essays expounded criticism, and only insulate the proponent from essay offenders conversion or capitulation, not the theory from texts for essays refutation. Only one type was found fallacious, the dismissal of an objection on research paper primary sources, grounds that would suffice to dismiss the theory itself. Such dismissal is self-referentially inconsistent unless the theory is grouping texts made an exception to critique from a jazz its own tenets, a move which usually cures inconsistency at the price of implausibility. The kinds of grouping rudeness seen here may apparently be used with true beliefs as well as false, unless one is already a partisan of theories which would make any rude theory false. If we admit the adaptability of rudeness to true and false theories, then we must find another avenue of form complaint. What is texts for essays wrong with it? The only obvious delict of queen elizabeth speech essay non-fallacious rude defenses is that they separate the believer from the belief in such a way that the belief may be criticized or refuted and the believer left smug and unswayed.

This would not be a serious objection if rudeness did not, for the same reason, cripple debate. A rude defense terminates all debate with the rude theorist. Critics see that they can make no progress against rude believers, and turn to for essays fellow travelers and journals. But again, the crippling of debate would not fully capture the depth of our discomfort unless we thought, for the same reasons, that rudeness crippled inquiry. Does rudeness cripple inquiry? Does the crippling of debate cripple inquiry? Is rudeness an epistemic sin or just plain impolite?

With these questions in temperance essay the background I would like to grouping start off on an apparent digression with the aim of returning to temperance essay them shortly. Rudeness insulates the believer from expounded criticism. The rude believer need not answer criticism, but may deflect or explain it away. In legal terms, the rude believer's refusal to answer his opponent is a refusal to recognize a burden of going forward created by grouping for essays the critic's criticism. Anglo-American law distinguishes the burden of essay offenders proof from the burden of going forward . Texts? The burden of proof is a tie-breaker rule; when the evidence and arguments on each side seem balanced, then the paper, party with the burden of proof loses. The burden of going forward is the obligation to respond after the opponent has made a preliminary case. When a philosophical inquirer puts forth a theory, and when critics publish their disagreement along with erudite arsenals of texts for essays evidence and arguments, then can we say that the burden of research paper primary going forward has shifted to grouping texts for essays the theorist?

Do those who publish theories, in print or orally, have a duty to respond to critics who make a minimally plausible case that they are wrong? What we have called rude defenses seem reducible to different ways of shirking a supposed burden of going forward. Is there such a burden in philosophy? We should remember that the use of essay offenders burdens in law furthers certain policies. When one party in court has made a case for herself, the judge turns to the other, in effect, and says, Your turn! I have to decide this case and cannot wait forever. I want to be fair. Speak now or forever hold your peace. Texts For Essays? This boils down to, Your turn or you lose! Parties that fail to meet their burden, either of essay offenders proof or of going forward, will normally lose the case, either by judgment or by default. The theory is that by using burdens in this way we are promoting fair and efficient adjudication.

First, judges must decide the cases before them. They cannot defer judgment forever or indefinitely as philosophers can. Second, the judge must decide within a comparatively short period of time, unlike philosophers who may take as long as their scruples require. Texts? Third, the judge may (and usually does) have to decide on imperfect information, when some facts are missing or contested or both. Fourth, the judge wants her judgment to be informed by the merits of each side as they are perceived by each side. All these policies are served by dialogue in essay form compelling one party to for essays speak or suffer default when the other has spoken. But philosophical debate does not operate under the same constraints as legal debate. Nobody has to decide philosophical questions at all, let alone soon or on critique a jazz concert-essay, imperfect information. At least the sense in which people must answer philosophical questions (such as, when pregnant, the morality of abortion, or when terminally ill, the morality of suicide) does not give rise to prudential, procedural rules for allocating burdens of proof and going forward in the same way as in law.

Moreover, there is no adversarial process in the same sense. Grouping Texts? Hence, there appears to in essay form be no comparable reason why philosophers must speak up after their opponents have made a preliminary or even a formidable case against them. Is this equivalent to saying that there is no logical reason why we must answer our critics? There may be rhetorical and social reasons, especially as inquiry is partly social and not wholly epistemic. We do not exclusively strive for true knowledge in inquiry, but also for social integration, the cooperation of different inquirers, the communication and application of results, the preservation of a milieu in which inquiry is free and fruitful, and the satisfaction of the human purposes in having knowledge or ideas at for essays, all. Virtue? Logical rudeness is certainly not prohibited by logic; it is prohibited, I maintain, only by social norms. It is objectionable, but not in the manner of illogic or hypocrisy. It is for essays objectionable more in the manner of refusing to speak to one's spouse, putting urgent callers on hold, or meeting student questions with sardonic laughter. Philosophers have no equivalent of default except the presumption that the silent or rude theorist has no answer on the merits to from concert-essay offer, and grouping, (qua individual proponent) may be presumed ignorant or incorrect and dismissed. This presumption, however, is very legalistic, and in many cases will be false.

The limits of the applicability of legal procedures to philosophical argument may lead us to rethink this presumption. At the moment, however, the presumption looks like a theory of justified dismissal: theorists who resort to rude defenses may be dismissed; their theories may be true, but we must await another proponent to find out how that position responds to critique certain questions and objections before we can judge it fairly on the merits. Courteous or erudite philosophers tend to use the concept of burden. Indeed, the concept of a burden of texts going forward is an element of the positive system of logical etiquette that defines rudeness. It is not a part of logic itself, but part of the virtue, practical implementation of logical courtesy and social norms in debate. It furthers social policies and inquiry, but its absence would also serve inquiry, though to a different degree. The truth-value of a rude theory is not affected by the silence or rudeness of grouping texts its proponents in the face of disagreement. In short, philosophical inquiry may be crippled by logical rudeness, but the legalistic remedy of a burden of uum research going forward would cripple philosophical inquiry even more. Grouping For Essays? Rudeness cripples inquiry by uum research obstructing cooperation, not by silencing contenders for texts, truth or by deceiving inquirers. Rudeness, like a boulder in a stream, makes inquiry pass around it. If inquiry proceeds without debate, something is lost.

But because falsehood cannot be inferred from rudeness, much more would be lost if we dismissed rude proponents, as if in error, for essay offenders, violating some imported rules of procedure. Legal inquiry is successful when it is both fair and probative. Philosophical inquiry may be successful if it is only probative, that is, if it only brings us closer to truth. Respect for the parties is secondary; to grouping put it higher is to research primary vs secondary sources put persons on grouping for essays, a par with truth, which may be proper for every purpose except inquiry for truth. 4. Research? Must Some Theories Be Rude? It may seem that the imputation of texts a foible or fault to a critic simply qua critic is always optional, never necessary to preserve the consistency of the theory or the good faith of the dialogue form, proponent. But this is not true. First, there is the case of the brazen theory which includes as a tenet the forthright equation of disagreement and error. This tenet is not as rare, nor probably as naive, as one might at first suspect. It may be called (using legal jargon) the exclusivity clause of the theory. Grouping? Any theory may have an exclusivity clause, and most theories may have them without contradicting their own content.

The clause merely states that the set of tenets comprising the theory is the truth and the only truth on critique from, its precise subject. Grouping For Essays? It does not imply completeness; but it does imply that propositions inconsistent with the theory are false. It may be tacit and understood, and indeed it does seem to follow from the mere claim of truth according to the principle of critique from concert-essay excluded middle (tacit in many theories) and most classical notions of truth. If a theory contains an exclusivity clause, even a tacit one, it impels the good faith proponent to equate disagreement and error. Critics may courteously be indulged in the realm of debate, and texts, cajoled into form, seeing the grouping texts, light, if possible, but that would be supererogatory under the canons of logic and good faith. One premise of civilized debate #151;that any contender might be speaking the 1588 speech, truth and debate is one way to tell who#151; is not shared by all the for essays, contenders.

For this reason it is disturbing to 1588 queen speech note that almost any claim to truth may bear a tacit exclusivity clause. Even more disturbing is the case of philosophical systems. The paradigm of good philosophy for several western traditions #151;the complete, consistent system#151; is impelled to be rude. This is not news to Kierkegaard, who felt rudely subsumed by Hegel's system, and was told by grouping texts for essays contemporary Hegelians that he was logically incapable of attaining a perspective outside the system sufficient to attack it. If the system is critique from a jazz supposed to be complete as well as true, then the good faith proponent must believe the critic in for essays error, and therefore must apply the system's explanation of essay offenders error to her. Note that mere belief in the completeness and grouping texts for essays, truth of the dialogue, system suffices here to justify the conclusion that disagreement is error. The good faith proponent need not immediately act on this belief in the critic's error, but neither can he escape concluding it, any more than he could willingly suspend judgment on the truth of his beliefs.

Proponents of what are supposed to be true, complete, consistent systems must choose between apostasy and rudeness. They must defend their beliefs either by appeal to grouping premises and principles from outside the system, which they believe are false, or by appeal to premises and principles from research primary sources withing the system, which is question-begging and liable to be very rude. Texts? This may be called the queen, dilemma of grouping texts for essays systematic self-defense. To ask such a believer to be logically polite just for the sake of argument is equivalent to asking him to give up some tenets of the faith he wishes to defend just to enter a realm of debate to essay offenders defend it. Grouping For Essays? This is why systems with pretensions to completeness have traditionally seemed rude, have traditionally authorized rude defenses in their proponents, or have gone undefended at fundamental levels. It is this feature in political systems which allows the virtue, equation of dissent and mental illness, dissent and crime, and dissent and error, and the feature which led modern philosophers like Kierkegaard and Nietzsche to abjure the pursuit of philosophical systems per se . There may be more than rudeness to turn one from for essays systems, but one should note that rudeness should not suffice, for falsehood cannot be inferred from mere rudeness. On the other hand, if systems are still attractive, this analysis indicates at least that the uum research paper, logic of defending systems is grouping peculiar, and essay offenders, that if we still cherish both the pursuit of grouping texts systems and the classical forms of debate, then we will have to forgive some question-begging and rudeness. Moreover, if this is so, we should expect a true system to take these peculiarities into essay offenders, account and present a logic in which some circular arguments and rude defenses are permissible. For Essays? Hegel's system fulfills this expectation more than others, and perhaps the reason is that it is more self-conscious of the dialogue form, logic of systematicity than others. Logical rudeness may be considered a complex form of ad hominem argument. It tells critics and dissenters that they are defective human beings whose ignorance or error is well explained as frailty, fault, foible, or the absence of a boon.

Moreover, this form of ad hominem is justified by the theory under attack. When our questions are answered by ad hominem assaults, we are angered. Our anger cannot be reduced to hurt feelings because we were not merely wounded in our dignity; we were put off in our inquiries for truth by a refusal to cooperate. A rude response can therefore trigger three levels of indignation: personal affront, thwarted cooperation, and crippled inquiry. The first is personal, the second social and political, and the third epistemic. Rudeness thwarts cooperation, which in turn thwarts inquiry, at least under some concepts of inquiry. Texts? Rudeness prevents inquiry from being optimally fruitful. But logic does not tell us to make inquiry optimally fruitful; human interests do.

Rudeness therefore is not so much a fallacy as a violation of human community. The rub is that we want to permit all possible truths to essay offenders be propounded and debated: some of the candidate-truths will deny any role to texts cooperation in inquiry and others will license rude defenses. Opening the realm of debate this much will therefore permit logical rudeness to enter, which in primary turn will make inquiry sub-optimal, at grouping for essays, least under some concepts of inquiry. The tensions within the concepts of debate and inquiry between openness and fruitfulness can be seen from a wider perspective. The epistemic principle violated by rudeness is not merely that inquiry must go on. If we are told, in effect, that we do not deserve to be answered on the merits, or are disqualified from knowing truth, on essay offenders, account of texts a foible or fault in dialogue in essay form ourselves, then we are being excluded from the universe of possible knowers in which we thought we had enlisted by texts for essays inquiring and debating. If the truth is virtue not (yet) known, but is subject to inquiry and debate, then we cannot (yet) exclude any person from the universe of possible knowers. That is, we cannot do so a priori , although once we know truth we may be able to do so a posteriori #151;when we learn, for example about grouping for essays, color-blindness and the diversity of mental illness. Logical rudeness violates what might be called the principle of epistemic democracy: the critique from, principle that all persons have an equal entitlement to know the grouping, truth. This might well be reclassified as a norm of logical etiquette, and denied the name of an dialogue form epistemic principle, for grouping texts, it is a mere presumption.

If we stated it more completely, it would say: all persons should be presumed to have an equal entitlement to know the truth, until and unless we discover some truth to the contrary. As long as we are confessedly ignorant, it is a methodological assumption which results in fair and courteous treatment to our co-workers. The problem is uum research that the rude proponent believes he does possess some true knowledge which justifies the cancellation of the presumption. His rudeness from this angle derives equally from grouping texts for essays (1) the content of his belief, that it disqualifies some people from knowledge, people who turn out to be his critics, and form, (2) his unshakeable faith that he is grouping texts for essays right to believe it. The latter dimension will be explored more fully toward the end of essay offenders this section. First I would like to examine the former dimension. The principle of epistemic democracy is normative, not descriptive.

As long as we are confessedly ignorant, we just do not know whether all of us have equal right to the truth. Grouping For Essays? We think we ought to act as if our entitlements were equal, because that is a demand of fairness or courtesy. The rude proponent who denies this principle by his ad hominem methods, therefore, seems to us to deny an important normative rule; he is not just rude, then, but also unfair. The principle of epistemic democracy conflicts with another principle which we hold dear: it might be called the no holds barred principle of debate. It states that philosophers may (should be permitted to) ask any question, propose any answer as true, challenge any theory as false or unproved, make any argument, and generally debate any theory on temperance, the merits.

The conflict between the no-holds-barred principle and the principle of epistemic democracy is simply that, under the former, the latter (like any other principle) may be challenged and texts, denied. Essay Offenders? The no-holds-barred principle conflicts with itself in the same way that it conflicts with the principle of epistemic democracy: under its terms, it may itself be challenged and denied. In this the no-holds-barred principle is like the First Amendment to the U.S. Grouping Texts? constitution. The principle of sources freedom or toleration embodied in the First Amendment may be challenged in public speech. Grouping Texts? The Amendment has been interpreted to protect even those who oppose its values. But what is our rationale for research primary, this super-toleration? It could be that only in this way can we preserve the First Amendment (or no-holds-barred principle), since to prohibit opposition to it in any degree would compromise the principle itself. In this it would resemble the Humean custom theorist or the Academic skeptic: the principle could be made an exception to itself. Grouping Texts? But we might well feel that that would destroy the value we cherish in the principle itself. The alternative is to uum research allow challenges and texts for essays, denials (and advocacy of repeal) and to accept the critique a jazz, outcomes of grouping for essays fair procedures, even if they sky should fall.

That is, we might use the First Amendment to protect a movement to repeal the First Amendment, and trust the amendment process and public intelligence to do the best thing. We might use the no-holds-barred principle to protect a philosophical school which denied its value or truth, and trust to the realm of debate (or the marketplace of ideas) to deal with the proposal justly. Note that both the latter scenarios presuppose independent norms of just procedure. These would have to be something like norms of logical courtesy. Dialogue? In this sense, the principles of logical etiquette cannot be debated properly or fairly except in a realm of debate already constituted by them or their cognates. Both the grouping texts for essays, principle of epistemic democracy and the no-holds-barred principle seem to be principles of logical courtesy. In fact, violating them creates paradigmatic types of a jazz concert-essay rudeness.

Violating the for essays, principle of epistemic democracy allows the proponent to believe her critics are disqualified from knowing truth or deserving answers, and essay offenders, violating the no-holds-barred principle allows the texts, proponent to temperance virtue deny that the critic's criticism is a permissible move in the game she is playing. Their conflict, therefore, suggests that perfect courtesy, or simultaneous compliance with all ruling principles of etiquette, is impossible. We may consider the conflict between the two principles a reflection of a broader conflict between equality and freedom. The conflict may be avoided by ranking the for essays, principles so that one always takes priority in cases of dialogue in essay form conflict. Grouping Texts For Essays? But no such strategem can eliminate the conflict of the freedom principle with itself. Moreover, ranking either above the 1588 queen elizabeth speech, other would allow just those infringements of the inferior principle that the superior principle authorized. These would be rude infringements. For example, to rank the equality principle higher would justify limiting the freedom of inquirers to challenge the for essays, equality principle.

To rank the freedom principle higher would justify an a priori dismissal of research paper primary vs secondary theorists who proceeded in texts for essays denial of the in essay, freedom principle. Some form of rudeness seems inevitable. Either the equality principle will be violated by the rude theory that critics are unequally entitled to know the truth, or the freedom principle will be violated by the rude theory that critics are making impermissible moves in a game. Texts For Essays? These two fundamental types of rudeness can be barred only by one another. To secure some courtesies, then, we must impose other rude principles. 1588 Queen Essay? There is something Gödelian about this result. No system of logical etiquette can be both complete and consistent. Grouping Texts For Essays? For every such system there will be a permissible but rude theory. There are other ways in which rudeness may be inevitable, as seen in Section 4. Some theories must be defended rudely to preserve their own consistency and their proponent's good faith.

Some are caught in the dilemma of systematic self-defense. Under the no-holds-barred principle we want proponents to be free to propound and defend these and all other theories. This is another say of seeing our general conclusion that rudeness per se does not imply falsehood. We want to allow inquirers to research paper sources propose the grouping for essays, demon theory of error and the buffet theory of belief. The alternative is rudely to impose a code of debate on debaters, compromising the no-holds-barred principle, and presumptuously presupposing an exclusive vision of truth prior to debate. We may keep the hope alive that this may be done later, when we know more, i.e., that toleration is just a makeshift until truth is known to be known. But like the task of set theorists selecting axioms that eliminate paradox and preserve good mathematics, this cannot be done without controversy. The no-holds-barred principle says we are better off hearing this controversy.

Toleration should not disappear with the advent of 1588 elizabeth speech knowledge unless inquiry is also to texts for essays disappear. The automatic inference of falsehood from rudeness or undebatability may be called the fallacy of essay offenders petulance #151;in which we peevishly allow our hurt feelings to supersede our better judgement. The fallacy of petulance is to grouping use the essay offenders, criteria of courtesy as criteria (or as a subset of the criteria) of truth. Sociability in debate may be important for many reasons, even for the fundamental epistemic reason of keeping debate a fruitful avenue of inquiry and for basic ethical duties to other inquirers; but its norms do not thereby become criteria of truth. We may now consider the second element of a rude defense, the firmness of the proponent's faith that the first element, the grouping, content of the belief, authorizes a rude defense. Can there be any theories which are inconsistent with the polite concession of their corrigibility or possible falsehood? If some theories have exclusivity clauses and if no theory with such a clause is consistent with the concession of its corrigibility, then the demands of consistency would subvert the demands of courtesy. 1588? Then the system of logical etiquette would be as reactionary as foot-kissing for demanding courtesy at the expense of grouping texts for essays consistency. This is especially embarrassing if most or all theories contain tacit exclusivity clauses, or if corrigibility per se contradicts the claim of truth. Rather than introduce the 1588 speech, modal complexities of possible falsehood , I will ask the question from grouping texts for essays a slightly different angle: not whether a theory can be consistent with its possible falsehood, but whether a theorist can retain her good faith while sincerely conceding the corrigibility of her theory and herself. Shifting the question this way is legitimate because, for the purposes of logical etiquette, good faith is equivalent to truth.

To the dialogue form, proponent of a theory, the truth of the theory alone justifies rude treatment of critics; but all inquirers outside the texts for essays, warmth of the proponent's faith can see that it is his good faith that the theory is true, and not its truth, which grounds this justification. The obligation to be rude is not conditional upon essay offenders, the truth of the theory; it arises as much from faith, and could not arise even in a true theory without good faith. As we have seen, rudeness insulates believers, not beliefs, or theorists, not theories. In Section 2 we saw that a kind of tenacious good faith can require that a theorist apply her theory to all the explananda within its scope, which frequently includes the context of its own debate. I will call the kind of tenacious good faith which cannot bend to concede the corrigibility of its object fixed belief, after Charles Peirce. A less tenacious kind of grouping texts for essays good faith #151;one in which sincerity coexists with the concession of 1588 essay corrigibility#151; may be called critical belief. Clearly it is attainable. Grouping Texts For Essays? What is not clear is whether it is attainable for all our beliefs, or ought to be attained. Insofar as fixed belief justifies rudeness to the believer, a canon of essay offenders logical courtesy prefers critical belief to grouping for essays fixed belief.

This is consonant with the civilized demand that no inquirer be a fanatic, or that all should hold their beliefs with detachment, and be prepared to defend them with evidence and reason and to give them up in temperance essay the face of superior evidence and reason. The epistemology implicit in this civilized demand is not merely that some faith is grouping texts for essays blind, but that fixed belief blinds. Once critical detachment is lost in fixation, ignorance is invincible. Temperance Essay? Those who will not concede the corrigibility of their beliefs must directly equate disagreement and error, and fit their explanation of error on the heads of texts for essays all critics and dissenters. Fixed belief per se authorizes rudeness to its possessors.

This rude dimension of immovable complacency or confidence explains the pejorative overtones of the in essay form, (originally neutral) term dogmatism. While this is the demand of courtesy we recognize from the western tradition, particularly from the Enlightenment, it by no means follows that it conforms to the ethics or epistemology of the late twentieth century. The traditional etiquette includes an aging concept of debate that may be summarized roughly as follows. Debate serves inquiry; its values are epistemic; it is neutral in that the truth (whatever it may turn out to be) may be approached by debate; debate is joint inquiry; debate is the marketplace of ideas in which the epistemic worth of ideas is tested and evaluated and reevaluated; success in grouping debate may occasionally go to the unworthy, and true ideas may lay unpersuasive for generations, but in the long run debate will reward all good ideas and punish all bad ones; it is a self-correcting method; it is a method without presupposition or principle; it works best when proponents of theories state their position publicly for uum research paper, all to grouping texts examine, offer all evidence and reasoning for public examination, answer all questions, reply to all criticisms on the merits, and interact with those of differing opinions by propounding their own questions and criticisms; it works best when the participants and spectators allow their assent to follow the temperance, evidence and reasons exchanged in debate, and do not enter with prejudice or simply for sport. It is according to such a concept of debate that the examples at the top of Section 1 were said to betray something wrong. Note that the activity outlined by these principles in ineliminably that of a cooperative enterprise. Do these norms of logical etiquette reflect a pattern of social interaction, or even of reason and inquiry, which died in the Enlightenment, and which is grouping impossible and reactionary to wish back to life? Doubts of primary this order have forced me to put civilized and well-mannered in quotation marks throughout the essay. Our distaste for rudeness is certainly not the texts for essays, same as the aristocratic distaste for form, commerce and trade. Nor is our distaste for rudeness reducible to bad sportsmanship.

But is it similar to the wistful sighs of aristocracy in that, its epistemological merit notwithstanding, it is inseparable from a certain nostalgic longing for the days when the logic of self-insulation was not freely practiced by every ignoramus and for essays, heretic, the from a jazz concert-essay, days when the elegant tools of logic were not made to serve the boorishness of every comer? Have we romanticized the classical forms of debate, idealizing the tradition from the Athens of Socrates to the London of Joseph Addison? In our code of logical etiquette have we legislated a form of argumentative geniality that never existed? Or one that ought to exist no longer? Or one that distorts our enterprise to grouping pretend that we practice? The danger of essay offenders legislating a style of thinking in order to grouping for essays secure a form of cooperation is real. Critique From A Jazz Concert-essay? So I take these questions seriously, whether I am in a mood to favor good epistemology and hope that good ethics will follow, or vice versa . But answering these questions is beyond the present topic.

Here it is grouping enough to point out the debate has norms other than the norms and rules of any shared logic, and temperance, that these norms may be leftovers of bygone social structures. If they have merit, it is not that of logics, but of manners. My authority in saying just what logical courtesy demands is simply that of a native of the realm whose customs and ideals are being described. It is for essays that of mere acquaintance, and may be corrected by others of wider acquaintance or more acute perception. It is not like saying what a formal logic demands. Hence, we should be careful that we do not allow descriptive inquiries into the normative domain of logical etiquette to be swayed by normative disagreements among debaters as to correct style, cooperative harmony, and civilized behavior. We should not legislate in the name of description.

My purposes here have not been wholly descriptive, of course. In our descriptive inquiries we should try to resist the temptation to describe as rude (and therefore to stigmatize) practices whose only vice is their endorsement by the beliefs and theories of our opponents. That would be rude. But in dealing with the challenges of the critique concert-essay, descriptive inquiry, we should not overlook the for essays, normative. For the canons of temperance logical etiquette we use without reflection, those we urge falsely in the name of logic itself, and those that we tolerate in our comrades and resent in our critics, create the grouping texts, ethics of argument which governs discussion.

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Grouping Texts For Essays – 575929

Extract: #039;How the BBC leans to the right#039; The Independent Online. The BBC in Media City in Salford, Manchester Getty Images. Social scientists like myself like to see claims and assertions enlightened by a solid body of evidence. I have, as a consequence, found some of the more public discussions of grouping BBC impartiality dismal to behold. Essay Offenders? Accusations of BBC bias are now part of a political game in which forms of self-interest are played out against a backdrop of anecdotal evidence and half-truths.

Leading the charge are conservative media owners and their press outlets. Their motivations are partly economic (a dismantled BBC would allow then to increase their market share) and grouping texts partly ideological (they are highly sceptical about regulated public services). Allied in this effort are those Conservative politicians who share the ideological suspicion of public service broadcasting. Their interests are also strategic, since political pressure – they hope – obliges the BBC to bend over backwards to avoid accusations of a leftist tilt. The BBC receives criticism from other quarters – in an open society there are many sensibilities to offend – but it is these accusations they most fear. The press can (and do) make a crisis out of the smallest drama, while there is essay offenders, justifiable anxiety about the grouping texts for essays way a Conservative government might behave whenever the license fee is due for renewal. While this point is generally ignored, it is the BBC’s cyclical dependence upon whoever happens to be in government during the licence renewal period that is the greatest threat to its impartiality.

For those who value the BBC’s independence, this a gaping flaw in 1588 queen elizabeth speech, the system – arguably a far more serious political infringement on journalistic freedom in the UK than anything proposed by Lord Justice Leveson. Despite the highly partial origin of claims about the BBC’s propensity to lean leftward, any serious accusations of this kind deserves proper examination. I have often heard it said that if the BBC is being criticised from texts both political flanks, it is probably getting it about right. This is, with all due respect, a lazy supposition (so, for example, a centrist bias is still a breach of paper impartiality), and texts for essays if this chapter is a plea for anything, it is that impartiality is sufficiently important to paper, be subject to systematic, independent scrutiny. We also need to consider the possibility that attacks from the right are having the texts desired effect.

While the 1588 essay BBC can, at times, be robust in defending its independence, it can also be risk averse. There is a real possibility that this understandable caution has led the grouping texts for essays BBC to seek shelter in more conservative enclaves. Recent evidence from the most recent BBC Trust commissioned impartiality review appears to support this view. The research, by my colleagues at Cardiff, compared BBC news when Labour were in power (in 2007) with coverage under a Conservative-led coalition (in 2012). The study found, by a series of uum research measures, that ‘Conservative dominance in grouping texts for essays, 2012’ of BBC news was ‘by a notably larger margin than Labour dominance in 2007’ (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013: 5). Beyond the main parties, the essay offenders study suggested that the grouping texts BBC is more likely than either ITV or Channel 4 to use sources from the right, such US Republicans or Ukip, and less likely to use sources from the left, such as US Democrats and the Green Party. But it is the critique a jazz imbalance between Conservative and grouping texts for essays Labour – by 1588 queen elizabeth speech essay, margins of three to one for party leaders and four to for essays, one for critique concert-essay, ministers/shadow ministers – that was most striking, especially since the research indicated that this rightward shift was a strictly BBC phenomenon.

The study found no similar patterns on either ITV or Channel 4 (ibid: 83). These were not findings the BBC Trust was especially keen to draw attention to, and – oddly for a review about impartiality – they were played down in the subsequent report. It is worth noting that these independent findings, based on solid samples, have received less attention than rather flimsier (in evidentiary terms) conservative claims. Impartiality goes beyond matters of party political representation: it encompasses the issues a news outlet chooses to cover and the way those issues are framed and reported. Making judgements about political bias is as much about the assumptions that inform a news story than party political representation. Grouping Texts? So, for example, conservative newspapers tend to give far more coverage to issues that interest the political right (such as immigration or abuses of welfare) than those that concern the left (such as poverty or inequality). The first problem facing any analysis of BBC impartiality is that there is sources, no neutral centre of gravity, no golden objective mean to adopt as a point of departure. Locating the centre is a matter of context, and involves a series of choices. The BBC’s approach to texts, the coverage of politics, for example, generally uses Westminster as its touchstone, with its centre of gravity somewhere near the Speaker’s Chair. This point was made clearly by the King Report, based on paper, the BBC Trust’s commissioned study of texts for essays political coverage in paper, a post-devolution era (Lewis et al 2009; Cushion et al 2009). The research found that despite the significant devolution of political power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, political coverage remained heavily focused on grouping texts for essays, Westminster.

At best, this meant ignoring the different policies pursued outside England, at worst it meant that England (whose governance remains at a jazz concert-essay Westminster) became a stand-in for the UK as a whole. The BBC, to its great credit, took action to remedy some of the weaknesses identified by the King Report. Follow up research suggested that this intervention improved coverage in a number of texts for essays areas, with greater representation of policy regimes across the four nations (Cushion et al 2010). Nonetheless, reporting remains focused around leading politicians in uum research, the House of Commons. This is a reasonable enough position to adopt in a parliamentary democracy, but it comes with distinct limitations. Most notably, it relies upon the main political parties to for essays, give voice to a range of well-informed perspectives. As a consequence there are many parts of the essay offenders political terrain – such as the EU, immigration or economic growth – where debate takes place within a very narrow frame of reference. So, for example, debates about grouping, Europe are invariably framed by a main party debate which sees ‘Europe as a problem for the UK, particularly in terms of essay offenders national sovereignty’ (Wahl-Jorgensen et al: 51). The recent BBC Trust commissioned review found ‘very little room for sources presenting a broader range of views, and for substantive information about what the EU actually does and grouping how much it actually costs’ (ibid: 52). What we end up with is essay offenders, less a discussion about the merits of the texts for essays EU than who can best represent UK interests. Essay Offenders? Important, no doubt, but limited in scope.

Similarly, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting a model of permanent economic growth is of dwindling benefit to wealthy countries such as the grouping UK. Research now shows that GDP growth is queen elizabeth speech essay, no longer linked to improvements in health or happiness (Bok 2010; Layard 2011), is texts for essays, environmentally unsustainable (Jackson 2010) and essay offenders stretches commodity choice far beyond the time we have available to grouping, us as consumers (Offer 2006; Lewis 2013). In short, there is a serious debate about whether wealthy consumer economies still rely on a jazz, growth to generate prosperity. But it is not one to be heard in the House of Commons – or, as a consequence, on the BBC, where GDP growth is invariably assumed to grouping texts, be an 1588 queen elizabeth objective good (Lewis 2013). The BBC thereby reflects a series of assumptions that inform the political mainstream.

It is both pro-democracy and pro-monarchy. Grouping Texts? It upholds liberal Western values and a series of economic assumption based on a global market economy (in which, for example, economic growth is seen as more important than the climate change it helps create). The BBC, in this very Reithian sense, reflects the assumptions of some of our dominant institutions. This is an easy position to defend, although it sometimes risks a certain myopia, constraining wider and more critical discussion. The failure of the BBC’s economic experts to essay offenders, anticipate the credit crash, for grouping for essays, example, was a function of its reluctance to speech essay, go outside a narrow range of mainstream economic debate and grouping texts for essays incorporate those more critical economists who did see it coming (Berry 2013). Similarly, the BBC’s reliance on military top brass for virtue, discussions about military spending levels means that such discussions are decidedly lop-sided. Claims for under-funding from such interested parties are rarely balanced by those who feel we should spend less on defence. The UK is one of the world’s largest military spenders (a point rarely made) while discussions of the for essays merits of such spending, research suggests, is becoming increasingly one-sided (Lewis and Hunt 2011). The BBC Trust’s first impartiality review, which suggested moving from a ‘see saw’ (generally left vs right) to queen, a ‘wagon wheel’ approach, did not really explore these ideological assumptions. While it contained some thoughtful discussion, the review did not take the opportunity to review the academic research on impartiality and, at times, relied on ad hoc and anecdotal accounts rather than more scientific bodies of evidence.

Its conclusions were based on the sense that traditional left/right divisions were breaking down, making the old ‘see saw’ balancing act a less appropriate guiding metaphor. Its advocacy of the ‘wagon wheel’ was an attempt to for essays, move beyond such limitations: The wheel is not exactly circular, it has a shifting centre, the paper ‘spokes’ are not necessarily evenly spaced, nor do they all reach the edge of the wheel, nor does one ‘spoke’ necessarily point in grouping, a directly opposite direction to another. So opinion is not confined to ‘left’ and ‘right’ but ranges through 360 degrees. One opinion is not necessarily the exact opposite of another, nor do they all reach the extremity of available argument (BBC Trust 2007). The flaw in research primary sources, the metaphor is, perhaps, revealing. Grouping For Essays? A wagon wheel’s centre does not shift – it will (like news) move forward, but it remains at a fixed point. The assumptions behind locating the centre remain an issue.

What it does make possible, in a way the see-saw does not, is shedding light on perspectives that question those assumptions. Moving from a see-saw to a wagon wheel is, however, easier said than done. It requires a radical appraisal of the range and type of sources typically used to inform news, and 1588 queen a commitment to looking beyond the usual suspects for a well-informed diversity of perspectives. The latest BBC Trust impartiality review, designed to test how far the texts BBC had made this metaphorical move, found the see-saw still firmly in place (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013), with a small number of dominant institutions – notably parliament – continuing to dominate debate. The BBC’s model of impartiality – the location of its centre, if you like – is inevitably limited by its tendency to 1588 queen essay, favour some institutions over others. For Essays? A 2007 study, for dialogue, example, found that around half of those sources used on BBC news were from just four professions: the worlds of politics, business, law and order and the news media. By contrast, the main knowledge-based professions and civic voices (from the academy, medicine, science and technology, thinks tanks, government/public agencies and NGOs) made up, between them, only 10 per cent of all sources (Lewis and Cushion 2009). This concentration was confirmed by the recent BBC Trust review of television news, which suggested that the dominance of these four groups as news sources has increased over the last five years – with a particular rise in the use of business and media sources (Wahl-Jorgensen et al 2013: 80, which found similar trends on the Radio 4 Today programme). This contrasts with other broadcasters, who are far less reliant on business (11.1 per cent of sources on BBC news, but only 3.8 per grouping for essays cent on ITV and 2.2 per cent on Channel 4) or media (8.2 per cent of sources on BBC news, 1.6 per cent on ITV and essay offenders 5.9 per grouping cent on Channel 4).

Both ITV and essay offenders Channel 4 make significantly more use of sources from the academy, medicine, science and technology, thinks tanks, government/public agencies and NGOs: these groups make up 16.4 per cent of sources on for essays, ITV and 22.7 per cent on Channel 4, but only 9.7 per cent on the BBC. This not only narrows the range of expertise available on BBC news, it has implications for uum research, impartiality. The increasing dependence on media and texts business sources is especially problematic. Our print media have a self-declared right-wing bias – some (such as the Sun , Mail or Express ) vociferously so. While the BBC undoubtedly tries to 1588 essay, negotiate this bias (sometimes balancing, for grouping texts for essays, example, the Guardian against the Telegraph ), it is often guilty of using the temperance essay press as a substitute for public opinion.

This, in turn, provides a loudspeaker for those instances when polling majorities lean to the right – on grouping texts for essays, issues such as immigration, on essay offenders, which sections of the press campaign – than when they lean to the left – on issues such as the privatisation of grouping texts for essays Royal Mail, on which they do not (see Jordan 2013). The assumption that, for example, the views of Daily Mail readers are represented by the newspaper’s editorial line is not borne out by a detailed examination of public opinion data. In short ‘Middle England’ is far more politically diverse than Mail editorials would suggest (Lewis et al 2005). Majorities may be anti-immigration, but they are also opposed to further privatisation of public services and sympathetic to nationalisation of others (such as the paper railways). A reliance on the range of grouping texts for essays opinions expressed by the press will invariably push debate to the right of the broader public. In a similar way, the temperance essay growth of grouping texts business news (Svennevig 2007) and the widespread use of business sources raises important questions about impartiality. A business perspective will tend to lean to the right: representatives of business (for reasons of economic self interest) will, for essay offenders, example, favour corporate tax cuts over public spending, and opt for grouping, less rather than more regulation on employment rights or environmental protection. In the concert-essay past, these perspectives were balanced against voices from the trade union movement.

The growth in business coverage has, however, taken place while trade unionists have almost disappeared from texts news routines (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013: 80). A review of UK Business Reporting for the BBC Trust (BBC Trust 2007) sidestepped the broader question of whether a focus on business creates a slant toward a particular view of the world. It focused, instead, on the narrower question of whether business was viewed from a consumer or a company perspective. The report’s desire for a more consensual approach – avoiding such antagonisms – glossed over the different interests of producers and primary sources consumers (consumers want the best product at the cheapest possible price, while businesses want to spend as little on the product as they can and sell it for as much they can). More importantly a broader and more critical view of the role of business in society has no place in this framework.

Although the grouping texts BBC Trust review did not explore this point, they did acknowledge it, observing that: Around 29 million people work for a living in temperance virtue, the UK and spend a large proportion of their waking hours in the workplace. However, little of this important part of texts for essays UK life is reflected in the BBC’s business coverage … the audiences are served in their identity as consumers. But they are not that well served in their role as workers (ibid: 9). As workers, we have distinct interests – we want well-paid, secure jobs with profits shared amongst the workforce, rather than passed to owners, shareholders or consumers. For both businesses and consumers cheap labour is a good thing, for workers it is dialogue in essay, not. Overall, the available evidence on the BBC centre of gravity does not suggest a leftist tilt. Grouping For Essays? On the contrary, its dependence on certain dominant institutions – notably in virtue essay, the business world and the national print media – would appear to push it the other way.

The evidence I have drawn on here is, of course, open to challenge and interpretation. But our response should be to pursue the question of impartiality with greater academic rigour. We almost certainly need more – and for essays regular – independent research on media impartiality. At this point, however, the most plausible hypothesis is that the BBC has, under pressure, been pushed to the right. Professor Justin Lewis is Dean of Research in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences at Cardiff University. ‘Is the BBC in essay offenders, Crisis?’ (Abramis, ?19.95), edited by for essays, John Mair, Richard Tait and Richard Lance Keeble, will be published on 1 March. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you.

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