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Art Evaluation: How to Appreciate Art? #149; THE BACKGROUND/CONTEXT OF THE WORK OF ART. #149; THE WORK OF ART ITSELF. For two essays on sculpture. appreciation, please see: 3-D art from Stone Age to 1850. 19th/20th century sculptors. For a discussion, see: VISUAL ARTS CATEGORIES. Definitions, forms, styles, genres, WORLD'S GREATEST ART. For a list of masterpieces. by famous artists, see: For a list of the finest. sculptures by top sculptors, WORLD'S GREATEST ARTISTS. See our compilations of the top. creative practitioners in history: The greatest painters sculptors. Top 10 Narrative artists.
Top 10 portraitists ever. Top 10 exponents of genre. painting, notably Dutch Realists. Top 10 view painters and. Top 10 exponents of still life. Essay Speaking Skills? WORLD AUCTION RECORDS. For information about the world's. most highly priced works of art. and record auction prices, see: What is ib psychology paper, Art Evaluation? The task of evaluating a work of art, such as a painting or a sculpture, requires a combination of objective information and subjective opinion.
Yes, it's true that art appreciation is highly subjective, but the essay on public speaking aim of religion essays argumentative, evaluating a picture is not simply to ascertain whether you like/dislike a picture, but WHY you like/dislike it. And this requires a certain amount of on public, knowledge. After all, your assessment of a drawing produced by a 14-year old child in a school playground, is likely to be quite different from a similar drawing by a 40-year old Michelangelo. Similarly, one cannot use the same standards when evaluating the true-to-life qualities of frederick as a, a realist portrait compared with an expressionist portrait. This is because the expressionist painter is not trying to capture the essay speaking same degree of visual objectivity as his realist counterpart. To put it simply, art evaluers need to generate facts upon which to base their opinions: namely, facts about (1) the context of the artwork; and (2) the artwork itself. Ib Psychology Paper? Once we have the facts, we can then make our assessment. The more information we can glean about the context, and essay on public speaking skills the work of art itself, the more reasoned our assessment will be. Please note that in this article, the terms art evaluation, art assessment and art appreciation are used interchangeably. Art Evaluation is Not Simply Liking or Disliking.
Before going into detail about how to evaluate art, let us again re-emphasize that the a river through it essay whole point of art appreciation is to explain WHY we like or dislike something, not simply WHETHER we like it or not. Essay On Public? For example, you may end up disliking a picture because it is too dark, but you may still like its subject matter, or appreciate its overall message. To put it simply, saying I don't like this painting is insufficient. Help Grant Nsf? We need to know the reasons behind your opinion, and essay speaking also whether you think the work has any positive qualities. How to Appreciate a Work of help nsf, Art. The easiest way to get to understand and therefore appreciate a work of art is to investigate its context, or background. Essay Speaking? This is because it helps us to understand what was (or might have been) in the mind of the artist at rules the time he created the work in question. Essay? Think of it as basic detective work. Start with these questions. A. How to Evaluate the essays argumentative Context/Background of the Work? When was the Painting Created?
Knowing the date of the work helps us to gauge how it was made, and the degree of difficulty involved. For instance, landscapes produced before the popularity of photography (c.1860), or the essay on public appearance of collapsible tin paint tubes (1841), had a greater level of difficulty. Oil painting produced before the Renaissance, or after the religion essays Renaissance by artists of modest means, will not contain the fabulous but astronomically expensive natural blue pigment Ultramarine, made from ground up mineral Lapis Lazuli . Is the Painting Abstract or Representational? A painting can be wholly abstract (meaning, it has no resemblance to any natural shapes: a form known as non-objective art), or organically abstract (some resemblance to natural organic forms), or semi-abstract (figures and essay speaking other objects are discernible to douglass as a essay, an extent), or representational (its figurative and other content is instantly recognizable). Obviously an abstract work has quite different aims to that of a representational work, and must be judged according to different criteria. For example, a wholly abstract picture makes no attempt to divert the viewer with any naturalism and essay skills thus depends entirely for its effect on religion argumentative, its formal qualities (line, shape, colour and so on).
What Type of Painting is It? Paintings come in different types or categories (known as painting genres). The established genres are: Landscape, Portraiture, Genre-Paintings (everyday scenes), History, and Still Life. During the 17th century, the great European Academies, such as the Academy of essay skills, Art in Rome, the Academy of Art in book, Florence, the Parisian Academie des Beaux-Arts , and on public skills the Royal Academy in London followed the paper rule laid down in 1669, by Professor Andre Felibien, Secretary to the French Academy, who ranked the essay on public speaking genres as follows: (1) History Painting - with religious paintings being perhaps an independent category; (2) Portraiture; (3) Genre Painting; (4) Landscape Painting; (5) Still Life. This hierarchy reflected the runs through questions moral impact of each genre.
Experts believed that a moral message could be conveyed much more clearly through a history picture, a portrait or a genre painting, rather than a landscape or still life. Other types of painting, in addition to the above five, include: cityscapes, marine paintings, icons, altarpieces, miniatures, murals, illuminations, illustrations, caricatures, cartoons, poster art, graffiti, animal pictures, and speaking skills so on. A number of these painting-types have traditional rules concerning composition, subject matter and so on. This applies especially to religious art. I Didn't Do My Report? Christian themes, for instance, which appear many times in Renaissance and Baroque paintings, are obliged to contain certain Holy figures, and must conform to certain compositional rules. In addition, painters often hark back to earlier pictures within the same genre (Francis Bacon's Screaming Pope was modelled on one of the speaking skills greatest portrait paintings - the resume 2011 Portrait of Innocent X by Velazquez). Because of all this, paintings are best evaluated against other works of the skills same type. For more tips, see: How to Appreciate Paintings. What School or Movement is the Painting Associated With?
A School can be a national group of artists (eg. the Ancient Egyptian School, the dissertation help Spanish School, German Expressionism) or a local group (eg. On Public Speaking? Delft School of paper, Dutch Realism, New York Ashcan School, Ecole de Paris), or a general aesthetic movement (eg. Baroque, Neoclassicism, Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Pop Art), a local or an on public artist group (eg. Der Blaue Reiter, New York School of abstract expressionism, Cobra Group, Fluxus, St Ives School), or even a general tendency (realism, expressionism). Book Report? Alternatively, the School may concern itself with a particular genre (eg. Barbizon School and Newlyn School, both landscape groups; Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, historical or literary-themed pictures), or painting method (eg. Neo-Impressionism, based on Pointillism - a variant of the colour theory of Divisionism), or aspect of the natural world (eg. Constructivism, devoted to reflecting the modern industrial world), or politics, or mathematical symbols (eg. the austere Neo-Plasticism).
Knowing which of many art movements the painting belongs to can give us a greater understanding of its composition and meaning. In the school of Egyptian art, for instance, painters had to adhere to specific rules of painting concerning composition and colour. Essay On Public Speaking Skills? Thus figures were sized according to their social status, rather than by reference to linear perspective. Head and legs were always shown in profile, while eyes and upper body were viewed from the front. Help Nsf? Egyptian painters used no more than six colours: red, green, blue, yellow, white and black - each of skills, which symbolized different aspects of life or death. Other cultures and cultural schools have their own specific guidelines. Dutch Realist artists valued exact, true-to-life replication of interiors and surroundings - except in portraiture, where the aim was to flatter the a river runs questions subject: cf. The Night Watch , by speaking skills Rembrandt. Impressionist painters typically valued loose brushwork in order to i didn't book report, capture fleeting impressions of speaking skills, light. Cubists spurned the normal rules of linear perspective and, instead, disassembled their subject into a series of flat transparent geometric plates that overlapped and intersected at different angles.
De Stijl artists like Piet Mondrian only used geometrical forms in dissertation nsf, their pictures, while lines were always horizontal or vertical - never diagonal. And so on. Note that Occidental art is very different from Oriental art. Chinese Painting, for essay on public, instance, focuses on the spiritual inner essence of book report, things rather than exterior appearance. Where Was the Picture Painted? Knowing where and under what circumstances a painting is created can often improve our appreciation and understanding of the work concerned. Here are some examples. Balancing dangerously on top of rickety scaffolding, Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (a gigantic area of essay on public speaking skills, 12,000 square feet) virtually unaided, during the a river questions course of 4 years between 1508 to speaking, 1512. Life As A Slave? Knowing that this masterpiece of Christian art was created in situ , rather than in a nice warm studio, helps us to speaking, appreciate the enormity of the a river runs through task. Monet, the leader of French Impressionism, devoted his life to plein-air painting. In his later years, he had a Japanese water garden with lily ponds laid out next to his house, and it was here that he produced his huge series of water-lily paintings.
Pissarro also painted mostly outdoors and therefore always had a large number of unfinished paintings, because the light often faded before his work was done. Skills? This explains why he painted the religion essays same scene or motif (to capture the different light) and why his brushwork was so rapid and loose. On the other hand, Manet and Degas were both city folk and worked exclusively in their studio, where they could polish and perfect their work. Other exceptional plein-air painters included the Scandinavians Kroyer and Hammershoi (known as 'the painters of light'), who produced a number of exceptional landscapes at Skagen in Denmark. Surroundings can have a major impact on an artist's mood, and therefore on speaking, his painting. Report? Van Gogh and Gauguin are cases in point. In his 10 years of painting, Van Gogh relied on dark colours while he was painting during the difficult days in essay skills, Holland (eg.
The Potato Eaters , 1885); switched to lighter, brighter colours in Paris as he came under the influence of Impressionism; turned to vivid yellows when he was painting in Arles, near the Riviera ( Cafe Terrasse by Night , 1888); before reverting to darker pigments in his final period (The Olive Pickers, 1889, and the ominous Wheat Field with Crows , 1890). In 1891, one year after Van Gogh's death, the French artist Paul Gauguin set sail for Tahiti and the Pacific Islands, where he spent most of the last 10 years of his life in acute poverty. I Didn't Do My Book Report? Nevertheless, his return to nature infused his paintings with enormous life and colour, as well as a Primitivism which found echoes in Picasso and others. A particularly interesting artist is the French Intimist Edouard Vuillard, who lived for essay, 60 years with his mother, a dressmaker, in a series of apartments in Paris. Runs Questions? His mother ran her corsetiere from essay speaking skills home, giving Vuillard plenty of opportunity to observe the patterns, materials, colours and shapes of her dresses. All this was carefully reflected in the patternwork of ib psychology paper, his paintings. Essay On Public Skills? Once, during his artistic youth, the pioneer Pop artist Robert Rauschenberg was (allegedly) so poor that he stayed in his apartment and painted the quilt on his own bed, decorating it with toothpaste and fingernail polish.
The iconic work was entitled Bed (1955). At What Point Was the Artist in His Career? What Was His Background? Knowing whether a painting was created early or late in a painter's life can often assist our appreciation of the religion essays work. Artists typically improve their painting technique with time, achieve a high point sometime in mid-career, and then fade in later years. Some artists, however, have died at the height of their powers.
Such artists include: Raphael (1483-1520), Caravaggio (1571-1610), Jan Vermeer (1632-75), Thomas Girtin (1775-1802), Richard Parkes Bonington (1802-28), Van Gogh (1853-90), Aubrey Beardsley (1872-98), Isaac Levitan (1860-1900), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), Nicolas de Stael (1914-1955) and Jackson Pollock (1912-56), to name but a few. On the other hand, some artists blossom early and, while they might continue painting for decades, fail to repeat their early success. In this category we might find modern artists like Marcel Duchamp, Georges Braque, Oskar Kokoschka, Andre Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Kees Van Dongen - even, arguably, Picasso. Only a relatively small proportion maintain their creativity into essay on public speaking skills extreme old age, in doctoral dissertation grant, the manner of Tintoretto, Monet, Renoir, Joan Miro and essay speaking skills Lucian Freud. Understanding the background of the artist can also explain a huge amount about his/her painting.
The Norwegian expressionist Edvard Munch reportedly never recovered from a number of early deaths in the family. His consequent neurotic, morbid nature can be seen in many of his works. The Mexican painter Frida Kahlo never fully recovered the use of doctoral dissertation help nsf, her right leg after contracting polio at age 6, and at 18 suffered serious injuries after a bus accident. This helps to essay speaking, explain her endless series of self-portraits, capturing her lack of mobility. Paul Cezanne ( Mont St Victoire landscapes, Bathers , and still-lifes) and ib psychology Edgar Degas (ballet dancers) painted endless painstaking versions of certain subjects. Speaking? One probable reason for ib psychology, this, is that neither depended on their art for essay on public, their living. Certainly neither attempted much portraiture, which was the most financially rewarding of the genres.
On the other hand, both men were more classicist in their outlook than their Impressionist colleagues, which helps to explain their precise and meticulous methods of working. Where Was the frederick life as a slave essay Intended Location of the Painting? (if any) Obviously a painting designed to occupy a large space on on public, the wall of a 16th century Spanish monastery dining hall (monumental, inspirational religious picture) is going to be radically different from one intended for the study of a prosperous textile merchant in 17th century Amsterdam (small-scale, polished portrait, interior or still life). Likewise, a painting designed for the reception area of a hi-tech software in California (large modern abstract picture, possibly geometric or expressionist) is likely to be different from one installed in the boardroom of a private bank in the City of London (traditional 19th century landscape). Of course, these suggestions are no more than stereotypical possibilities, but they serve to i didn't book, illustrate the role and characteristics of essay on public skills, site-specific works of art. B. How to do my book, Evaluate the Work of Art Itself. Once we have investigated or researched the speaking context of the resume rules 2011 painting, we can begin to appreciate the work itself. Knowing how to on public skills, appreciate a painting is itself an art rather than a science. And perhaps the help nsf most difficult aspect of art evaluation is judging the essay on public speaking skills painting method itself: that is, how the actual painting has been done? It is with great humility therefore that we offer these suggestions for how to evaluate the actual painting technique used.
What Materials were Used in the Creation of the Painting? What sort of paint was used? What type of ground or support did the painter employ? The answers to these questions can furnish interesting information about the intentions of the artist. The standard materials are oil paint on canvas. Oil because of its richness of i didn't book report, colour, canvas because of on public skills, its adaptability. However, acrylics or watercolours are used instead of oils when thin glazes are required, and frederick as a essay acrylics are also better when large flat areas of colour are called for. Speaking? The American abstract expressionists Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman, both famous for their monumental coloured canvases, experimented in the 1950s with a mixture of oil and acrylics. Watercolour and acrylic paints also dry much faster than oils, and are therefore ideally suited for paper, rapidly worked paintings. Essay On Public Speaking? Wooden panel paintings are sometimes used as an paper alternative to canvas when very precise paintwork is intended (miniatures were/are still painted on wood, copper or even slate panels), or in conjunction with tempera or acrylics when the artist wants to build up the paint in very thin layers.
Sometimes the painting surface, its support and its frame is essay on public speaking skills, made a specific feature of the work of art. In the early 1960s French contemporary art was dominated by the far-left avant garde Supports-Surfaces group, whose members painted large-scale canvases without stretchers (the physical support behind the canvas), while materials were often cut, woven, or crumpled. The Italian painter Lucio Fontana also made a name for himself in the 60s with his slashed canvases, allowing the spectator to see through the picture plane to the three-dimensional space beyond, which itself becomes part of the work. Douglass Life? Recently, Angela de la Cruz, one of the essay on public speaking skills contemporary artists nominated for the 2010 British Turner Prize, has become noted for ib psychology, her canvases which, after being painted, are then taken off their stretcher support and crumpled, and rehung. What is the Content Subject Matter of the Painting? What is being depicted in the painting?
If it's a historical picture or mythological painting, ask yourself these questions: What event is skills, being shown? What characters are involved, and what are their roles? What message does the painting contain? If it's a portrait, ask yourself these questions: Who is the sitter? How does the artist portray him/her? What features or aspects of the sitter are given prominence or attention? If it's a genre-scene, ask yourself these questions: What scene is being depicted? What is douglass life as a slave essay, happening?
What message (if any) does the painter have for us? Why has he chosen this particular scene? If it's a landscape, ask yourself these questions: What is the geographical location of the on public speaking skills view in the picture? (eg. Is it a favourite haunt of the frederick douglass as a slave painter?) What is the artist trying to convey to speaking, us about the landscape? If it's a still-life, ask yourself these questions: What objects - no matter how seemingly insignificant - are included in the picture? Why has the artist chosen these particular items?
Why has he laid them out in the way he has? Still lifes are known for their symbolism, so it's worth analyzing the objects painted, to see what each might symbolize. How to argumentative, Appreciate Composition in a Painting? Composition means the overall design (disegno), the general layout. On Public Speaking? And how a painting is dissertation grant, laid out is vital since it largely determines its visual impact. Why? Because a well composed painting will attract and essay on public speaking guide the viewer's eye around the resume 2011 picture. Painters who excelled at composition were invariably classically trained in the great academies, where composition was a highly regarded element in the painting process. Three supreme examples are Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), J.A.D Ingres (1780#150;1867) and Edgar Degas (1834-1917).
Lack of space prevents us from essay speaking skills going into detail here, but we recommend a study of the runs through it essay following works: The Holy Family in Egypt (1655-7, Hermitage, St Petersburg) by Poussin; The Bather of essay on public speaking skills, Valpincon (1808, Louvre, Paris) by Ingres; and ib psychology paper Absinthe (1876, Musee d'Orsay) by Degas. In the first work - which shows Joseph and Mary resting next to a temple in a town - Poussin's demonstrates his amazing ability to essay on public skills, position everything in religion, the painting exactly as it should be, for maximum optical harmony, and to convey important messages that are consistent with the overall theme. Put simply, everything in the picture has a very specific purpose, and a specific position. In the second work - a simpler interior of a windowless bedroom in which we see the back of an anonymous female nude who is essay skills, sitting on the bed - Ingres creates a highly symbolic arrangement of colours, forms and book angles, which infuses the picture with voyeuristic mystery. The third picture - one of the greatest genre paintings ever - depicts a prostitute sitting in a Paris cafe, with a glass of on public speaking, absinthe in front of her; another man sits next to essays argumentative, her; both are lost in thought and in their own world. Speaking? In this work, Degas uses a series of angles and lines, as well as gloomy dark colours, to capture the cell-like isolation and depressing solitude of religion argumentative, individuals in the heart of on public speaking skills, a major metropolis. All three works offer a number of important insights that will help you to appreciate the composition of paintings. How to Appreciate Line and Shape in a Painting? The skill of a painter is religion, often revealed in the strength and confidence of his line (outline), creating and delineating the various shapes in on public skills, his picture. In a famous story, an important patron sends a messenger to Giotto, the great pre-Renaissance painter.
The messenger asks Giotto for proof of identity, whereupon the artist produces a paintbrush and paper a piece of linen, on which he paints a perfect circle. He then hands it to the messenger, saying: your Master will know exactly who painted this. Line is on public skills, a crucial element in the structure of a painting, and explains why drawing was regarded by all Renaissance experts as the greatest attribute of an artist. In fact, when the douglass life as a great European Academies of Fine Arts first opened, students were not taught painting ( colorito ) at all - just drawing. Some of the finest draftsmen were portrait painters, whose line could be almost faultless: a modern example is the classically trained portraitist John Singer Sargent (1856#150;1925) who was a master of the au premier coup technique - one exact stroke of the brush, with no re-working. Essay Speaking? Among modern artists with no classical training, the paintings of Van Gogh and Gauguin stand out as having exceptionally strong and confident lines. In figurative painting: (1) examine how the artist uses chiaroscuro to optimize the 3-D quality of his figures; (2) see whether he uses tenebrism as part of doctoral, his plan of on public speaking, illumination in order to put the spotlight on certain parts of the picture; (3) look if the painter is using the technique of questions, sfumato in the blending of colour. Essay On Public? How to Appreciate Colour in a Painting? Colour in painting is a major influence on doctoral dissertation, our emotions, and therefore plays a huge part in how we appreciate art. Curiously, although we can identify up to 10 million variants of colour, there are only 11 basic colour terms in the English language - black, white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink, brown and grey. So talking precisely about colour is not easy.
Incidentally, as regards terms: a hue is a synonym for colour; a tint is a lighter version (eg. pink) of a particular colour (red); a shade is a darker version (eg. Essay On Public Speaking Skills? magenta); tone is the lightness, intensity or brilliance of i didn't do my report, a colour. Incidentally, many works by Old Masters are beginning to darken with age, which makes them look less attractive. It can also make even the best art museums look extra gloomy! Colour is used by painters in several ways. Take Mark Rothko's paintings for example.
Rothko was one of the first painters to create huge abstract canvases saturated with rich colours - yellows, oranges, reds, blues, indigos and violets. Essay On Public Speaking? His aim was to stimulate an emotional response from the viewer. And why not? After all, colour psychology is already exerting a huge influence on interior designs for hospitals, schools and other institutions. Historically, Impressionism and expressionism (notably Fauvism) were the first international movements to exploit the full potential of colour. Academic painters adhered to conventional colour schemes - green grass, blue/grey sea and so on, but modern artists painted what they saw (Impressionists) or how they felt (Expressionists): if that meant painting red grass, so be it. Frederick Douglass Slave? Figurative art was given the same treatment as landscapes: thus the Russian Matisse Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941) set new standards for the use of colour in portraiture, while Degas used colour to add gloss to his ballet stars, and despair to his absinthe drinker.
Other artists employ a monochrome tonal colour scheme across the whole picture in order to essay on public, create a particular mood. Supreme exemplars include Corot's romantic landscapes, Atkinson Grimshaw's nocturnal scenes, Whistler's tonal nocturnes, Peter Ilsted's interiors, Kroyer's landscapes, Hammershoi's interiors, and the Blue and Rose period works by Picasso (1881-1973), to rules 2011, name but a few. To sum up, painters use colour to stimulate the on public emotion, capture the naturalist effects of light, lend character to a figure or scene, and add depth to an abstract or semi-abstract work. It may also be used to attract the viewer's eye. Resume? If you want to learn how to appreciate paintings, pay close attention to how the artist employs colour. Ask yourself: Why has he/she chosen this/that particular hue? How does it contribute to the mood or composition of the picture? How do the differing colours used relate to each other: do they create harmony or friction? How to Appreciate Texture and essay on public skills Brushwork in a Painting? When it comes to learning how to evaluate texture and frederick douglass life slave essay brushwork in painting, there is no substitute for visiting a gallery or museum and seeing some canvases for on public, yourself. Even the best art books are incapable of replicating texture to any extent.
Once again, it tends to be classically trained painters who excel at differing textures, and use of impasto. Ingres would even choose certain subjects (eg. The Valpincon Bather 1808, La Grande Odalisque 1914) in order to religion essays argumentative, show off his skill in capturing the texture of on public speaking skills, materials like nacre, mother-of-pearl and i didn't book silk. Essay On Public Speaking? At any rate, how well a painter handles texture is a good guide to dissertation help grant, the strength of his/her painting technique. Brushwork can be tight (slower, precise, controlled) or loose (more rapid, more casual, more expressionistic). It is largely determined by the style and mood of the painting, rather than (say) the temperament of the artist.
Caravaggio had a violent hot temperament, yet his paintings were models of controlled brushwork. Skills? Cezanne had a slow temperament: he painted so slowly that all the fruit in his still lifes rotted away weeks before he finished. Douglass Life Essay? Yet the on public speaking brushwork in many of his works is exceptionally loose. Generalising wildly, we might say that the brushstrokes of realist painters tend to be more deliberate, and more controlled than expressionists. Religion? When the Impressionists held their first exhibition in Paris, in essay speaking skills, 1874, critics and spectators were horrified at ib psychology paper what they called the sloppiness of the brushstrokes. Essay? They had to stand much further away from the paintings before the exact image took shape. Nowadays we are quite at ease with Impressionism, but in the beginning its super-loose brushwork caused a scandal. When it comes to evaluating a picture, the question to ask is: Does the brushwork add or detract from the painting? How to Appreciate Beauty in a Painting?
Aesthetics is an intensely personal subject. We all see things differently, including art, and ib psychology especially beauty. In addition, painting is first and foremost a visual art - something we see, rather than think about. So if we are asked whether we think a painting is beautiful, we are likely to give a fairly instant response. However, if we are then asked to evaluate the essay skills beauty (or lack thereof) of a painting - meaning, explain and give reasons - well, its a different story. So to help you analyze the situation, here are some questions to ask yourself about the life as a slave essay painting. Most are concerned with the harmony, regularity and essay speaking skills balance that is visible. What Proportions are Evident in the Picture? Greek art and Renaissance art was often based on certain rules of proportion, which accorded with classical views on optical harmony. I Didn't Do My Book Report? So maybe the beauty you see (or not) can be partly explained by essay speaking skills reference to the proportions (of objects and figures) in the work. Are Certain Shapes or Patterns Repeated in the Painting?
According to psychologists, repetition of pleasing shapes, especially in ib psychology paper, symmetrical patterns, can relax the eye and essay on public speaking the brain, causing us to feel pleasure. Colour schemes with complementary hues or tonal variations are known for frederick as a slave essay, their appealing effect on the senses. Does the essay Picture Draw You in? Does it Maintain Your Attention? The greatest paintings are the easiest to life essay, look at. They attract our attention, and then signposts guide our eye around the work. How Does the Painting Compare With Others? Everything is relative. Essay Skills? So how does the painting in frederick douglass slave, front of you compare with similar types of painting by the same artist? If it's a mature work, you may find it improves on earlier ones, and on public vice versa. If you can't find others by the same artist, try looking at similar works by other artists.
Ideally, start with works painted in the same decade, and then gradually move forward in time. You can't look at too many paintings! Tips on How to Appreciate Abstract Art. Abstract paintings are not easy to evaluate. Runs Through It Essay Questions? It's okay when they follow a general theme, like Cubism, or when they include recognizable features, but purely concrete art - which uses only on public speaking skills geometric symbols - tends to be too cerebral for comfort! That said, many abstract painters have made a huge contribution to contemporary culture, and we need to try to do my book report, understand them. So here are a few tips. Wholly abstract painting frees us, the viewers, from any optical associations with real life. (This is essay, why many artists work in religion argumentative, the abstract idiom). So we are not distracted by anything outside the essay painting and we can concentrate exclusively on report, the painterly aspects of the work: that is, the on public skills line, shape, colour, texture, brushwork etc. In particular, ask yourself: (1) How does the artist divide up the canvas? (2) How does the artist direct our eye, and i didn't book report where does it linger? (3) How does the artist use colour to essay speaking, create depth, attract attention, or endow certain shapes with particular significance or meaning? (4) What specific forms does the douglass essay work contain, and skills what do you think they mean? (5) Sometimes abstract artists use colour very sparingly, and deliberately create a minimalist look.
If you find yourself unable to say much about such works, don't worry: everyone has difficulty with them! The best thing to do is to research one particular work, and find out what a top art expert thinks about it. You may still not like it, but at a river runs it essay least you will know what to look for. (6) In general, abstract paintings are much more cerebral than other works. They need to be deciphered! So instead of on public, throwing up your hands and saying - I don't understand this awful painting!, treat it like a puzzle and see if you can work out what the artist is aiming at.
How to Evaluate Art: A Few Final Questions. After investigating the context of the painting, and the work itself, we come to a few final questions. #149; What is the Painting Trying to Say? This general question involves everything you have discovered or decided about the resume rules 2011 work. #149; How Does the Painting Make you Feel? This focuses exclusively on your subjective reaction to essay speaking skills, the work. #149; Is the Impact of the Painting Mostly Visual, or Mostly Cerebral? This obliges you to analyze your reaction. Dissertation? #149; Would You Like to See it Hanging on a Wall in your house? This allows you to consider the work from on public a different angle. #149; Would you Like to resume 2011, See More Examples of Similar Types of Paintings? You might not be wild about this work, but you might like the style.
History of Art Criticism: Famous Critics. You don't have to on public speaking, know anything about art critics or their history in order to runs through it essay questions, know how to appreciate art. So we won't bore you with details. However, a few snippets might help to reassure you that even experts can disagree about whether a painting is a work of genius or complete rubbish. Denis Diderot (1713-84) is regarded as the founding father of art criticism, due to his editorship of the Encyclopedie (1751-2). Rather sentimental in his artistic taste, he did lots of essay skills, important things, most of doctoral grant, which are too boring to essay on public skills, mention. Runs Through It Essay Questions? Theophile Thore (1807-69) is more interesting: he was the French art writer and historian who famously 'rediscovered' Jan Vermeer (1632-75) and established him as one of the greatest ever painters. Not much help to Vermeer, though. The poor man could hardly pay his bread bills, made no money from his painting and fell into essay obscurity after an early death. Another celebrated art critic was the 19th century poet Charles Baudelaire (1821-67). Resume Rules? He famously launched the career of Felicien Rops (ever heard of him?), and essay speaking also singled out the runs through questions artist Constantin Guys for on public, special mention (never heard of him, either).
Nice one Charles. He was also a regular writer on the annual Paris Salon , whose old fashioned authorities banned all the really good artists who eventually staged a number of rival exhibitions including the Salon des Refuses (1863), the rules Salon des Independants (1884-1914) and the Salon d'Automne (1903-onwards). In Switzerland and within the German-speaking world, arguably the greatest art historian after Johann Winckelmann, was Jacob Burckhardt (1818-97), Professor of History at Basel University. His most famous book - The Civilization of the on public speaking skills Renaissance in Italy ( Die Kultur der Renaissance in doctoral nsf, Italien ), published in 1860 - explored the totality of the Italian Rinascimento and had a major impact on 19th century art critics. Over in England, the on public skills greatest 19th century art critic was John Ruskin (1819-1900). A talented artist and beautiful writer, remembered for classics like his 5-volume Modern Painters (1843-60), the Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and do my book report the 3-volume Stones of Venice (1851-3), he eventually went mad, but not before he lost a famous libel case to on public, Whistler. I Didn't Do My? Roger Fry (1866-1934) was a highly influential English art critic who had a beautifully mellifluous voice. He built up his reputation as an expert on the Italian Renaissance and became curator of paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of essay speaking skills, Art in New York (1906-10).
However, in 1907 Fry 'discovered' Cezanne, and switched his interest to Post-Impressionism - becoming the movement's greatest champion. In London, in 1910 and dissertation nsf 1912 he curated two seminal exhibitions of Post-Impressionism. Skills? Many visitors thought Fry was insane. His chief apostle was the writer, art critic and formalist Clive Bell (1881-1964). Herbert Read (1893-1968) was a famous 20th century English art critic and the foremost interpreter of modern art. Published numerous works including The Meaning of argumentative, Art (1931), Art Now (1933), Education Through Art (1943), A Concise History of Modern Painting (1959) and A Concise History of Modern Sculpture (1964).
Enough said. Back in essay speaking skills, France, the a river through it essay questions leading art critic of the early 20th century was the on public skills poet Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918). I Didn't Do My? A brilliant propagandist of essay, Picasso, Cubism, Orphism, Marc Chagall, Giorgio de Chirico, Andre Derain, Henri Matisse, Henri Rousseau and i didn't book report Marcel Duchamp, his art evaluation was impeccable. Surrealism had its own in-house propagandists like Andre Breton (1896-1966), and by the time World War II broke out just about every artist had left Paris and gone to New York, which now became the World centre of art. Its leading art critics were Clement Greenberg (1909-94), Harold Rosenberg (1906-78) and John Canaday (1907-85). Greenberg, a former Trotskyist, favoured abstract works like Jackson Pollock's paintings and wrote Art and Culture (1961) along with monographs on on public speaking skills, Miro (1948) and others. Unfortunately while he certainly knew how to appreciate painting, much of the avant-garde art he liked so much is almost indecipherable - rather like Greenberg himself. Rosenberg, like Greenberg, was a follower of avant garde abstraction. Canaday, the New York Times art reviewer, was one of the few influential critics of abstract expressionism. Kenneth Clark (1903-83), despite being more of a traditionalist than most 20th century critics, was arguably the most influential, due to his creation of the award-winning BBC TV documentary series Civilisation which was highly successfull in both Britain and essays America, and across the on public speaking English-speaking world. It's Impossible to 2011, Appreciate All Art.
French Impressionism is one of the most successful and influential art movements of essay skills, all time. Yet in the beginning it was met with derision, not just by the critics but by all sections of the viewing public. Monet, Renoir and Pissarro nearly starved. Sisley died in poverty. In the Spring of 1913, the Armory Show - the greatest exhibition of modern art ever seen in the United States - was held in Manhattan, before travelling to Chicago and Boston. About 300,000 Americans saw the 1300 exhibits, which featured the most up-to-date European painting plus a selection of the best contemporary American art. Opinions varied enormously, especially when it came to resume 2011, Cubist and other 20th century works. Speaking Skills? Riots broke out in frederick as a slave essay, response, and the artist Marcel Duchamp was physically attacked by a mob who were determined to burn down the show. The lesson?
Not all high quality art is easily appreciated or understood. #149; For more about essay on public art appreciation for students, see: Homepage.
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How to Start an Editing or Writing Business. Did you know that now is a good time for essay speaking many writers and editors to ib psychology start their own businesses? If you’ve been laid off, let go, or simply can’t find employment as a writer or editor, maybe I can help. Also, be sure and read a companion piece: Help for new editors and writers! Are you a writer or editor who needs employment? Perhaps you want to work for me or someone like me. Essay Speaking? I’m an a river runs Independent Contractor, and I do not hire employees. But perhaps I can help you. Unless you are an established Independent Contractor, compliant with IRS guidelines, most writers and essay on public speaking skills editors will not hire your services. They don’t want the complications of withholding taxes, Social Security, of carrying Workers’ Compensation Insurance, and of paying benefits, etc.
Here are some of the differences between Employees and Independent Contractors. Creative people are often sensitive, subjective people who can spot an error at 1000 feet, but can rarely market their own businesses or promote themselves with ease. And do they dislike asking for resume rules money? Usually. In our adventure together, I would like to essay skills help you by through it essay pointing out resources and ideas in essay speaking skills the following areas: How to market yourself with grace and class. How to religion essays expand your network. How to switch industries and pitch opportunities in non-traditional environments (plumbers and painters also need good copy to sell).
How to pitch to collegiate organizations or associations to increase critical mass. How to sell publishing and essay on public speaking skills public speaking: sell the magic of copywriting and why your services matter. You know you have much to offer, and that strong ethics are important. Somehow you must convey this to paper your potential clients. Essay On Public Speaking Skills? You may want to join a good professional organization, but membership costs are sometimes prohibitive. Above all, I recommend that you get a WordPress website.
This will be the most effective way for you to reflect your ability, energy, and talent. And it will be done by writing your website for your prospects. Everything in a website should be done with your visitors in mind. Make it easy to resume rules 2011 navigate and easy to understand. You must become known as someone people can trust and skills respect, and you must get the word out. Knowing you’re talented isn’t enough. Rules? You must come up with credentials. Good credentials.
I’m not talking about essay on public speaking degrees, although they are valuable. Sometimes experience is argumentative, what you have to offer. And savvy potential clients understand the value of experience. If you don’t yet have experience, do not worry. Speaking? All in 2011 good time. TIP : On my website’s “About Judy” page, I mention having worked for a church, bank, and construction company. Deliberately.
I want my prospects to identify with me in some way, if possible. I also have a philosophical statement on that page. Again, deliberately. Don’t limit yourself to being a good writer or editor. Essay On Public Skills? Be a good writer or editor who also coaches Little League, owns a Harley, runs marathons, or volunteers for hospice. It’s time to ask yourself some difficult questions. A River Runs? By analyzing yourself and your goals, you may decide to stop right now. You may also decide to wait, start immediately, or totally change the focus of your service. Ask yourself: Is my type of business in constant demand?
How many other businesses offer the same services? Where might my business be in three to five years? Can I create a demand for my services? Can I effectively compete in terms of price, quality, and delivery? Can I price my service to essay speaking skills give me the projected profit?
Do I have the time required to effectively market my business? Start with a business plan and a marketing plan. Once you’ve started, you may become the frederick life slave target of many businesses and speaking skills organizations. Self-discipline and good analytical skills help decide what technological tools, insurance, and advertising, etc. to buy, and what organizations to join. New, exciting toys are everywhere, but are they for you? Spend cautiously.
When considering every expenditure, ask yourself if – and do my when – this will help you bring in revenue. Consider this: could you make better use of essay on public skills your money by joining a successful organization that will provide you with professional knowledge, support, community exposure, leads and information, than by paying for extensive, expensive advertising? Never allow any salesperson or ad to distract you from dissertation help a solid fact: it’s your money. TIP : My take on advertising your business: for a one-person writing or editing business, ads may not be the best way to go. Most potential clients want referrals or want to learn about you through your website. While a mass direct mail campaign offering discounts or coupons may not be for speaking everyone, mailing postcards or letters to targeted audiences may bring results. If you have a limited budget, send out i didn't report just a few each month. Do your homework. Contact only those businesses that may want to use your services … address the message to the person in charge of such decisions (this means that you need to essay on public skills find out the person’s name). You can be fairly sure that if you send to “Manager, Human Resources,” or “Dear Sir or Madam,” and don’t include the person’s name, your letter will probably be recycled. Your potential client has needs.
Address those needs by douglass as a slave offering solutions . The same for essay skills your website. Features tell, but benefits sell. If you send letters, include a superb business card at the very least. Make your writing bright, to the point, and lay it out professionally. A River Runs? The two most important items in a direct mail letter are the headline and the P.S. Essay On Public Skills? You can educate, generate calls, or generate sales, but do only one at a time … be specific … make it easy. One of the most important words in your business is the word “you.” (Keep this in mind when writing and editing websites, particularly those that offer services.) Give the reader a reason to respond … use bullets … follow up with a phone call a week or so after the mailing. Don’t sell yourself short. It’s a perception thing. You are going to doctoral work hard to position yourself as a professional, and everything you say and do will add to or detract from this image.
I’m sure you understand the value of building a solid foundation held in place by patience and hard work. Create an invoice template in QuickBooks, Quicken, or Word. On Public? I can give you a sample. Ib Psychology? Create a brief but comprehensive proposal template. I can give you a sample. Create a worksheet to use for skills each assignment. Frederick Douglass Life As A Slave? I can give you a sample. Skills? If you are discussing a large project, tell your client you’ll need a non-refundable deposit prior to beginning the project. I Didn't Report? If he/she values the project and you as a professional, they’ll gladly provide the deposit. Accepting large jobs without requiring a deposit, even if the person was referred by someone you know, may not be a good idea.
You are a professional. Act like one. Brief comments by happy clients on your website can add value (Endorsement or Testimonial Page). Essay Speaking? After you’ve finished a job, tell your client that you’d appreciate a referral. Help? Okay, how do you ask without seeming pushy? If the on public skills person says something complimentary, simply reply, “May I quote you on my website?” A satisfied customer is ib psychology, your best advertising medium. Of course, some jobs are confidential, but just be alert to praise as a potential marketing tool, and see if that person’s words can help your business. Because of your type of business, you may want to place “By Appointment Only” on essay speaking skills all your marketing material, especially if you provide a street address. Leave your business cards in it essay questions as many places as possible.
Every time you mail a payment for a billing, include a business card in the envelope. You never know who might see it. The Accounts Receivable person may have a neighbor whose sister-in-law is writing a book. You never know. If you have a print newsletter, take copies with you and hand them out on public speaking skills generously. Ask friends who have businesses to let you put small stacks of your newsletter in their lobbies. A newsletter helps reflect your work and ib psychology paper your personality.
If you have a website, make sure to essay on public speaking skills add the URL to all your business documents, including business envelopes. Whether you are phoning, mailing, or emailing: be warm, low-key, professional, and brief. And it never hurts to 2011 do some homework on essay speaking skills a company ahead of do my report time. If you want to on public make inroads, make sure you’re a match. In the small business world, you need both return customers and doctoral dissertation grant nsf referrals. Always give clients more than they expect. Treat your clients with warmth. Be grateful even for those who take too much time or seem critical. There are always life lessons in such situations. You may wish for a bigger budget for promotional items and gifts, but that doesn’t mean you can’t say “thank you” in many imaginative, inexpensive ways. Your tokens of appreciation don’t need to essay be lavish.
And most clients don’t expect (or want) a constant barrage of mugs, magnetic business cards, imprinted pens, and resume 2011 calendars. Take the time to snail mail a thank-you note or letter each time you get a referral from a customer. Send little notes at random times just to stay in touch, letting them know they are appreciated. These days, an occasional brief phone call or email message when you want nothing more than to say “thanks” is novel enough to be appreciated. When you find an article on the Internet that reinforces a client’s point of view, send her/him the link. If you find a newspaper or magazine article that s/he might like, take time to clip it and mail it, along with a short note. You show appreciation when you place a link from your site to theirs, refer them to a third party, or mention their expertise in a forum or social media. However, if you have a client who is abusive … delinquent in essay skills paying for your services … not merely critical, but just plain mean, you have every right to explain that you will: Begin the next assignment as soon you are paid in full for work done to date (if you even want to resume rules continue). Withhold files and/or hard copy until you’ve received final payment. Sometimes two people simply aren’t a good match.
That’s understandable. But clients with little or no self-respect often treat others with little or no respect. If this is happening to you, it may be time to stop and re-group. Explain that they will clearly be happier with someone else, then finalize the on public speaking skills situation. Religion Essays? (Do not say you’ll refer them to someone else. That isn’t nice.)
You are the head of your marketing department, and essay may need to douglass life slave mingle with people in your community and on essay on public skills the Internet who can ultimately refer others to you. I Didn't Do My? Healthy networking builds professional credibility. There are many types of networking, both local and online. Find and on public skills stay close to people with knowledge and experience. Learn about them … then learn from dissertation help them. Be slow to on public join local networking and essays social media groups until you know that you are a “fit.” It is possible that the speaking world doesn’t care what a writer/editor has to eat at McWendy’s. And when s/he was there. You can discover all kinds of price lists on the Internet, and they can be a good guide for you. I found a super writer’s pricing guide at Writer’s Digest. In order to get it, you must sign up for their excellent email newsletter.
When quoting a job (unless you’re quoting by dissertation help nsf the word or page), take your time . I cannot over-emphasize this! Don’t let your client push you into essay skills, quoting too quickly. I once agreed to quote by the job rather than by the hour, and questions let my prospective client’s sense of urgency pressure me into quoting before I’d analyzed several major factors … oh, what a difference the font size makes! Three to essay speaking five more minutes and I would have made a better decision. Oh well. The national average for the finished product is about six double-spaced pages per hour, including typing, editing, proofreading, and i didn't do my printing. This is at 12-point type, and is approximately 250 words per page. Essay On Public Skills? However, much depends on the quality of the help grant source material … the formatting complexity … extent of editing, etc. Determine these before quoting and be sure to see the source before quoting: What is the deadline for essay on public speaking skills the final copy ? (Does this give you time to a river questions do thorough proofing?) What software is to speaking be used? If using Word, will it be saved as a Windows or Mac file?
And do you want me to use Track Changes? What is the size of the project ? Is the source material hand written, in a computer file, or on the Internet? What is the final result to be? Some people charge by the hour or page, and some by religion the job. Others use combinations.
It takes experience and good judgment , but we will still make mistakes. Ask around. Consider requiring deposits on large projects. Much depends on the consistency and credibility of the client. Create a Proposal that explains your key policies and procedures and on public also allows for estimated job costs. Frederick Life Essay? You’ll want to talk with the client about payment terms, but sometimes talking isn’t enough. When you invoice, always put down the payment terms (net at once, net 15, etc.).
If you forget to note the essay speaking skills terms, you may have to wait months for payment . Doctoral Help Grant? Always make clear that final proofreading is the essay on public speaking skills client’s responsibility. Put this in do my writing on your proposal, and essay on public skills anywhere else that seems appropriate. Cheerfully ignore promises … to ib psychology paper earn thousands of dollars per day, week or month … if they were true, the world would be overflowing with millionaires. I hear from (and visit with) people who believed that by just liking to speaking skills read and write and having a computer and some typing skill they could earn a substantial income. Not so. It takes things like time, determination, organization, finding good people to mentor you, and the willingness to make mistakes and learn from a river it essay questions them. Experience and education help, but if you’re a savvy, gutsy person, give it a try. Wanting to essay on public speaking skills be at home isn’t enough. Having been laid off isn’t enough. Generally you need a business plan, a marketing plan, and the time and money to implement them. Too much work?
Perhaps. But it may make a difference in grant nsf the success of your business … and on public skills the length of time it takes to frederick as a slave essay reach your goals. For a good business plan idea, use Google. Selling is on public skills, a component of marketing. Marketing includes foresight and planning for a profitable future while emphasizing and understanding the paper customers’ needs. This places a responsibility upon your understanding of the customer and delivering a service that fills a need. You need a written plan, not something you’ve scribbled on a piece of essay speaking skills scratch paper. But it doesn’t have to be lengthy or large. Try to spend time with professionals online and in person to get some good marketing ideas. But before you begin, ask yourself what you are willing to do within the scope of your business.
Some of the a river runs questions below will not apply if you plan to do all your work virtually. Do you prefer writing or editing? Do you want people coming to your home, or will you meet them in a non-threatening environment? Do you prefer all virtual work as opposed to local work? Will you work five, six, or seven days a week?
What hours? Will you decide the speaking skills software you’re to be skilled in, or let the client or potential client determine that? If so, who pays for you to learn new software? Do you plan to frederick douglass life as a have a list of other trusted, skilled professionals who offer complementary services? If not, will you research in this area? How long can you wait before you begin earning some income? What parts will the essay following play in your business: Direct Mail?
Promotionals? Networking? Community involvement? Did you know that generally businesses offering services get many of their clients from book referrals? How? By networking … and networking is a powerful marketing vehicle if you’re committed to reaching your goals. Traditional networking groups may or may not work for you as a writer or editor.
Chances are slim that you will get much business from others in the group (nor will many of essay skills them get your business, since most networking groups have a majority of people who are just starting out). But again, if you’re creative in presenting yourself and douglass as a slave essay your product, you may get referrals. And sometimes it’s important to get out of the office and speaking skills mingle with others. Schools … churches … hospitals … social and human services organizations … retirement homes … children’s groups … police departments … shelters … thrift stores … animal rescue … the list is endless. Community service is a way to contribute something rewarding while spreading the word about you and grant your business. Many nonprofit (501c3) organizations welcome people who know computers. Speaking? They may need help in typing data, designing brochures, or training for their key staff. They almost always have funding needs! You’ll probably meet some of the finest people in the community in such groups, and as you earn their trust and respect, they may eventually ask you — for example — to sit on an advisory board. This allows you to paper give to the community and also to have a higher level of personal and business exposure.
You may want to on public speaking note these affiliations in your website, newsletters, and social media pages. But never enter this arena primarily for personal gain. Anything by Seth Godin. Subscribe to his blog, so you can get his brief, pithy messages in your email. Douglass Life Slave? Highly valuable. Rich Becker: Words. Concepts. Strategies. Danny Brown.
The Human Side of Media and the Social Side of Marketing. Jane Friedman: Helping authors publishers flourish in on public skills the digital age. Ivan Levison, Copywriting. SBA Business Plan Outline. Starting an Online Business for Dummies by Greg Holden (he interviews me in his book). Sign up for my small business ezine, eCommunication Food for a river it essay Thought. Writer’s Digest: a site you’ll want to essay skills bookmark.
Download the Pricing Guide, and religion essays will help you price your services. Just seeing the on public speaking various types of ib psychology writing listed, and how rates are figured, is amazing and valuable. Editcetera, a self-governing association of on public freelance publishing professionals. Book? Bay Area Editors Forum, a nonprofit with killer descriptions of every phase of editing. The Chicago Manual of essay on public Style Online is a “must.” Or at the very least, buy the book. It is the most widely used style manual in existence.
Help A Reporter Out: over 200,000 mainstreet and expert sources responding directly to your query on your terms. The American Heritage Dictionary is paper, a fine resource. Essay On Public Skills? Very current. Visual Thesaurus (subscribe) Thesaurus.com. There isn’t any. Things change daily. Your business will evolve, as will your business plan and your marketing strategy.
And these are Good Things. But there’s more … I now have an eBook out that gives new editors and frederick as a slave writers tips and sample forms. Essay Speaking Skills? It’s called “Help for new editors and writers.” Remember, I’m here, and happy to do a bit of “lite” mentoring if it will help. Subscribe to eCommunication Food for Thought: Periodic newsletters, eCommunication Food for Thought , for people who write, research, or operate an office. © 2003-2016 Judy Vorfeld's Office Support Services.
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The Ultimate List of AP Spanish Language and Culture Tips. The AP Spanish Language exam can be an intimidating obstacle for on public speaking skills, even the most astute and resume focused Spanish student. However, with steady preparation throughout the school year, and careful review in essay on public, the spring prior to exam time, you will master both the written and rules oral portions of this conquerable exam! Keep in mind that while over 130,000 students took the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam last year, 85%* passed with a score of 3 or higher and over 50% passed with a 4 or 5, earning them valuable college credit. You, too, can be successful on essay speaking skills this exam. So stay tuned and the following tips will help you along the way. How to Study for AP Spanish Language Culture Tips. 1. Start using Spanish. Doctoral Dissertation Grant Nsf? This should seem like a no-brainer but year after year students enter the essay on public speaking skills AP Spanish exam worried about, yes, that’s right, their Spanish . By the time you reach the through questions AP level in essay on public speaking skills, a foreign language, you have had plenty of a river runs questions experience with the grammar, and possibly the literature, of the language you’re studying. You’re comfortable with Spanish so now surround yourself with it on a daily basis, honing skills that will become second nature by essay on public the time the test rolls around.
Read the report news in speaking, Spanish (BBC Mundo is a great source). Watch telenovelas – they’re addicting, so you might even get hooked on practicing Spanish! You can even find episodes of your favorite shows dubbed in do my book, Spanish, as an introduction to television in Spanish. Change your social media settings to Spanish, or put on a Spanish music station on Pandora. Listen to authentic sources, like radio shows and podcasts, to practice your audio skills – these are the kinds of sources that will be used on the exam, and they’ll give you practice with cultural ideas. Bonus tip: make sure to practice with sources from skills, different countries to get the paper hang of essay on public skills trickier accents, like Argentine and andaluz.
2. Frederick Douglass As A Slave? Listen . Speaking? There are so many ways to incorporate Spanish audio into your daily routine. Runs Through It Essay? Add fun, upbeat songs to your workout playlist. Speaking? Aventura, Prince Royce, and Calle 13 are all fun, young artists that will introduce you to new dialects and words. Most major cities in the U.S. also have several Spanish-language radio stations. Dissertation? Test yourself. Follow a news story in Spanish and see how much you understand – more than you think!
3. Speak . Although production is probably the element of foreign language that frightens students the most, that doesn’t mean it has to be. The best way to on public learn Spanish is to speak it. When your teacher poses questions to the class, raise your hand! Don’t worry about making mistakes; the more you speak, the fewer mistakes you’ll make. This is the time to learn, and the experience will help calm your nerves during the grant actual exam. Like any activity, the more you practice, the easier and more natural it will become.
To practice this skill set in Spanish, we recommend Spanish-English conversational exchanges. On Public Speaking Skills? These short cultural exchanges are widespread in the U.S. Spend fifteen minutes speaking English and in return, you get fifteen free minutes of practice in Spanish with a native speaker! Volunteering is also an excellent way to incorporate more Spanish. Organizations such as Habitat for resume rules 2011, Humanity often need people with good written and essay on public skills oral skills in Spanish.
4. Read . You don’t have to crack open Don Quixote to practice reading in Spanish. But likewise, just because this is the AP Spanish Language exam and not literature, doesn’t mean that your reading skills can be subpar. Resume Rules 2011? The multiple-choice section, for speaking skills, example, requires good reading skills at a fast pace. Lucky for you, Spanish is a robust language with hundreds of periodicals from El Mundo to People en Espanol . Essays? Try to read a couple of articles a week, picking out on public skills a few words or idioms from each that you don’t know. Other quick changes such as setting your computer and ib psychology paper social media accounts to Spanish can be an extra daily dose of Spanish.
5. Don’t stress the accents . We’ll talk more about this below, but for now know that graders care much less about perfect spelling and accent usage than they do the real meat and potatoes content of your essays. They want to see solid arguments framed with topic sentences and essay skills always backed up with a clearly stated thesis. So don’t get lost in the details – it takes up time and you won’t be punished for little mistakes. 6. Vocabulary . You’re in AP Spanish so you (hopefully!) have a solid command of the Spanish Language. Still, what slips you up? Causes you to slow down when completing assignments or speaking in class? More likely than not, it’s an unknown vocabulary word or perhaps a word that you learned once and doctoral dissertation cannot recall. Well, there’s a solution for that: 7. Rely on flashcards . You guessed it: vocabulary cards.
We already talked about the essay speaking skills importance of reading and a river through identifying unknown vocabulary words. What to do once you have a list? Make cards. Or charts. Or elaborate, colorful diagrams. Whatever helps you to remember new words. And remember: no English translations! Instead, write a description of the word in Spanish. Speaking? Research shows that you will remember words faster (and access them faster come test day) if they have their own representation in your mind.
8. A new one a day . Plain and simple: learn a new word every day. Resume Rules 2011? Open up a dictionary and essay on public skills pick a word out. Help Nsf? Use a daily flip calendar that introduces a vocab word a day. Use them all! 9. Essay Speaking? Contextualize . Nsf? It’s not enough to maintain a hefty stack of vocabulary cards if you don’t know how/when to use them. Make sure to include an example sentence for each new word that really helps integrate the meaning in your mind. 10. Don’t forget the details . Essay Skills? So you have your vocabulary list and even some example sentences. Still, you’re going to get stuck with these new words if you don’t note two things: 11. Word gender : If it’s a noun, you must memorize the gender and article ( el / la ). And what about the gender of ib psychology those “exceptions”?
El agua is feminine but el idioma is masculine – note the gender of the word in essay, addition to its article. 12. Doctoral Grant Nsf? Verb conjugation : Spanish is notorious for essay, its tough verb conjugations. If it’s an irregular verb, make sure that you note all the conjugations (including subjunctive!). You never know when one will pop up. Insider tip : Although on the AP Spanish Language exam graders are instructed to be forgiving for paper, cosmetic errors like accents, grammatical gender ( el vs. On Public Skills? la ), and even some tough irregular verb conjugations such as the a river it essay subjunctive, your grader will be more impressed if you have a clean, error-free essay. On Public Skills? So brush up on frederick slave your accent marking and write the best essay that you can on test day. 13.
Exercise the weak spots . Skills? In your AP Spanish Language class, you have undoubtedly been doing some practice exams. It Essay? These are a great method for essay speaking, identifying your weak spots on resume rules 2011 the exam – the speaking skills part of the exam that’s going to drag you down below the crucial 4 mark. Find the part of the i didn't exam, be it spoken, written, or otherwise, that you struggle with and work on it. Pay particular attention to it during practice exams and go over those responses with your teacher. Essay On Public Speaking Skills? Spend some time reviewing tough grammar.
Do practice exercises for ideas like por para , preterite vs. imperfect, irregular verbs, and essays when to use the subjunctive. If you can use these structures correctly and essay speaking skills consistently, you’ll score higher.You can also ask your teacher for specific areas that he/she would recommend you improve upon prior to the test. Insider tip: What’s my structure again? The AP Spanish exam is comprised of three main areas: multiple choice, speaking, and written. Here they are, listed in order of appearance on the test: multiple choice, presentational/ conversational speaking, short presentational writing (e-mail), and long presentational writing (essay). A River It Essay Questions? Remember that once you complete one section, you can’t go back and change your answers. So move on and focus on the section at hand. At the same time, you can’t work ahead. So even if you’re especially nervous for essay skills, the speaking section, focus on a river runs through questions the questions in front of you.
You can’t work ahead so there’s no benefit in being anxious about an upcoming section. 14. Review old exams. Speaking Skills? Previous exams are an AP student’s best friend. Why? Because the test makers shy away from ib psychology paper, too much creativity year to year. Previous tests are the key to predicting what to expect on your test this year. Yes, there will be an e-mail (interpersonal writing component). Yes, there will be an essay (presentational writing component). But not only should you examine these previous exams, you should also practice responses to essay speaking skills these questions – and time yourself.
Which brings us to… 15. Tick-tock, time yourself. The more you practice for the AP Spanish Language exam, the more you will see that time is of the essence. With so many components to the test, it’s understandable that time will go by quickly. Don’t let yourself fall into this trap and get stressed by time limits. Essays? Practice is great, but it’s all for nothing if you don’t also time yourself. Set a clock in front of you when you practice the on public skills interpersonal writing component – time passes very quickly and help there’s a lot of information that must be included to warrant a 5! Use that clock again when practicing the speaking section. You have some big recording spots to fill with your oral Spanish – make sure you don’t leave three minutes of a recording empty without response. And don’t count on a clock hanging in the testing room; wear a watch (make sure it won’t make any noise during the exam), so you can keep track of your organizing, writing, and speaking time easily. 16.
Teachers as resources. You may think that your AP Spanish teacher is only there as a source of infinite grammatical wisdom. But in fact, there may be no better person to speak with about the test than your own teacher! AP teachers have seen hundred of students come through their classrooms. What’s more, as we’ll explain below, many AP teachers grade the exams at summer institutes. Your teacher is a wealth of knowledge. Ask questions. Speak up. Take advantage of extra study sessions (or suggest them!). 17. Make a study party!
For some, studying alone works. Essay? Still, research shows that most students work better and achieve better results when reviewing in a group. Why? Because you can bounce ideas off of the religion essays argumentative various members, it breaks up the monotony of studying alone, and, because it can be fun! Exam review doesn’t have to be miserable. Be organized and stay on essay on public speaking course, but make the time during review to religion also be with friends and classmates. 18. Play grader . Trade practice essays within the essay skills group and grade each other’s using the 0-5 AP rubric. Be encouraging, but tell each member what was lacking in the essay and most importantly, how to improve for the next one.
19. Divide and conquer vocab cards . Life As A Slave Essay? Why make duplicate vocabulary cards? Split the essay on public speaking vocabulary lists between the members of the group and have each member type up a set of review cards to share. Then, if you do want to religion argumentative practice on speaking your own, simply make a copy of the group’s prepared cards. 20. Have a weekly objective . Runs Through Questions? Try to meet once a week leading up to the test and then close to essay on public daily as the test approaches.
For each meeting, come prepared with a topic to resume rules review. Put one or two people in charge of a new topic for each meeting. This way, you get a solid review of a cultural concept or verb tense, but don’t have to do all the review alone. 21. Skip instructions . You know what to do – skip them! That’s right, by the time you get to on public speaking test day, you should be so familiar with the layout and structure of the exam, that you don’t need to review the instructions again. Frederick Douglass Life As A Slave Essay? Get used to the format, the prompt style, and the instructions. On Public Skills? During the exam, you will have a full minute each time the instructions are read; you don’t need to help nsf listen!
Use that time to get started reading printed sources, skimming multiple-choice questions, and jotting down notes for the presentational prompts. On Public Skills? Your familiarity with the instructions is your secret weapon. You’ll save yourself a good minute of test time! Insider tip : At three hours, the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam is paper, a long one. On Public? What are some strategies for getting through this exam and performing at your best, even at the end?
– Take a breather after every page of questions. This easy exercise will give your brain a brief respite from the tough job of reading all that Spanish! – Make sure to stand up during break time. Through It Essay? Working so fast and ardently can take a toll on essay on public your back and legs. You won’t be punished for standing up during the ib psychology paper break, so get that blood pumping and jump to your feet occasionally. – Eat a good breakfast/lunch on test day! It will be impossible to focus for all three hours of the essay speaking exam if your stomach is grumbling. Give your brain the energy it needs – eat well the day of the test! 22.
Know the themes . It’s the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. Of course it’s important to review your past subjunctive and transition words for the essays, but if you aren’t knowledgeable about the frederick life as a cultural themes that the speaking AP course is structured around, you cannot do well on the test. Writing and speaking prompts, as well as multiple-choice questions, will tie in help nsf, these common connections. Essay On Public Skills? According to douglass life as a essay CollegeBoard, the themes are as follows: Global Challenges / Los desafios mundiales. Science and Technology / La ciencia y la tecnologia. Contemporary Life / La vida contemporanea.
Personal and Public Identities / Identidades personales y publicos. Families and Communities / Las familias y las comunidades. Beauty and Aesthetics / La belleza y la estetica. Knowing these categories alone won’t be much help, but you can use them as guidelines for your studying and your outside resources. Check out sources in each of these different topics to essay on public skills get familiar with cultural trends. Impress the graders not simply with your imperfect/preterit usage but also your cultural knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world.
23. Tune out and focus in . Too many students taking the AP Spanish Language and Culture and other high-stakes tests psyche themselves out by watching others during test time. “He’s writing more than me.” “She hasn’t stopped speaking!” Our advice: don’t worry about other people. Do the best that you can do. A River Questions? After all, you don’t know who’s looking at you thinking the same things! 24. Know the scoring guidelines . In front of every AP Spanish Language and Culture exam grader is a list of grading guidelines. What’s on them? How is your presentational writing section or interpersonal speaking section graded? This should not be a mystery to you – because the grading guidelines are posted right to speaking skills the CollegeBoard website! If your AP Spanish teacher hasn’t provided you and your classmates with these guidelines, download them and bring some copies to class. Knowing how you will be graded and the specific criteria that graders are looking for will take a lot of the guessing out of the exam game.
Know exactly what the graders look for and supply it for them in your written and speaking parts – get the points you deserve! 25. Prepare, prepare, prepare: Don’t wait until the religion argumentative last few days before the exam to review! Spend at least a couple of weeks ahead of time going over tricky grammar concepts, irregular verbs, and cultural patterns. The earlier you start studying, the more natural it will be to speak and write in Spanish when the time comes. 26. Manage your anxiety: Worrying about essay on public how you will score on the test can only lower your score. You’ve prepared for this exam with years of classroom experience, so you know you can speak Spanish! Instead of scaring yourself, focus on what you can do, and have the confidence that you will do it well. Start your AP Spanish Language Prep today.
AP Spanish Language and Culture Multiple Choice Tips. 1. Resume Rules? Don’t leave any stones unturned . Make sure to skills answer every single question! Inevitably you won’t know the answer to one question. Well, there’s no penalty for wrong answers so even if you’re unsure of an answer, go ahead and guess! Who knows, you might just get it right. 2. Rules? Use process of elimination . Remember in elementary school when you learned about the process of elimination? Well, it’s going to be your best friend on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. Unsure of a question? At least narrow the potential responses down to two – then guess between them. 3. How best to listen . Just like in essay on public, the written portion, each audio source will be played twice for runs through it essay questions, you.
Read the question closely prior to their playing. The first time, pause for comprehension. Only the second time should you try to capture notes. 4. Track the time . The multiple choice section is expansive and essay on public skills it’s easy to lose yourself in the answers. Make sure to take a deep breath every few questions.
And keep track of time – making sure to fill in at least something for every question. 5. Summarize: For printed sources, write a short summary phrase at the end of each paragraph. This will help you understand the main ideas, and make it easier to refer back to the source for answers. 6. Runs Through Questions? Check, but don’t obsess: Look over your responses, but go with your gut; unless you have direct evidence that your first answer is definitely incorrect, trust your instincts. Start your AP Spanish Language Prep today. AP Spanish Language and essay skills Culture Free Response Tips. 1. Resume? Don’t stop talking . If there’s one piece of advice that we can give to you concerning the presentational speaking section of the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam it’s this: don’t stop. You have six minutes and you need to use all of it. That can seem intimidating – you’re speaking in a second language, after all!
But with practice, paying particular attention to your Spanish filler words ( asi que , podemos ver , es obvio que , etc.), you can speak for the entirety of that time. On Public Speaking? Follow these guidelines to learn how! 2. Fill in the blanks with speech . We already mentioned this above but it’s worth stating again. To have smooth delivery, particularly in the length presentational speaking component, it is essential that you use filler words and runs through phrases. Essay On Public Speaking? We already provided some above but here are some more. Paper? And don’t forget, when in doubt, in Spanish we don’t say “um” but “em”!
3. Essay Skills? Organization is key . Like we said above, six minutes for dissertation help grant nsf, the presentational speaking component may seem like a lot of time to fill with speech (Interpersonal speaking is twenty seconds for each response which poses a different sort of challenge.). So an important part of your preparation for the presentational speaking on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam should be how to organize your cultural comparison. Will you start with one country and essay on public skills then another before comparing? Will you start with the comparison and then go into more detail on doctoral dissertation grant each country? That is up to you to decide but the more you know the layout of your speaking, the easier the delivery will be. 4. Speaking Skills? Don’t memorize verbs in linear order . If you’re like most foreign language students, you’ve spent a hefty amount of time memorizing verb conjugations. Help Grant Nsf? Yo tengo , tu tienes , ella tiene , etc.
Good, you’ve memorized your verbs. On Public Skills? But can you use them in context? Or do you have to run through the list of conjugations ( yo , tu , el , nosotros , ustedes ) to get to ib psychology paper the nosotros conjugation? What about the less familiar or irregular verbs? Know those too and be able to use them on essay the the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. You won’t have time when speaking during the exam to go through every conjugation. So, practice conjugations out of as a essay order. Essay On Public Skills? Make sure to practice less-used conjugations such as usted . Frederick Slave? And plus side: once you know your verbs that quickly, your writing will be faster too! 5. Playback a recording of on public yourself . Essays? One of the most consistent complaints from speaking section graders on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam is that students do not speak clearly enough. This is understandable – you’re nervous, time is passing quickly. You have a lot to say or maybe you’re unsure about some pronunciation.
But you can’t get the points that you need to pass the exam if the grader can’t even understand you. So, take steps to avoid this problem. Prior to the test, practice your vocabulary words with a clear, articulate pronunciation. Even go so far as to record yourself so that you know what you sound like (you can trade recordings with members of the on public speaking skills study group that we talked about doctoral dissertation nsf before). On test day, don’t let your nerves get the better of you. Speak slowly – even during the quick interpersonal speaking. On Public Speaking Skills? If you’re unsure of a word, still be confident in religion essays argumentative, your pronunciation so that the graders at least understand what you were trying to say. 6. Use the appropriate register. The register grading criterion is clearly marked on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam grading guidelines – what does it mean? You’ve learned the essay conjugations for tu and usted , vos and paper ustedes , even vosotros / as etc. by now. Skills? And you know that usted ( es ) is through it essay questions, used for speaking skills, more formal situations such as speaking with a stranger while tu is used in less formal situations such as around friends and doctoral dissertation grant nsf family.
So be consistent with your usage of the pronouns in the simulated conversation section, in particular, when you are most likely to be (mock) speaking with someone else. Insider tip : You will never be expected to know conjugations for vosotros or vos on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. But if you have experience in countries that use vos such as Argentina, Chile, or Venezuela or other countries such as Spain that use vosotros , feel free to use them. Start your AP Spanish Language Prep today. AP Spanish Language and Culture Essay Tips Advice.
1. Use your transitions . We’ve talked about it since day 1 of AP Spanish Language and Culture. What do the graders look for? Long, disorganized paragraphs? Nope, they look for clean paragraphs with killer topic sentences all topped off with…a transition. Know them: De esta manera , como resultado , ademas de eso . 2. Write legibly . Who do you think is essay on public, going to receive the higher score: the student who took his/her time, taking time to write each word in solid, black ink? Or the student who slopped all over the pages in impossible-to-read-me lime green pen? Write legibly and use a dark blue or brown pen. Pencil for notes – pen for i didn't do my, text.
3. Use tough structures correctly . Certain structures are known to be difficult (I’m looking at you, future subjunctive) and on public skills graders almost always note their usage. So if you’re going to be brave and use them – make sure to use them right! If you’ve prepared for the exam, you should feel fairly comfortable using tough grammatical structures in written form – but make sure you have them correct! 4. Incorporate sources ! I’ve said it once, I’ll say it again: USE YOUR SOURCES. The experts above commented on ib psychology how many students, year after year, fail to use all three sources on the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam! While graders will be forgiving to a certain extent – don’t make them work to find your sources and citations in the essays.
5. And answer the questions . This one hits home especially for the email. It’s a very fast turnaround time from receiving instructions to signing off on the email – so work fast! But, note that you’ve responded to every single question in the prompt. Speaking? For example, the email always encourages you to respond with a question of rules your own – so make sure you include a question for your addressee! Just as with the sources, make sure to include answers to every single question to get full points for the interpersonal writing component. 6. Don’t get bogged down in details . Yup, we said it, don’t get bogged down. You’re not going to understand every single word of the prompts. Skills? Don’t let this bother you or cause you to lose confidence.
Use the context around the word to grant figure out its meaning. Or, if possible, reduce the essay skills word to its root and see if you recognize any part of it. At the end of the day, you don’t have to i didn't do my understand every single line of every single prompt to do a stellar job in the written component. 7. Essay? Toss in the subjunctive whenever you can: The subjunctive mood is tough; even AP graders recognize that. Douglass Slave? So being able to use it every once in a while will showcase your language ability – play it up! 8. Take a side: The presentational writing is speaking, a persuasive essay, which means you should have some kind of argument in your thesis. Then, use the ib psychology paper sources as evidence to support your position.
Refer to both sides of the issue, but clearly focus on one – this will strengthen your argument. Start your AP Spanish Language Prep today. Interpersonal and speaking Presentational Speaking Tips. 1. Report? When in essay, doubt, keep talking: You have a limited amount of time – use it! Even if you’re stumped, talking basically about the main idea fills silence, and it can even help you think of more things to say as you go. 2. Fill it up: Know your filler words!
Instead of saying but or ummmm or I mean , know phrases like this in Spanish – they’re called muletillas . These are especially helpful in interpersonal speaking, which is more informal. Resume Rules? Some helpful ones to keep in mind: pues, bueno, mira, o sea, es decir … 3. Everybody makes mistakes: If you catch yourself making a grammar mistake, self-correct! Even graders know we all mess up sometimes, so they like to see you fix your mistakes. 4. Interpersonal Speaking: This section can be tricky, but it’s simple if you’re prepared. Just think of it as a casual conversation – communication is the most important thing. 5. Complete the task: This is the first and most important objective of the section. Each portion of the prompt will have instructions with one or two tasks to complete – make sure you complete each one! Then show off what you can do in the remaining time. You only have twenty seconds, so follow instructions first and then fill up time. 6. Know your audience: Based on the description of the essay speaking conversation, immediately identify if you should use tu or Usted . If you’re speaking to ib psychology paper a friend, the informal is safe.
But if you’ll be talking to a teacher, a boss, or someone giving you an interview, make sure you address them with the formal Usted . 7. Outline: During the instructions, look at on public speaking the tasks for each part of the prompt. Jot down words you think might be useful – especially transitions – verb tenses, or places to use the subjunctive. For example, if one task is to make a complaint, you could jot down Es desafortunado que… 8. Presentational Speaking: Here’s the thing… this section of the essays exam is hard. It takes a calm mind and confidence in the language. Essay On Public? But here’s the other thing: you can do well with the right strategy! Here are some expert tips to runs through it essay conquering the cultural comparison. 9. Remember your surroundings: No, not the testing room – the hypothetical classroom you’re speaking to in this section. The cultural comparison is speaking skills, a presentation, so it should be more professional and formal than the interpersonal speaking.
10. Organization is key: Don’t just toss out douglass as a slave essay facts about two cultures at random. Start with a thesis or main idea, then go into similarities with supporting evidence, then differences with supporting evidence. Finish up with a brief conclusion that sums up your argument. 11. Don’t script it: When you’re taking notes, don’t try to essay on public write out book report everything you’re going to say. Skills? Go for an outline with key vocab words instead. 12. Comparison is the name of the game: Make sure to draw from both your own culture and the prompted Spanish-speaking culture. I Didn't Do My Report? When you’re taking notes, it can often be helpful to speaking make a Venn diagram, so you can visualize the similarities and differences.
13. Familiarize yourself with a culture: The prompt will ask you to compare your own culture with a Spanish-speaking culture with which you are familiar. This can be overwhelming, with so many choices. Before the exam, look into resume rules a few cultures that interest you, or even countries you’ve traveled to. Some examples that will have a lot of essay cultural resources are Spain, Mexico, and report Argentina, but you can also explore other Spanish-speaking countries. 14. Recognize patterns: Be familiar with patterns across Spanish-speaking countries in attitudes, values, and essay on public speaking skills practices. For example, consider the strong religious tradition in many of do my book these cultures – how does this compare with your own experience? What about essay on public skills festivals?
The role of the family? 15. Know your transition words: Like in many other parts of the exam, transition words can really help bump up your score because they show confidence with the language and material. Some especially helpful phrases for i didn't do my book report, this section are ademas, por ejemplo, por otro lado, aunque, por el contrario … 16. Bring in essay on public speaking skills, your opinion: Even though this is a formal setting, the prompt will ask about ib psychology your own experience, so talk about it! Don’t just give facts about the place you live; instead, talk about your personal experience with family, for example, and what that shows as a pattern in your culture. Tips by AP Spanish Language Teachers.
School is out and you may think your AP Spanish teacher checks out for speaking, the summer. To the contrary, most scoring for AP Spanish Language and Culture exams is done by AP Spanish teachers themselves! What does this mean for you? Well, teachers return to their classrooms after the AP exam grading having seen both sides of the test: the students and i didn't do my book report the responses. They know what students tend to do – and what graders do and speaking skills do not want to see on the test. Here is some of their expert knowledge: 1. Ib Psychology Paper? Do your best from the essay on public speaking skills first day of 2011 class . Foreign language is complex and takes many months and years of steady practice and commitment. On Public Speaking Skills? “I always tell my students, you should be putting your best foot forward from day 1 of class. You can’t cram for a language – fluency takes time. Put the time in throughout the religion essays argumentative semester(s) and essay on public skills you’ll be rewarded come exam time.” 2. 6 minutes?
Use it! The experts back us up on this one! You have so much time for the speaking section so make sure you use that to your advantage. Dissertation Nsf? “When we grade the essay on public speaking skills speaking section of the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam, we must listen to the entirety of each recording – even if 3 of the 6 minutes are silent! I always encourage my students to do my use this to their advantage! Don’t babble, but practice forming coherent, oral arguments when we do our practice exams in class. 6 minutes is a lot of time, but with practice, it becomes easy to on public speaking skills fill with well-formulated material in a foreign language.” 3. 6 pages? Don’t use it! And make sure to be concise with writing! Graders simply read too many essays every day to manage your six-page essay, so only write what you really want to say. This will help with time management issues as well.
“For the writing section of the life as a slave essay AP Spanish Language and Culture exam, we grade upwards of on public skills 100 essays a day for multiple days in a row. Think that sounds tiring? It is. There is resume rules, nothing worse than a long presentational writing component that carries on for pages without actually making a point. Sometimes they won’t even state a thesis. Speaking? The test creators want to make sure that you have plenty of through space to formulate your thoughts so they give you lots of pages. However, that rarely means that you need to fill out essay on public every single blank page. I have given out scores of 5 to essays that were only 2 pages.” 4. Save up your energy for the end. “The AP Spanish Language and Culture exam is notorious for its length and variety of i didn't content for which you must prepare: multiple choice, written, oral, etc.
I think the most important advice that I give my students year after year is to not wear themselves out too much during the test. Save some energy up for the final sections, one of which is writing which is especially draining. And of course follow test-taking basics such as eating a good breakfast so you can perform your best.” 5. Essay On Public Skills? For Heritage speakers. Heritage speakers represent a unique group of test takers. But as this grader says, it doesn’t mean that they always have an advantage: “ Many of my students speak Spanish as a first language, at home with their parents. They come to my class to resume rules learn how to write formally in Spanish, etc. Still, I tell them that much of the same advice I give to the students who are learning to speak Spanish applies to them: Think before you speak. Essay Speaking? Write out a well-formulated plan and thesis prior to writing an dissertation help grant nsf essay. Read the on public speaking entirety of the question/prompt instead of paper assuming you know the answer.
Do I think my students who speak Spanish as a first language have an advantage? Perhaps. But they also need to be careful to harness some of their knowledge in and follow the on public speaking format of the test. I’ve seen several native speakers fail the AP Spanish exam for that very reason. 6. Even these count. “Don’t underestimate the power of practice tests! Every year the ib psychology same result: those students who consistently take the practice tests, pass the AP Spanish Language and Culture exam. Those students that don’t take the on public practice tests seriously: fail.
That simple.” 7. And speaking of practice. Practice alone is not enough! Make sure to runs through it essay questions do full run-throughs of the exam, with your study group, for example, prior to taking the test. “Although helpful, when we do practice tests in class, we can only focus on one section of the on public speaking skills test: written, oral, multiple choice, etc. This does not give you the authentic test-taking experience that is draining given the length and quantity of frederick as a test material. On Public Skills? So I give my students extra tests to do outside of class. It will take a whole afternoon – but after all, so will the argumentative test. Be as prepared as you can be.
Practice the entirety of the test prior to test day instead of always breaking it up into chunks.” 8. Essay On Public Skills? Use idioms: More than just transition phrases, idioms can help showcase your language skills and confidence, especially in the interpersonal sections. Some examples to do my report get you started: tener ganas de, con tal de que (+ subjunctive), tener la culpa, estar de acuerdo, and acabar de . Phrases like this are more than just vocabulary; they show connections and make communication clear. Thanks for the tip from Sra. C in Kentucky. 9. Bring in culture whenever possible: Now that the skills exam focuses on cultural elements and not just language, it can only help to throw in your knowledge of runs through questions Spanish-speaking cultures wherever you can – especially in on public, interpersonal writing and speaking. For instance, if you’re writing an email to ib psychology your grandmother, make her in a Cuban neighborhood in Miami. In the speaking conversation, the prompt might ask you about examples in speaking skills, a category, such as music or books – here you could name-drop Juanes or Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Ib Psychology Paper? Thanks for the tip from Sra. Essay? C in Kentucky. 10.
Avoid anglicismos : These are the false cognates and religion argumentative obvious English structures (like placing adjectives before nouns) that are dead-giveaway signs of speaking English translation. The best way to resume avoid these anglicisms is to practice reading and listening to on public authentic sources – you’ll get used to Spanish structures and they will come naturally in your own writing and speaking. Thanks to Srta. D in Ohio for the tip. 11. Know the three cultural Ps: productos, practicas, y perspectivas . 2011? These categories will better help you understand different aspects of Spanish-speaking cultures, so that you can draw on essay on public skills them specifically during the ib psychology cultural comparison.
Productos are things, whether tangible or intangible, that are important to a culture. On Public Skills? They can include physical objects, like a house or a road, as well as laws, the education system, and a river runs questions other institutions. Speaking Skills? Practicas are actions: festivals and celebrations, weddings, and a river through it essay questions daily interactions. Perspectivas are broader; they indicate how the people of on public speaking a culture see the world. They include values and patterns of behavior and douglass as a slave essay beliefs, such as the speaking skills role of the family, religious tradition, the value of work, etc. Familiarizing yourself with these ideas will help you understand many parts of Spanish-speaking culture, instead of only knowing about the differences in laws or the different types of ferias in Spain.
Thanks for the tip from do my report, Sra. Speaking Skills? A at Bloomington High School North. 12. Directions . You should know the directions, don’t waste valuable test-taking time reading them. Resume 2011? But make sure you follow them! “You would think this would be obvious, but I see it all the time at essay on public speaking skills institute when we’re grading the AP Spanish Language and Culture exams: students not following directions. How can you hope to get the dissertation help right answer if you don’t know the question? This is especially critical for the written section, I think, where not only do you need to essay skills respond to a prompt, (and only that prompt – anything more/less will lose you points!) but you also must utilize all three sources provided.” Insider tip : Graders are instructed not to punish students who forget to use one source.
So, you can still get a very high score if you do forget about i didn't book one. But don’t take that chance! Incorporate all three and get the grade you deserve. 13. Sources . We talked about the importance of knowing and incorporating your sources and the experts back us up: “And speaking of sources… use them all! I am always so disappointed by how many students I have to essay speaking dock points for the silly reason that they didn’t incorporate the sources. Sometimes they have such nice theses and well-constructed arguments but no sources – at all! You cannot receive a passing score if you do not include at least one source.” Insider tip : You do not need to explicitly cite the sources in your written essay. Sometimes doing so can even make your writing a little clunky.
However, keep in mind that graders are looking to check off the three sources as one element of a good essay. Frederick Slave Essay? Make it easy on them! Find some way to cite your sources clearly in your essay: boom, boom, boom. One less thing for you to lose points on. 14. Speaking? Oh no, audio. We’ve said it before, speak clearly.
Too often graders will not that they have a hard time just understanding students such as one grader of the audio section: “I sometimes struggle to douglass life slave essay just understand what the students are saying. Once in a while a student will speak far too fast, for example. Others are too quiet. As you record yourself, imagine yourself on the receiving end of the audio. Essay Speaking? Would you be able to understand yourself at that volume? That speed? I even go so far as to have my students record themselves speaking and do my play it back so that they can see how their speech comes across on essay speaking a recording – not always how it seems!” Are you a teacher or student?
Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! The AP Spanish Language and Culture exam is a doozy. Essays? But every year more than 100,000 students take the essay speaking test with almost half receiving a score of 4 or 5. They rely on excellent study habits beginning from day one of class, a great resource in their AP Spanish teacher, and sources like this list of i didn't report exam tips. Speaking Skills? Come prepared to test day with not only your verb charts memorized but also a bunch of insider tips on how to beat the exam from the resume rules 2011 inside. Let’s recap: – Use. Your.
Sources. (Do we need to say it again?) – Actually respond to the prompt! – When in doubt, keep talking. – When in on public speaking, doubt, stop writing. Armed with this knowledge, there’s no way you can’t succeed on the AP Spanish Language and doctoral dissertation Culture exam. On test day, perform your best knowing that you’ve done all you can to prepare: incorporating Spanish into your daily life, constant review of vocabulary, taking full practice tests. These are all the things that will get you to essay on public a passing grade on the exam. Argumentative? ? Animo ! Keep reading for great insider tips on other AP foreign language tests including the AP Spanish Literature and Culture exam. Start your AP Spanish Language Prep today.
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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. Essay On Public Skills! I literally sent out hundreds of resumes. I posted my resume to Monster.com and waited for the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in. Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on doctoral help grant nsf, Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. Speaking! “Yes!” I thought. Piece-of-cake. I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the a river through questions week.
There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to essay on public speaking, the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. Doctoral Help! Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in essay on public CVs. Ib Psychology Paper! How did my advisor not know this?
That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about essay speaking, getting an essays, industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for advice. Essay On Public Skills! She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at resume rules the very top of my resume. Okay. That’s great advice. Right? Nope. She was wrong too. Essay On Public Speaking Skills! It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was.
Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to them. A River Runs Through It Essay! If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and essay, years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Think of 2011 how hard you’ve worked to essay, get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right? More is more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates.
An N of 200 is better than an frederick life essay, N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication. On and on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is essay on public speaking more. Argumentative! Adding the essay wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want. A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of rules 2011 four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an speaking skills, unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the runs other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like firstname.lastname@example.org or similar. A lot of essay on public speaking skills PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and find out they’re trying to leave the lab.
This won’t happen. PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. Ib Psychology Paper! However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: email@example.com. If this version of your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Never use an essay speaking, impersonal greeting on your resume’s cover letter. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated.
Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Ib Psychology Paper! Instead of taking the time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to essay on public, anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of help nsf all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only on public speaking skills, 7% of douglass as a slave applicants are referrals. Let that sink in. Essay! Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to do my book, a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Which side of the fence are you on?
Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Or at essay on public least find out the name of someone who works on the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the paper name of someone in human resources. Then, connect with people who work at speaking the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of your cover letter. In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in doctoral help contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of on public speaking your resume will not help you get an i didn't report, industry job.
Instead, it will paint you into a corner. Essay On Public Speaking! A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of your resume and ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and rules 2011, bold fonts. Essay On Public Speaking Skills! Load the visual center with the value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work. Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. Religion Essays! A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for speaking, additional positions. If you want employers to notice you and a river questions, keep you in mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess what—they don’t care about the dates. They care about the title of the position you held, the name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved.
Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to list the essay dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by i didn't book report date. Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to skills, a specific position.
Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes. Your lead is resume rules 2011 what employers want to read most on your resume. Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to essay on public skills, the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to i didn't do my book, read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is on public speaking always accomplishment-focused. I Didn't! This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the return on investment for hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for.
You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place. You should be networking. On Public Speaking! 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on dissertation help grant, your resume.
Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about essay skills, communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is religion your industry resume. If it is riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. You don’t need to pay hundreds of dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on essay, eLance and Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5.
Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it. Then have it proofread again. This is the best and most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. A River Runs Through Questions! Using relevant keywords is critical to speaking, getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for grant, getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the essay on public skills “Find” function on their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. Help Grant Nsf! The best place to find the keywords you should use is in the job description of the position you’re applying for.
For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over and over on public, againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in industry. Even hiring managers for douglass life as a essay, industry RD positions don’t care about your publications. This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the hiring process. Essay Speaking! I know—it hurts. I’m sorry.
There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on 2011, an industy resume is speaking a waste of report time. They know that industry employers want to on public speaking skills, see work experience and results, not publications or education history. You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of runs it essay questions them, but don’t let your pride get in essay on public speaking the way of creating a sharp resume. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Frederick Douglass Life As A Slave Essay! Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Skills! Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by ib psychology Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by skills a single sentence. Runs Through It Essay! Think of writing an essay on public skills, industry resume as the opposite of writing an essays argumentative, academic journal article. Skills! Instead of using dense text and religion essays, long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to essay speaking, simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of information.
Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. 10. Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time. Why?
Because submitting a photo is too personal. Don’t make the mistake of douglass life as a slave getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of essay skills writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and douglass slave essay, have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and essay on public, finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only religion argumentative, personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to. However, don’t be afraid to on public skills, add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for runs it essay questions, Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Essay On Public Speaking! Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the Cheeky Scientist Association.
Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by 2011 a human if you are lucky enough to make the first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in speaking skills the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of i didn't book #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the article.
No actually, I appreciate the article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and essay speaking, grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. A River It Essay! one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice.
The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for on public, industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the rules 2011 jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. On Public! Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for download somewhere? Are there any examples of doctoral dissertation help how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD?
Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in essay on public speaking skills my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only essays, have education and in my country a PhD is speaking skills considered as work. Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. My PhD has been more of ib psychology paper engineering type of work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Essay Skills! Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to remove publications from a resume.
However, a first author publication on doctoral dissertation grant, a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and essay speaking skills, conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for rules 2011, publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. Essay! This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. I Didn't Book! Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out according to essay on public speaking, these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Runs It Essay Questions! Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to essay on public, impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the dissertation corporation.
If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the primary skill in speaking today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on help, a resume. Agree.
I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. I have taken a hint from the resumes of on public software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Frederick As A Slave! Write for the person who understands the skills you bring, and try to get to that person directly. As an on public speaking skills, industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at is the dates of doctoral nsf your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at your publications.
I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in essay on public skills your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible. Frederick Slave! Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and on public speaking skills, I was debating on religion, if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is essay speaking skills more likely to frederick life, do their next job well.
Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. It#8217;s a representation of on public speaking what you have achieved and what you are capable of report as a Ph.D. or researcher. Essay Skills! I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV. Frederick As A Slave! Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the on public almost exact advice and religion, offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. firstname.lastname@example.org.
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chinatown 1974 essay Critical essays and appreciations on the very best of cinema. Essay by Brian Eggert August 13, 2012. When Mrs. Essay! Evelyn Mulwray, wife to Water Power head Hollis Mulwray, tells Private Detective Jake Gittes that she wants to hire him to follow her husband because she believes he’s having an religion argumentative, affair, Jake stops her: “Mrs. On Public Skills! Mulwray, can I give you some advice… Do you know the expression ‘let sleeping dogs lie’? …You’re better off not knowing.” Then again, operating in 1930s Los Angeles, then just a burgeoning city in the desert, Mr. Mulwray is a prominent figure; for Jake, a case like this is irresistible. And so rather than take his own advice, Jake follows and i didn't do my book eventually photographs his client’s husband “involved” with a young woman.
Except, unbeknownst to Jake, Mrs. Mulwray is not Mrs. Mulwray; Jake has been set up as part of a conspiracy larger and more complex than he can imagine: a deal to secure water to irrigate and essay on public develop land for ib psychology paper, the expansion of L.A. into on public skills the Valley. Resume Rules 2011! Jake’s photos of Mr. Mulwray somehow make the on public skills, newspaper the next morning when, in all his obliviousness, he enjoys a shave at ib psychology paper a barber shop. Out of the shop’s window we notice a genius detail inserted by director Roman Polanski; looking into the street, we see a man fumble with a steaming car whose radiator has overheated and burst. Skills! This is what happens when someone like Jake mettles with something as elemental as water and those who control it—things get hot and they explode. Countless other instances of symbolic foreshadowing, many of them related to water or obscured vision, point to Jack Nicholson’s Jake Gittes being outmatched by these conspirators and incapable of seeing the bigger picture in Chinatown , a film so complexly structured that every scene has multiple meanings, and in turn multiple viewings are required to discover and paper appreciate its secrets and intricacy. Essay On Public Skills! It is doctoral dissertation grant, this persistent sense of uncertainty that, while emasculating Jake, drives the speaking skills, film’s core themes. The opposition’s players are too powerful and the stakes so beyond Jake’s control that every effort he makes to act meaningfully proves wasted, although neither the audience nor Jake is aware of it yet.
Robert Towne wrote the slave, screenplay and, with much input from essay skills Polanski, places the viewer in doctoral grant nsf, an unseeing and unknowing state of essay speaking skills, mind always set in Jake’s perspective. And like him, we think we know what’s going on, but we never do, not until the final moments. Released in 1974, at first glance the film seemed to suggest a neo-noir throwback; however, Polanski’s predilection for through it essay questions, obsessive detail, fatalistic and ironical conclusions, and unconventional storytelling transforms the result into on public speaking skills an unforgettable and unique motion picture that embodies classic detective film noir thirty years after its zenith. Apart from Polanski whose vision reshaped Towne’s initial ideas, credit for the film ever being made belongs to producer Robert Evans, the ib psychology paper, David O. Selznick of the sixties and speaking skills seventies. A former radio talent and ib psychology bit film actor who would eventually become Vice President in Charge of Production at speaking Paramount Pictures, Evans single-handedly revived the ailing studio in a river runs, the sixties with hits like True Grit , The Odd Couple , and essay speaking skills Love Story . In time, Evans was given his own banner under which he produced projects independent from Paramount executive control, and for his first of these he went to i didn't do my book Robert Towne, whose script for The Last Detail had earned the writer accolades. Evans offered Towne $175,000 to adapt The Great Gatsby , but the essay speaking, writer declined, admitting he could not better F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel. Towne instead asked Evans for $25,000 to write an original detective story. Meticulously researched and loosely based on a river actual Water Power department head William Mulholland (a name for which Hollis Mulwray is an equally loose anagram), the essay speaking skills, public figure at the center of the subterfuge to obtain water for Los Angeles from Owens Valley, Towne was also inspired by a Hungarian vice cop who sold him a dog; the a river, cop told the writer of his experience in Chinatown, saying “You don’t know who’s a crook and essay on public who isn’t a crook, so don’t do a goddamned thing.” Evans had previously struck gold with Polanski on Rosemary’s Baby in 1968, and the producer rightly believed the paranoid sense of unknowing in Towne’s script fit the director’s style. Religion Essays Argumentative! When Polanski joined on, his return to Hollywood filmmaking was a comeback in many ways—just three years earlier his pregnant wife Sharon Tate was murdered by the Mason family, while his subsequent films, MacBeth (1971) and What? (1973), both independents, were flops by commercial standards. On Public Speaking! Exacting his renowned, almost compulsive control, Polanski demanded Towne cut down the resume rules, original 180-page screenplay, although the essay on public skills, writer believed his initial script was perfect.
At first, Towne wanted just a Water Power scandal, but later incorporated the more basic, dramatic conflict between men and women, which Polanski wanted emphasized even more, including a scene where Gittes and Evelyn go to a river runs it essay bed. On Public Skills! Most important to life slave Polanski was not “cheating” the on public, audience, which he felt Towne’s original screenplay did by containing no scenes in Chinatown, only mere references. Polanski wanted the i didn't book report, finale to take place in Chinatown, and the ending to play out in high-drama worthy of Greek tragedy ( Oedipus comes to mind). Essay Skills! Whereas Towne’s “love conquers all” version of the script features the villain’s death and argumentative the hero getting away with the girl, Polanski believed if they were to truly make a “modern” detective story in a nineteen-thirties setting, they must employ a disastrous conclusion to set it apart from the essay, genre’s conventions. Frederick Douglass As A Essay! During the rewrite process, Polanski and Towne clashed on on public skills these points, as the director insisted on changes to frederick life essay the plot, lines of dialogue, individual words, and even punctuation. But without his contributions, it’s doubtful Chinatown would have become such a classic of rebellious seventies filmmaking. Evans saw the production as something akin to The Godfather (1972) and on public skills attempted to steer Polanski, albeit unsuccessfully, down that stylistic road. The producer insisted on i didn't report using The Godfather ’s cinematographer, Gordon Willis, who was unavailable at essay the time. Dissertation Grant Nsf! In Willis’ place, hoping for a classicized look Evans hired Stanley Cortez, a venerated Old Hollywood photographer who shot Orson Welles’ The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), among other classics.
Evans even had the essay on public skills, printing labs turn out the day’s rushes in what Polanski called “tomato ketchup” to recapture the sepia-tone style of The Godfather. Cortez was fired by Polanski after ten days for his overreliance on classical techniques and out-of-date technology; although Cortez’s vast experience in an older style of filmmaking served Charles Laughton well when they intentionally evoked classical cinema with The Night of the Hunter (1955), Polanski was nothing if not modern. John A. Dissertation! Alonzo ( Harold and Maude , 1971) replaced Cortez and avoided any outright noirish influence, such as cocked angles and other expressionist traits; just as Polanski’s additions to the script modernized the material, Alonzo used modern camera techniques to tell a classicized story. On Public Speaking! Polanski also clashed with Evans on casting. Life As A Slave Essay! The producer wanted Jane Fonda for Evelyn Mulwray; Polanski wanted Faye Dunaway, and he got his way when Fonda turned down the role (much to on public skills his chagrin later on, as Polanski and Dunaway’s personalities collided in a famous offscreen row). Resume 2011! Such disagreements continued and eventually spoiled the professional relationship between Evans and Polanski behind the scenes, while the director’s victory in most creative decisions left the essay speaking, film a singularly envisioned work, earning eleven Academy Award nominations in essays, 1975, including a nomination to Polanski for his direction and speaking a win to Towne for his screenplay. Indeed, Chinatown is decidedly “a Roman Polanski film” in that it follows a particular story structure attributable to his career during this period, wherein his customarily naive protagonist is wrapped inside a mystery or situation they cannot understand. However desperately they try to doctoral gain control over or even comprehend the situation, their helplessness leads them to a conclusion that ultimately overwhelms them. This is the case with Knife in the Water , Repulsion , Rosemary’s Baby , MacBeth , and after Chinatown , The Tenant . Essay! Here, Jack Nicholson plays Jake Gittes with sublime confidence, a breakthrough and rules Oscar-nominated role for the actor.
Jake is doomed to see everything from the essay, wrong perspective, a critical and repeated downfall for douglass as a, the character, we learn. Jake’s terminal flaw is that he needs to essay on public speaking skills know. And when he meets the real Mrs. Evelyn Mulwray (Dunaway), he feels both of them have been played by a mystery third party, by whoever hired the fake Mrs. Essays Argumentative! Mulwray (Diane Ladd), to bring Hollis Mulwray down. He does not mind bad publicity per se; he’s later reminded that such a reputation is almost commendable in his profession (or metier , as Jake calls it). But he cannot be made a fool of. Jake’s mission throughout the film then becomes one of reestablishing his position of authority.
After all, as a private investigator, he’s accustomed to essay speaking skills being in frederick as a, control, taking the essay, photos and doctoral dissertation grant telling his clients what really is going on . His pride takes him from essay on public speaking skills one lead to the next as he discovers a plot to divert water from Owens Valley orange groves via the L.A. reservoir into the Valley, where thousands of acres of land have already been purchased to make untold millions in profits when cultivated and sold. Report! But when Hollis Mulwray is murdered so it looks like he committed suicide, it becomes more than a land deal; it becomes a murder mystery. In this, the film embodies the detective genre defined by Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett but takes the on public speaking skills, experience somewhere else entirely, even while occupying rather than redefining the genre unlike modern equivalents such as The Long Goodbye (1973). Resume Rules! Jake has more in common with Charlie Chan, Phillip Marlowe, and essay on public skills Sherlock Holmes than any modern detectives. And yet, released amid seventies conspiracies like Watergate and the Vietnam War, the film tells a very “modern” story, one whose central mystery is rules, less about finding answers than Jake escaping, if not accepting his own mindset. Jake makes references to his experience as a cop in essay, Chinatown, how he once tried to save a woman in danger there, but his inability to grasp the full magnitude of the situation that in turn caused her harm.
Chinatown is i didn't book report, a place as much as it is a mental state where one cannot see beyond their status; as a private eye, Jake’s status is essay, very low to be sure. When Jake runs into a former Chinatown cop, Escobar (Perry Lopez)—who, having been promoted to dissertation help grant Lieutenant since he and Jake worked together, now understands the bigger picture—the Lieutenant explains “I’m out of Chinatown now.” Chinatown, then, is essay on public skills, defined as a place where it’s impossible to know who’s who and what’s what, therefore it’s best to just not get involved. Escobar is smart enough to argumentative realize the limitations of his status. Jake’s mistake is that he’s impelled to become involved once more to solve the Hollis Mulwray mystery, and he puts those around him, mainly Evelyn, in danger, while his out-of-his-element state, call it his ‘Chinatown syndrome’, prevents him from recognizing the greater threats or doing anything to essay prevent them. Jake suffers from what Towne calls “the futility of good intentions,” a near compulsive drive that impels his search no matter what harm befalls him. This compulsion also carries over to the audience, as Polanski delivers the film from Jake’s subjective point-of-view; we know only what Jake knows, save for douglass, one exception when he retells a dirty joke to his associates, but unbeknownst to him, Evelyn Mulwray is standing right behind him. This is their first encounter, and denotes her power over on public speaking skills, him as a femme fatale.
At the outset, his investigation progresses with only minor obstacles and awkward waiting, littered with Polanski’s comic use of quirky “gate-keeper” characters to present negligible annoyances for Jake: Mulwray’s irritated secretary; Evelyn’s Chinese butler; the snooty, pimple-faced records keeper. Religion Argumentative! These often humorous tropes suddenly develop into something far more dangerous when Jake investigates the reservoir to find evidence of essay, water runoff, which he finds, but he also finds two goons, water department security Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson) and a “midget” henchman (Polanski himself) with a knife. Do My Book Report! Jake’s nostril pays the penalty of poking his nose where it doesn’t belong when Polanski’s henchman slices it, introducing an aspect of violence not yet felt in the film. Essay On Public Skills! This is religion, a wound for which the on public skills, director refuses to argumentative grant a miraculous overnight movie recovery; instead, Jake spends nearly the full remainder of the film with a deliberately distracting white bandage on his nose; and after the bandage is removed, we see his visibly stitched-up wound. It’s a constant reminder that Jake’s investigation is going places it should not. Worse, given his Chinatown history, this is a lesson he should have already learned.
Evelyn is the personification of Jake’s ‘Chinatown syndrome’, because she remains unknowable for much of the picture, and because her fate mirrors that of Jake’s earlier experiences in Chinatown. More even than the secrets of the plot, Evelyn is the on public speaking, film’s mystery. As her father later warns about her, “You may think you know what you’re dealing with, but believe me, you don’t.” Jake replies, “That’s what the District Attorney used to tell me in a river runs questions, Chinatown.” She responds to Jake’s questions with enigmatic answers, enough to satisfy the need for on public skills, a reply but without addressing the question itself. At first, she seems cold and in control, but when Jake begins to dissertation grant nsf ask the wrong questions, getting her into bed becomes easy—if only, in part, as a deflection. She seems confident, and then she grows nervous and stutters whenever her father’s name or their association is even mentioned. On Public Skills! Jake never knows if he can trust her, and just when he feels he can, she deceives him.
What we come to douglass learn of her is essay speaking, that in her youth she had an incestuous affair with her father, producing a child who grew up into the young woman with whom Hollis was involved. Not even a man of Jake’s experience can grasp it. When he confronts her about Hollis’ mistress, who Evelyn now apparently keeps prisoner in her home, Jake wants answers. He’s had enough; he resolves to slap it out of her. Evelyn weepily concedes, “She’s my daughter.” Jake refuses to believe it—slap! “She’s my sister.” Slap! “She’s my daughter.” Slap! And so on. Finally her shame is revealed: “She’s my sister and my daughter!” In spite of ib psychology, her trauma, Evelyn is a femme fatale in the classic noir sense: solitary, full of secrets, and ultimately doomed. And like any noir hero, how could Jake help but love her? Chinatown ’s detective elements and airs of fatalism align the film within the classic film noir schema, but an all too common interpretation suggests Polanski’s film is neo -noir solely because it was made thirty years after the style’s 1940s heyday. Of course, this insists upon another in a long line of discussions about the definition of film noir , whether it is a style or genre, and whether anything can be called “true film noir ” outside of its ‘40s prime. Chinatown uses noir story motifs (the private detective; the femme fatale; the corrupt villain; the MacGuffin; the dynamic downturned conclusion) but few of on public, its visual traits (chiaroscuro monochrome photography; heavy use of shadows; diagonal camera angles).
While the ib psychology, label “neo-noir” implies certain innovations, Polanski’s flourishes, save for the shocking incest plot point, are subtle enough to essay speaking skills suggest his film is evidence that true film noir did not end in the forties. Doctoral Dissertation Grant! While not a piece of retro cinema or exact imitation of classic film noir through black white photography, the picture occupies a thirties setting without irony in a thorough rebuilding of the era’s decor and costumes. That the film does not attempt to imitate classic film noir is a testament to it occupying that very condition. Essay Speaking Skills! Polanski does not overemphasize his mise-en-scene until it becomes impossible to ignore, yet we see the setting through modern eyes—which is to say, we see the film through the definitions of seventies cinema that is certainly broader than that of the forties in terms of censorship, allowing for a more salacious story to be told. Chinatown is a film neither wholly representing the thirties, forties, or the seventies; today it feels timeless.
And in its singularity, it assumes the identity of true film noir . How appropriate then that Chinatown ’s villain, land magnate Noah Cross (John Huston), seems to embody a timeless, unfathomable evil, his name by design meant to evoke ancient Christian imagery in its allusion to Noah’s flood and the crucifix. Cross, Hollis Mulwray’s former partner, is absolutely corrupt, devilishly charming, and confident in the superiority his money and reputation can buy. “‘Course I’m respectable. I’m old,” Cross quips. Frederick Douglass As A! “Politicians, ugly buildings, and essay speaking skills whores all get respectable if they last long enough.” When Jake first meets Cross at his estate, they have lunch together—a plate of fish served head-on. Cross’ message is subtle: Jake is a fish-out-of-water and about to be cooked. From vast but shady land deals to incest, the key to Cross’ evil is frederick douglass life essay, his capacity to rationalize. Consider the way he hesitates at first when, like a spider approaching its prey, he tells his (grand)daughter Katherine (Belinda Palmer) that he’s her grandfather; he stutters, pauses to rationalize, and now certain he proceeds—“I am your grandfather.” Towne’s incest plot is meant to dramatize Cross’ rape of the land for the sake of “the future” in speaking skills, a grand symbolic expression, and i didn't do my book this comparatively smaller crime represents the degree to which his manipulation of public services are vile and on public unforgivably corrupt.
But Cross’ is an a river runs, evil beyond political corruption or his incestuous transgressions—his evil is speaking, transcendent in that it justifies itself for a perceived better future. For Jake, Cross too personifies his ‘Chinatown syndrome’, as the doctoral dissertation help grant nsf, man remains immeasurably wicked, untouched by authorities, and wholly necessary for progress, which Jake’s transparent sense of justice cannot comprehend. The picture’s final sequence is incredibly orchestrated by speaking skills Polanski, who spent months writing and rewriting and planning before it was shot. Religion Essays Argumentative! Jake arranges for Evelyn and Katherine to get out of essay skills, town to Mexico, away from Cross, and in the meantime they hide at Evelyn’s butler’s apartment in Chinatown, where Jake’s associates Walsh (Joe Mantell) and Duffy (Bruce Glover) meet to assist. Escobar believes Jake is withholding evidence to Hollis’ murder and extorting from Evelyn as an accessory after the fact; he handcuffs Jake and his associates. Cross is there too and wants to raise Katherine as his daughter. They all meet in Chinatown, converging in the same moment at the same place in a climax neither contrived nor convenient. Cornered, Evelyn packs Katherine into her car and shoots the approaching Cross (who urges Evelyn to i didn't report “be reasonable”) in the arm to keep him away.
As she speeds away, the essay on public, police call for paper, a halt, but she does not stop and they fire. The sound of the car horn reverberates through the skills, streets; we can see it already—her dead body has fallen forward on the horn. Katherine screams. Everyone rushes down to religion essays argumentative the car. A bullet has penetrated the back of Evelyn’s head and escaped through her left eye. Katherine is carried away in Cross’ arms. Escobar orders everyone to on public be set free. By this moment, the doctoral dissertation help grant nsf, audience has lost perspective on either the essay speaking, land conspiracy crime or Cross’ incest, and like the emasculated Jake, we are left helpless, floating in his ‘Chinatown syndrome’ to pick up the paper, pieces. Escobar twists the knife: “You never learn, do you Jake?” Jake’s associate Walsh resolves, “Forget it, Jake. It’s Chinatown.” This iconic last line remains so tragic, as if Jake could ever forget. Polanski and Towne labored to include visual cues and hints to imply Jake’s unseeing condition and further hint at Evelyn’s death, but also to effectively keep water “on the essay skills, brain” as well.
Throughout the picture there are a series of binary lenses, lights, and glass objects found broken or made so by Jake’s interference, foretelling Evelyn’s eye being shot out: Jake sets down two pocket watches on either side of Hollis’ automobile tire to determine when his car leaves a water dumping ground, and afterward one is broken; one of the lenses in 2011, Jake’s sunglasses is essay on public skills, broken by protective farmers when he’s caught snooping around an resume rules, orange grove; before Jake follows Evelyn’s car, he shatters one of on public speaking skills, her brake lights so he won’t lose her in a river runs through, the night; later, Jake finds a pair of glasses in the Mulwray’s tide pool with one lens missing. Speaking! There are just as many references to water or lack thereof: the drought in Los Angeles, Hollis drowning, Hollis standing at the ocean and row-boating with Katherine, Jake’s visit to the reservoir, the saltwater tide pool, the Albacore Club with its flying fish symbol, fish served head-on for rules 2011, lunch, and an exhaustive number of references to water in on public, the dialogue. These broadstroke citations just barely begin to tap the intricate level of detail Polanski and Towne achieve in Chinatown , and to identify all of them would be missing the point. To engrain Jake’s subjectivity, Polanski wants his audience lost in a swell of momentary details and rendered incapable of seeing how they all fit together. Only when we become as lost in this ‘Chinatown syndrome’ as Jake can we identify with the profound sadness felt in the end of the picture, a sensation to which Polanski must have been able to identify. Polanski too could do nothing as powers outside of book report, his control took away Sharon Tate, and so the on public, director, consciously or unconsciously, has a meaningful correlation with Jake Gittes—like Jake, he was a bystander incapable of stopping a senseless crime and protecting his love.
Again we must reflect on how achingly overdue Walsh’s last line arrives, reminding Jake that he will never be cured of 2011, his syndrome. On Public! And while Towne intended Chinatown to bring renewed awareness of the real-life disputes over water rights between the City of Los Angeles and farmers of Owens Valley, like the film’s water conspiracy being overshadowed by the incest revelation, the film’s final message consecrates a notion that Jake’s is not an isolated and do my book grim worldview, but rather he is either unwilling or incapable of accepting the speaking, world’s true form of intractable, perverse, yet essential corruption which drives the future but remains sheer madness. Cronin, Paul. Roman Polanski: Interviews . Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005. Easton, Michael. Chinatown . Essays Argumentative! B.F.I.
Film Classics series. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998. Leaming, Barbara. Polanski, The Filmmaker as Voyeur: A Biography . New York: Simon Schuster, 1981. Polanski, Roman. Roman by Polanski . New York: Morrow, 1985. Sandford, Christopher.
Polanski: A Biography . London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Deep Focus Review 2006-2017. All rights reserved.
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